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Califomisk Mammals 

Press of the 



Los Angeles, Cal. 



Illustrated by "W. J. Ferxxx 
from studies in tKe field 

Publiskoa br 

6>ie VTest Coast Poblisbin^ Co . 

San Dietfo, California 


frank giupjjcns 


Introduction .-.-...- t 

Mammalia ----.... H 

Order Cete 11 

Family Balsenidse ---.... 12 

Physeteridsd - -.-..- 26 

Delphinidse - 32 

Order Ungulata ...... - 45 

Family Cervidss -..-.. 46 

Antilocapridse . . . . . . . 55 

Bovidvd 57 

Order 6^itVes ........ 62 

Family Sciuridm ....... 62 

Aplodontidse ....... 23 

Castondse "---.- - - 96 

Muridsd ........ 99 

Geomyidis ........ 134 

Heteromyidse ....... 149 

Zapodidve ........ 174 

Erethizontidfii ....... 178 

Ochotonidva 180 

Leporidse - . - - - - - - 180 

Order i^erje 196 

Family Phocidve ....... 197 

Otarid^ 201 

FelidsB 207 

CanidsB 213 

Procyonidsd ....... 224 

Vrsidis 229 

Mustelid'x 232 

Order Insedivora - - - . . - - 249 

Family Sorecides ^^^ 

Talpid^ 256 

Order Chiroptera - 261 

Family Vespertilionidai ------ 262 

Mollossidis ^^^ 

Phyllastomatidse ------ 276 

Order Primates - - - - - - - 278 

Fa)inly HominidsB - - - - - - . -"^^ 

Life Areas of California - - - - . - - 283 

List of California Mammals - - " - ■ -^- 

Parts of a Skull - - - . - - - - ^^^ 

Glossary - - 208 

Index - - - - - - - 311 



The area treated of in this volume is strictly California and 
that part of the Pacific Ocean properly belonging to California. 
All the mammals described are known to have been found with- 
in the State or within sight of its shores. The number of species 
and subspecies proves to be very large. This is accounted for partly 
by the large extent and great latitudinal length of the State, but 
more by the very great variety of climate within the State, greater 
than occurs in any other State of the Union ; grading all the way 
from the subtropical region of the Colorado Valley and Desert to 
the arctic climate of the eternal snows on the summits of the 
Sierra Nevada. 

No general work covering the mammals of this State has 
been published since 1857, when Bairds Vol. VIII of the Pacific 
Railroad Reports was issued. This did not contain the marine 
mammals, the bats nor man. A great advance in our knowledge 
of the land mammals has occurred within the last fifteen years, 
and some of the material obtained in this time has not yet been 
critically examined by systematic experts, hence we may expect 
further additions to the present known species, as well as more 
or less revision of the nomenclature. 

The distribution of species herein given has been checked in 


the majority of species from personal obsen'ation. I have clone 
no field work in the northwestern part of California and but little 
in the northeastern part. I have had exceptionally good opp-or- 
tunities for observation for many years in the southern' part of 
the State and I believe the statements of distribution for this 
part will bear close inspection. 

There is nO' "royal road to knowledge." This saying is true 
of all the natural sciences and mammalogy is no exception. The 
beginner will find it difficult to get a start, but when one be- 
comes a little familiar with the general characters of the larger 
groups it is a comparatively easy matter to trace out a species and 
learn its name, which should be but a preliminary step to further 
study of the species, and not the end as is but too- often the case. 
Of necessity the division into orders, families and genera are made 
on technical characters, and it is better for the student tO' master 
these and begin aright. I have used technical terms as little as 
practicable. Their moderate use admits of much greater con- 
ciseness of description. To avoid the use of technical terms 
would necessitate the use of cumbersome expressions that would 
greatly increase the size of this volume. For the explanation of 
the technical terms refer to the glossary, in front of the index. 

The full description of a mammal includes not only the char- 
acters given under the specific name, but also the characters pre- 
viously given under its genus, family and order; to add these 
each time in the specific description w?ould be confusing as well 
as cumbersome. After becoming a little familiar with the sub- 
ject it will not be necessary to refer to these higher characters 
each time. 

A departure from recognized usage in the use of names of 
authorities is made for the sake of simplicity. The authority 
for a specific or subspecific name is given without reference to 
generic changes made later. The words in parentheses after 
the technical name are intended to be a translation of the Latin or 
Greek name. This translation is sometimes a free one, to give 
the sense of the name intended. 


The measurements used are — "length," the distance from 
the tip of the nose to the end of the skin of the tail, taken 
with the animal laid on its back on the scale; "tail vertebrae," 
taken with the dividers with one point set on the rump at the 
base of the tail, the tail being held at right angles to the body, 
the other point being placed at the end of the skin of the tail, 
"hind foot," the distance from the end of the longest claw to the 
upper edge of the heel, the true heel being used, which in many 
mammals is not the termination of the sole, but in such animals 
as the cat, deer or dog what is popularly, but wrongly, called the 
knee; "ear from crown," taken with one point of the dividers set 
on the skull on the inner (convex) side of the eitr and the other 
at the tip of the ear. 

In the dental formula "I" means incisor teeth; "C" canine; 
"P" premolar; "M" molar. The number means the number of 
that class of teeth in one side of the upper or lower jaw, re- 
spectively; the last number being the total of all teeth. 

The standard used for the names of colors is Ridgways 
"Nomenclature of Colors." 

The measurements are given in millimeters as being bet- 
ter adapted for the use of naturalists ; they are practically dup- 
licated in inches and hundreths, in parentheses, for the use of 
those students who have no metric scale. The following table 
for the conversion of inches into millimeters and vice versa may 
be useful. 

Inch. Mm. Millimeter. Inch. 

!•• ••25-39 I 0393 

2.... 5078 2 0787 

3-^^^76.i8 3 1181 

4... 101.57 4 1574 

5... 126.97 5 1968 

6. . . 152.36 6 2362 

7- ■ ■'^77-7^ 7 2755 

8... 203. 15 8 3150 

9... 228.55 9 3543 

10... 253.94 TO.... 3937 


This book is little more than a mere dry skeleton; if it aids 
the student in finding out for himself or herself some portions of 
the life histories of our mammals I shall be pleased. I have 
labored under the disadvantage of being out of reach of good 
reference libraries. Nearly all the v^orkers in this field have 
sent me copies of their papers as soon as published ; without this 
help this volume would have been of little real value. I have 
made free use of all such papers, but to save space I have seldom 
given the authority for statements made. In. many cases the 
facts have been condensed from several authorities into the brief- 
est possible statement. 1 would like to aclcnow ledge by name the 
aid received through this and other sources but the number is 
very great and to mention but part would be unfair to the re- 
mainder. The list would include the name of practically every 
one who has done field work among the mammals of California, 
or has written on material coming from this State; hence this 
volume is really a compilation of all the work done on Calif ornian 
Mammals, and each author or collector may consider that he has 
a share in whatever merit it may possess. 


California Mammals 

Class Mammalia. Mammals 

Young- born alive and nourished by milk secreted in mammae; 
lungs and heart contained in a thorax separated from the ab- 
dominal viscera by a diaphragm ; heart four chambered ; circula- 
tion complete; blood warm, with red non-nucleated corpuscles; 
body usually covered with hairs; mouth usually furnished with 
teeth ; never more than two pairs of limbs, both pairs always pres- 
ent except in some aquatic species. 

Sulxlass Monodelphia. 

Anterior cerebral commissure small; corpus callosum large; 
episternum wanting ; coracoid very feebly developed, not con- 
nected with a sternum ; urogenital and intestinal openings not 
combined ; a placenta ; young" well developed when born. 

Order Cete. 


Fore limbs fin-like, without distinct fingers and without 
nails ; hind limbs absent ; pelvis rudimentary ; no clavicles ; tail 
widened hori-zontally ; neck short, the vertebrae more or less fused ; 
nostrils opening on top of the head as spiracles ; eyes small ; no 
external ear; skin hairless; habitat marine. 

Cetaceans are mammals that are fishlike in form and adapted 
to life in oceans, seas and larg-e rivers. Like all mammals cet- 
aceans breathe by means of lungs and suckle their young-, which 
are born well developed. 

The only book containing full and accurate accounts of the 
habits of our species is the "Marine Mammals of the Northwest- 
ern Coast of North America," by Captain C. M. Scammon, pul> 



lished in 1874. As it is now veiy scarce and inaccessible to the 
general public I shall give considerable space to extracts from it. 
I have very little direct personal knowledge of this order. 

Suborder Mystacete. ( ^Mustache — whale. ) 
No teeth present after birth : upper jaws furnished with 
plates of baleen (whalebone;) rami of lower jaw connected by 
fibrous tissue and not by a suture; olfactory oigan developed; 
spiracle double. 

Family Balaenidse. Whalebone Whales. 
Lower jaw very thick and deep; cleft of mouth curved; skull 

1. Sulphur-bottom Whale. 

2. Oregon Finback Whale. 

3. Sharp-headed Finner Whale. 

Pacific Humpback WhaJe, 
California Gray Whale. 
Pacific Right Whale. 


Alx>ut t\veiit\- species. di\-ideil aiiidii;;- eii^ht g-enera. The 
si>ecies are marine, usually jx^lai^ic. 'Phev are hnuul in all seas 
but are least common in tropical seas. Owing- to the tlifficult\- 
of preserving- the parts of such huge animals but little materia! 
has l>een examined by competent naturalists, and therefore but 
little is accurately known of their relationships. 

The food of Whalebone Whales is zoophytes, molluscs. 
c, ustaceans and small fish. When a quantity of these are taken 
in the mouth the water is strained out through fring-ed baleen: 
the mouth being partially closed. The throat is comparatively 
small, the food being- animals of quite small sizes. 

Genus Balaena Lixx. (Whale.) 
No dorsal tin; pectoral fin short, broad antl enclosing the 
bones of all five fingers ; head very large ; baleen very long, nar- 
row, black ; cervical vertebrcT united ; skin of throat not furrowed. 

Balaena japonica Gray. (Of Japan.) 


Large; Jiead large in proportion; color black, occasionally 
s][ otted with white. Length about sixty feet. 
Arctic and North Pacific Oceans. 

"The color of the Right Whale is generally black, yet there 
are manv individuals with more or less white about their throat 
and pectorals .and sometimes they are pied all over. The average 
length may be calailated at sixty feet — it rarely attains to seventy 
feet — and the two sexes vary little in size. The head is very 
nearly one third the length of the whole animal, and the upper 
mtermediate jx^rtion, or that part between the spiracles and 'bon- 
net.' has not that eve nspherical form, or the smcK^th and glossy 
surface present with the Bowhead. but is more or less ridgy cross- 
wise. Both lips and head have wart-like bunches moderately de- 
veloped, and in some cases the upper surface of the head and fins 
are infested with parasitical crustaceans. 


"The tongue yields oil like the mysticetus, but its baleen is 
shorter and of a coarser and less flexible nature. The average 
product of oil of the Balxna japonica may be set down as one 
hundred and thirty barrels. The amount of bone ranges from 
one thousand to fifteen hundred pounds. 

"In former times the Right Whales were found on the coast 
of Oregon, and occasionally in large numbers. The few fre- 
quenting the coast of California are supposed to be merely strag- 
glers for their northern haunts." (Scammon.) 

Genus Rhachianectes Cope:. (Spine — Swimming.) 

No dorsal fin; pectoral fin narrow, enclosing the bones of but 
four fingers; head comparatively small, baleen short, coarse; cer- 
vical vertebrae free; skin of throat with two longitudinal furrows. 

Rhachianectes glaucus Cope. (\Miitish blue.) 


Size medium; color varying from light mottled gray to 
nearly black. 

Length of female about forty feet ; male is smaller. 

Pacific coast of North America. 

"The California Gray Whale is unlike the species of Balcena 
in its colors, being of a mottled gray, very light on some individ- 
uals, while others, both male and female, are nearly black. Un- 
der the throat are two longitudinal folds, which are about fifteen 
inches apart and six feet in length. The eye is situated about 
five inclies above and six inches behind the angle of the mouth. 
The ear, which appears externally like a mere slit in the skin, two 
and a half inches in length, is about eighteen inches behind the 
eyes and a little above it. The length of the female is forty to 
forty-four feet; its greatest cicumference twenty-eight to thirty 
feet ; its flukes thirty inches in depth and ten to twelve feet broad ; 
its pectorals about six and one-half feet in length and three feet 
in width, tapering from near the middle toward the ends, which 

BAL.^NID.*: 15 

are quite pointed. It has no dorsal fin; usually the limbs of the 
animal vary but little in proportion to its size. The male may 
average thirty-five feet in length, but varies more in size than 
the female. 

"The blubber is six to ten inches in thickness. The average 
yield of oil is twenty barrels. The baleen,, of which the longest 
portion is fourteen to sixteen inches, is of a light brown color, 
the grain very coarse. 

"The California Gray Whale is only found in north lati- 
tudes, and its migrations have never been known to extend lower 
than 20 degrees north. It frequents the coast of California from 
November to May. During these months the cows enter the 
lagoons on the lower coast to bring forth their young, while the- 
males remain outside along the seashore. The time of gestation 
is about a year. Occasionally a male is seen in the lagoons with 
the cows toward the end of the season, and soon after both male 
and female, with their young, will be seen working- their way 
northward, following the shore so near that they often pass 
through the kelp near the beach. It is seldom that they are seen 
far out at sea. This habit of resorting to shoal bays is one in 
which they differ strikingly from other whales. 

"In summer they congregate in the Arctic Ocean and Ok- 
hotsk Sea. It has been said that this species of Whale has been 
found off of the coast of China and about the shores of Formosa, 
but the report needs confirmation. In October and November 
the California Gray Whales appear off the coast of Oregon and 
Upper California, on their way back to their tropical haunts,, 
making a quick, low spout at long intervals ; showing themselves 
very little until they reach the smooth lagoons of the lower 
coast, w^here, if not disturbed, they gather in large numbers, 
passing into and out of the estuaries, or slowly raising their col- 
losal forms midway above the surface, falling over on their sides^ 
as if by accident and dashing the water into foam and spray about 
them. At times, in calm weather, they are seen lying in the 
water quite motionless, keeping one position an hour or more. 


At such times the sea gulls and cormorants alig-ht on the huge 

"From what data we have been able to obtain the whole 
number of California Gray Whales which have been captured 
or destroyed since the bay whaling commenced, in 1846, would 
not exceed 10,800, and the number which now periodically visit 
the coast does not exceed 8,000 or 10,000." (This appears to 
-have been written in 1872.) 

"Many of the marked habits of the California Gray Whale 
are widely different from tliose of any other species of Balrena. 
It makes regular migrations from the hot southern latitudes to 
beyond the Arctic Circle; and in the passage between the ex- 
tremes of climate it follows the general trend of an irregular coast 
so near that it is exposed to the attacks of the savage tribes in- 
liabiting the seashore, who pass much of their time in the canoe, 
and consider the capture of this singular wanderer a feat worthy 
of the highest distinction. As it approaches the waters of the 
torrid zone, it presents an opportunity to the civilized whale- 
men — at sea, along shore, and in the lagoons — to practice theii 
different modes of strategy, thus hastening the time of its utter 
annihilation. This species of whale manifests the greatest af- 
fection for its young, and seeks the sheltered estuaries lying un- 
der a tropical sun as if to warm its offspring and promote its 
comfort, until grown to a size Nature demands for its first north- 
ern visit." (Scammon.) 

Genus Megaptera Gray. (Large — fin.) 
IDorsal fin present, low or "hump" like; pectoral fin very long 
•and narrow; head of moderate size; throat and belly with longi- 
tudinal furrows; baleen short ; cervical vertebrae free; size large. 

Megaptera nodosa versabilis Cope. (Knotted; capable 
of being- turned.) 


Body short and thick ; a "hump" of variable size and shape 


situated similarly to the dorsal fin of other species; pectoral and 
caudal fins very large; color black, more or less mottled with 
white below. 

Pacific Ocean. 

"The Humpback is one of the species of rorquals that roam 
throug'hout every ocean, generally preferring to feed and perform 
its uncouth gambols near extensive coasts, or about the shores 
of islands, in all latitudes between the equator and the frozen 
oceans, both north and south. It is irregular in its movements, 
seldom going in a straight course for any distance, at one time 
moving about in numbers, scattered over the sea as far as the 
eye can discern from the masthead ; at other times singly, seem- 
ingly as much at home as if surrounded by hundreds of its kind, 

"Its shape, compared with the symmetrical forms of the 
Finback, California Gray and Sulphurbottom, is decidedly ugly, 
as it has a short, thick body, and frequently a diminutive 'small', 
with inordinately large pectorals and flukes. A protuberance, 
of variable size and shape in different individuals, placed on the 
back, about one fourth the length from the caudal fin, is called 
the hump. Another cartilaginous boss projects from the center 
fold immediately beneath the anterior point of the lower jaw, 
which, with the flukes, pectorals and throat of the creature, are 
often hung with pendant parasites (Otion stimpsoni) , and on the 
males it is frequently studded with tubercles, as on the head. The 
under jaw extends forward considerably beyond the upper one. 
All these combined characteristics impress the observer with the 
idea of an animal of abnormal proportions. The top of the head 
is dotted with irregular rounded bunches, which rise about an 
inch above the surface, each covering about four square inches 
of space. 

"Extreme length (of a male) 49 feet 7 inches; length of 
pectoral 13 feet 7 inches; breadth of pectoral 3 feet 2 inches; ex- 
pansion of flukes 15 feet 7 inches; breadth of flukes 3 feet 4 
inches; length of folds on belly 16 feet; thickness of blubber 5 to 
10 inches; color of blubber yellowish white; yield of oil 40 bar- 


rels; number of folds on belly 26, averaging four to six inches 
in width. These folds, which extend from the anterior portion, 
of the throat over the belly, terminating a little behind the pec- 
torals, are capable of great expansion and contraction, which en- 
ables the Humpback, as well as the other rorquals, to swell their 
maws when food is in abundance about them. It is proper to 
state that the skull and upper jaw bone of any ordinary sized 
animal would be about 15 feet long by 6 broad. 

"The usual color of the Humpback is black above, a little 
lighter below, slightly marbled with white or gray ; but sometimes 
the animal is of spotless white under the fins and about the 
abdomen. The posterior edge of the hump, in many animals, is 
tipped with pure white. 

"The Megaptera varies more in the production of oil than 
all others of the rorquals. We have frequently seen individuals 
which yielded but 6 to 10 barrels of oil, and others as much as 
75. Most of this variation may be attributed to age or sex. 

"Like all other rorquals it has two spiracles, and when it re- 
spires the breath and vapor ejected through these apertures form 
the 'spout,' and rise in two separate colums, which, however, unite 
as they ascend and expand. When the enormous lungs of the 
animal are brought into full play the spout ascends twenty feet or 
more. When the whale is going to windward, the influence of 
the breeze is such that a low bushy spout is all that can be seen. 
The number of spouts to a 'rising' is exceedingly variable ; some- 
times the animal blows only once, at another time up to 15 or 
:20 times. 

"Although the Humpback is found on every sea and ocean, 
our observations indicate that they resort periodically, and with 
some degree of regularity, to particular localities, where the fe- 
males bring forth their young. It seems, moreover, that both 
sexes make a sort of general migration from the warmer to 
the colder latitudes, as the seasons change. They go north in 
the northern hemisphere as the summer approaches, and return 
50uth as winter sets in. 


"In the Bay of Alonterey, Upper California, the best season 
for Humpbacks is in the months of October and November ; but 
some whales are taken during the period from April to December, 
including a part of both months. The great body of these whales, 
however, are obserxed working their way northward until Sep- 
tember, when they begin to return soutliward; and the Bay being 
open to the north, many of the returning- band follow its shores 
or visit its southern extremity, in search of food, which consists 
]>rincipally of small fish, or the lower orders of crustaceans. 
When the animals are feeding- tlie whalers have a very favorable 
opportunity for their pursuit and capture. 

"The Humpbacks are captured with a common hand-har- 
poon and lance, 'Greeners Harpoon Gun,' and the bomb-lance, 
by the whaleships crew ; and as they are very liable to sink when 
dead, every exertion is made to get the Jiarpoon in, w^ith line at- 
tached, before the bomb gun is discharged. Then if the creature 
goes to the bottom, a buoy is attached to the end of the line, or 
a boat lies by it, until the decomposition of its flesh has gen- 
erated sufficient gas to allow the animal to be drawn up. The 
length of time that elapses before this takes place of course de- 
pends much on the depth of the water and the solidity of the an- 
imals formation ; some individuals remaining but a few hours on 
the bottom, while others will remain down two or three days 
at the same depth. 

"The best points for Humpback whaling on the coast have 
been Magdalena. Ballenas and Monterey Bays; but since the 
acquisition of Alaska numerous places have been found in the 
bays and about the islands of that Territory, which doubtless 
in the future wdll become profitable whaling stations." 

Genus Balsenoptera LapecedE. (Whale— fin). 

Dorsal fin small, curved; pectoral fin small, narrow; head 
flat ; body slender, skin of throat with longitudinal furrows ; baleen 
short and coarse; cervical vertebrae free. 


Balsenopteraphysalus velifera Cope. (Sail bearing.) 


Large; color blackish above, white below. 
North Pacific Ooean. 

"A Finback picked np by Captain Poole of the bark Sarah 
Warren, of San Francisco, afifords us the following memoranda; 
length 65 feet; thickness of blubber 7 to 9 inches; yield of oil y-, 
barrels; color of blubber a clear white; top of head quite as flat 
and straight as tliat of a Humpback ; baleen, the longest, 2 feet 
4 inches; the greatest width 13 inches; its color a light lead 
streaked with black, and its surface presents a ridgy appearance 
crosswise, length of fringe to bone 2 to 4 inches, and in size the 
fringe may be compared to a cambric needle. 

"A Balxnoptera which came ashore near the outer heads of 
the Golden Gate gave us the opportunity of obtaining the follow- 
ing rough measurements; length 60 feet; from nib-end to pec- 
torals 15 feet; from nib-end to corner of mouth 12 feet; expansion 
of caudal fins 14 feet. Its side fins and flukes are in like pro- 
portion to the body as in the California Gray. Its throat and 
breast are marked with deep creases or folds, similar to the 
Humpback. Color of sides and back black or blackish brown 
(in some indviduals a curved band of lighter shade marks its 
upper sides, between the spiracles and pectorals) ; belly a milky 
white. Its back-fin is placed nearer to the caudal than the hump 
on the Humpback, and in shape approaches a right angled 
triangle, but rounded on the forward edge, curved on the opposite 
one; the longest side joins the back in some examples, and in 
others the anterior edge is the longest. The gular folds spread 
on each side of the pectorals and extend half the length of the 

"The habitual movements of the Finback in several points 
are peculiar. When it respires the vaporous breath passes quick- 
ly through its spiracles, and when a fresh supply is drawn into 
its breathing system, a sharp and somewhat musical sound may 


be heard at a considerable distance, which is quite distinguishahle 
from that of other whales of the same family. We have (ob- 
served the interval between the respirations of a large Finback 
to be about seven seconds. It frequently g-ambols about ^'essels 
at sea, in midocean as well as close in with the coast, darting 
under them, or shooting- swiftly through the water on cither 
side; at one moment on the surface, belching forth its quick, 
ringing spout, and the next moment submerging itself beneath 
the waves, as if enjoying a race with a ship dashing aloug 
under press of sail. 

"In beginning the descent it assumes a variety of positions; 
sometimes rolling over on its side, at other times rounding or 
heaving its flukes out and assuming a nearly perpendicular at- 
titude. Frequently it remains on the surface, making a regular 
course and several uniform 'blows.' Occasionally they congre- 
gate in schools of fifteen or twenty or less. In this situation 
we have observed them going quickly through the water, several 
spouting at the same instant. Their uncertain movements, how- 
ever, — often showing themselves twice or thrice and then dis- 
appearing — and their swiftness, make them very difficult to cap- 
ture. The result of several attempts to capture them was as 
follows; from the ship one was shot with the bomb gun, wliich 
did its work so effectually that although the boat was in readiness 
for instant lowering, before it got within darting distance the 
animal, in its dying contortions, ran foul of the ship, giving her 
a shock that was very sensibly felt by all on board, giving 
her a momentary heel of about two steaks. We had a good view 
of the underside of the whale as it made several successive rolls 
before disappearing, and our observations agreed with those 
made on the Sarah Warren in relation to the color and the 
creases on the throat and breast. The underside of the fins was 
white also. At another time the whale died about ten fathoms 
under water, and after carefully hauling it up in sight, the iron 
'drawed' and away the dead animal went to the depth beneath. 
Frequently we have lowered for single ones that were playing 


about the ship, but by the time the boats were in the water noth- 
ing more would be seen of them. 

"An instance occurred in Monterey Bay, in 1865, of five 
being captured under the following- circumstances ; a 'pod' of 
whales was seen in the offing, by the whalemen, from their 
shore station, who immediately embarked in their boats and gave 
chase. On coming up to them they were found to be Finbacks. 
One was harpooned, and, though it received a mortal wound, 
they all ran together as before. O'ne of the gunners, being an 
expert, managed to shoot the whole five, and they were ultimately 

"Their food is of the same nature as that of the other ror- 
quals, and the Cjuantity of codfish that has been found in them 
is truly enormous." (Scammon). 

Balaenoptera acuto-rostrata davidsoni Scammon. 
(For Prof. George Davidson.) 


Small; head pointed; pectoral fins small, pointed; baleen 
v.hite; color blackish above, white below. 

North Pacific Ocean. 

''The name Sharp^headed Finner is applied to this, the smal- 
ler species of Balsenoptera known on the coast. The only one 
we have examined was found dead on the northern shore of Ad- 
miralty Inlet, Washington Territory, by some Italian fishermen, 
in October, 187O', transported by them to the opposite shore and 
towed into Port Townsend Bay, where it was flensed on the 
beach. This opportunity of seeing the animal out of water was 
very interesting to us, for there was a mystery about its his- 
tory that we had been unable to solve in twelve years observa- 
tion, during which time we had traced it from^ the coast of Mexico 
to Behring Sea. In the strait of San Juan de Fuca oppor- 
tunities were afforded for observing its havits more closely than 

BAL^ENll).^ 23 

"The length of the individual captured in Admiralty inlet 
was t\vent}'-seven feet. When compared with other Balxnidie. 
it was so small that we were skeptical whether it was an adult or 
not, but, upon making an examination a well developed fcetus 
was found in it, five and one half feet long, which dispelled all 
doubts as to its maturity. 

"The principal distinguishing- features of this whale are its 
dwarfish size ; its pointed head, which in form resembles a beak ; 
its low, falcated dorsal fin. which is placed about two-thirds the 
length of the animal from the anterior extremity of its lower 
jaw, which is the longest ; and its inordinately small, pointed pec- 
torals, which are marked with a white band above and near their 
bases, and are placed about one-third the animal's length from its 
anterior extremity. The bone, or baleen, in its natural state is of 
a pure white, with a short, thin fringe of the same color. The 
number of laminae on each side of the mouth was two hundred 
and seventy, and the longest of these measured ten inches. The 
surface of the animal was a dull black above, white below. The 
under side of both pectoral and caudal fins was white also. 

"Seventy longitudinal folds extended along the throat and 
lower portion of the body, between and a little behind the fins, 
and while the outer surface of the folds was of a milky white- 
ness, the creases between them were of a pinkish cast, imparting 
the same shade to the throat as far back as the pectorals. The 
coating of yellowish fat that encased the body averaged three 
inches in thickness, and the yield of oil was about three hundred 

"The habits of this whale are in many respects like those of 
the Finback. It frequently gambols about vessels while under 
way, darting from one side to the other beneath their bottoms. 
When coming to the surface it makes a quick, faint spout, such 
as would be made by a suckling of one of the larger cetaceans ; 
which plainly accounts for whalemen taking it for the young 
of more bulky species." (Scammon). 


Genus Sibbaldius Gray. (For Robert Sibbald.) 
Dorsal fin small, curved, pectoral fin small; head long; skin 

of throat with small longitudinal furrows; baleen short; cervical 

\ertebra; free. 

Sibbaldius sulfureous Copk. (Sulphur colored.) 


Largest living mammal; bro\\n or gray above; sulphur yel- 
low below. 

North Pacific Ocean. 

"The largest whale found on the coast, and the largest 
known, is the Sulphur-bottom. Never having had an opportunity 
of obtaining an accurate measurement of its proportions, we can 
only state them approximately. Length sixty to one hundred 
feet. Its body is comparatively more slender than that of th-? 
California Gray. Its pectorals are proportionately small, even in 
comparison with the Sperm Whales wdiicih in size and shape they 
\-ery nearly resemble, being short and rounded at their extremi- 
ties. Its caudal fin bears about the same proportion to the body 
as does that of the Finback, while the dorsal is much smaller 
and nearer the posterior extremity. Its head is more elongated 
than that of the Finners. Its baleen is broader at the base; the 
color being a jet black in several specimens that we have exam- 
ined, while others were of a bluish hue. 

"Captain Roys, of whaling notoriety, has kindly furnished 
me with the following memoranda of a Sulphur-bottom Whale 
which was taken by him while he was in command of the barque 
Iceland. Length 95 feet; girth 39 feet; length of jawbone 21 
feet; length of longest baleen 21 feet; yield of baleen 800 pounds; 
yield of oil no barrels; weight of who'le animal, by calculation, 
147 tons. 

"The Sulphur-bottom, in its food and manner of feeding, is 
like the other whales of its kind. It is a true rorqual, with folds 
beneath the anterior part of the animal, which are a series of fine 
longitudinal furrows. The color of this, the greatest whale of 


the ocean, is sometimes lighter than the dull black of the lesser 
rorc|ua]s, in some instances it is a very light brown, approaching 
to white; but underneath it is of a yellowish cast or sulphur color, 
whence the name 'Sulphur-bottom' is supposed to have arisen. 
Its coating of blubber is unevenly distributed over its body, mas- 
sively covering the top of the head, but more thinly covering the 
main portion oi the trunk, while the posterior extremity, between 
the trunk and caudal fin is more heavily enfolded in the oily cover- 
ing than all the rest. 

"The Pacific species occurs at all seasons oii the coasts of 
the Californias. During- the months from May to September, 
inclusive, they^ are often found in large numbers close in with 
the shores, at times playing about ships at anchor in the open 
roadsteads, near islands, or capes, but in a general way they do 
not approach vessels with the same boldness that the Finback 
does, although w-e have observed them following a vessel's wake 
for several leagues. The Sulphur-bottom is considered the swift- 
est whale afloat, and for this reason is but seldom pursued, and 
still more rarely taken. 

"On the second voyage of the Page six of these immense 
creatures were taken by the use O'f bomb-gun and lance off the 
port of San Ouentin, Lower California, where the moderate depth 
of the water was favorable to the pursuit. Large numbers of 
them were found on this ground, where they were attracted by 
the swarms of sardines and prawns with which the waters were 
enlivened; and the whales, when in a state of lassitude from ex- 
cessive feeding, would frequently remain motionless ten tO' twenty 
minutes at a time, thus giving the whaleman an excellent oppor- 
tunity to shoot his bomb-lance into a vital part, causing almost 
instant death." (Scammon). 

Dr. F. W. True, Curator, U. S. National Museum, thinks 
it is doubtful if this Whale is distinct from Balxnoptera physalus. 


Sulxjrder Denticete (Tooth — \Miale. ) 
Teeth nearly ahvays present in the lower jaw and often in 
the iipi>er; no baleen; rami of lower jaw united by a symphyseal 
suture; olfactory organ rudimentary or absent; nostrils combin- 
ing in one spiracle. 

Family Physeteridae. (The Sperm \Miale.) 
Lower jaw slender and set with teeth, usually numerous, 
sometimes few; upper jaw large and toothless; head large; costal 
cartileges not ossified; skull usually unsymmetrical. 

Subfamily Physeterinae. 

Lower jaw with numerous teeth, which are held in a long 
groove by a strong fibrous gum-like substance; upper part of 
cranium quite unsymmetrical through atrophism of the right 

Two genera, each with one living species. They prefer 
warm waters and are found in all open seas except the Arctic and 
Antarctic Oceans. The food is squid, cuttlefish, octopus, etc. 
Sperm Whales are much less common now that formerly. 

Sperm Whale. 

Gemis Physeter Ltxxeus. (To blow.) 
Dorsal fin obsolete; pectoral fin short, broad; head long and 
deep, squarish in front, with a large internal cavity filled with 
oil ; teeth 40 to 50 ; vertebn-e 50 ; most of the cervical vertebra? 


Physeter macrocephalus Linn. (Great — head.) 


Blackish above ; lighter below, particularly on the breast. 

Leng-th of adult male from 70 to 85 feet ; females much 

Found in nearly all seas from 56 degrees north latitude to 
50 degrees south. 

"This, the largest of the toothed cetaceans, is known to Eng- 
lish and Amercan whalemen as the Sperm Whale, to the Germans 
as the Pottfish, and to the French as the Cachelot. It widely 
differs from all others of the order, both in figure and habits. 
The fully matured animal equals, if it does not exceed, the Bow- 
head in magnitude and in commercial value. The adult female, 
however, is only about one-third or one-fourth of the size of the 
largest male. She is likewise more slender in form. 

"The largest males measure eighty to eighty-four feet. The. 
pondrous head is nearly one third the whole bulk of the animal, 
and over one-quarter of its length. The opening of its mouth is 
about five-sixths the length of the head; the lower jaw, from the 
expansion of the condyles, contracts abruptly to a narrow sym- 
phasis, and is studded on each side with 22 to 24 strong, sharp 
and conical teeth, fitting into the furrow or cavity in the upper 
jaw, which is destitute of, or contains only rudimentary teeth. 
pT^e tongue, which is usually of a whitish color, is not capable 
of much protrusion. The throat, however, is large, and is said 
to be capacious enough to receive the body of a man. The eyes 
are placed a little above and behind the angle of the mouth. A 
few inches behind the eyes are the openings of the ears, which 
are not one-fourth of an inch in diameter. Above, and at the 
junction of the head with the body proper, is a swell called 'the 
bunch of the neck.' About midway between tliis protuberance 
and the caudal fin is another and larger bunch, called the 'hump ;' 
then follows a succession of smaller processes along the 'small' 
toward the posterior extremity which is called the Vidge.' 

"The pectorals or side fins are placed a little below and be- 


hind the eyes, aiul in size rarely exceed six feet in leng-tJi and 
three feet in breadth. The caudal fin is about six feet in breadth, 
and measures from twelve tO' fifteen feet between the extremities, 
or about one-sixth of the length of the whole animal. Unlike 
the baleen whales the Cachelot has but one spiracle, or blow-hole, 
which is placed near the upper and anterior extremity of the 
head, a little on the left side ; its external form is nearly like the 
letter S. This fissure in the adult is ten to tw^elve inches in length. 
The color of the Sperm Whale is black, or blackish brown above ; 
a little lighter on the sides below, except on the breast, where it 
becomes a silvery gray. Some examples, however, are piebald. 

"In the young Sperm Whales, as in the young of all ceta- 
ceans, the black-skin, or epidermis, is much heavier than in adults, 
it being a half an inch in thickness or thereabouts, while it does 
not exceed a quarter of an inch in the old whale. As age ad- 
vances the skin becomes more furrowed. Beneatli the black-skin 
lies the rich coating of fat or blubber, which yields the valuable 
oil of commerce. The head produces nearly one-third O'f all the 
oil obtained. Next to and above the bone of the upper jaw 
(which is termed the 'coach' or 'sleigh'), is a huge mass of 
cartileginous, elastic, tough fat, which is called the 'junk.' Above 
the junk, ou the right side of the head, is a large cavity, or sack, 
termed the 'case,' which contains oil in its naturally fluid state 
together with the granulated substance know^n as 'spermaceti.' 
From this capacious hidden receptacle as much as fifteen barrels 
of head-matter has been taken. The 'ambergris' which is so 
highly prized, is nothing more than the retained anal concretion 
of a diseased whale. In the left side of the cranium, above the 
junk, is the breathing passage or nostril of the whale. This, 
with the case is protected by a thick, tough, elastic substance called 
the 'head skin" which is proof against the harpoon. 

"We now come to the general habits of this gigantic animal, 
relative to its movements in the vast oceans O'f the globe. Among 
the whole order of the Cetaceans there is no other which respires 
with the same regularity as the Cachelot. When emerging to 


the surface, the first portion of the animal seen is the region of 
the hnmp. then it raises its head and respires slowly for about 
three seconds, sending forth diagonally a volume of whitish 
vapor like an escape of steam; this is called the 'spout.' which, 
in ordinary weather, may be seen fronii the masthead three to 
five miles. In respiring at leisure, the animal sometimes makes 
no headway tJirough the water; at other times it moves slowly 
along at about the rate of two or three miles an hour ; or if 'mak- 
ing a passage' from one feeding ground to another, it may accele- 
rate its velocity. When in progressive motion (after 'blow- 
ing), hardly an instant is required for inspiration, when the an- 
imal dips its head a little and momentarily disappears, then it 
rises again to blow, as before, each respiration made with great 
regularity. The number of spoutings made when in a state of 
quietude depends on the size of the animal ; varying in the adult 
female and in the young of both sexes from the largest and old- 
est males. The same may be said as to the length of time it remains 
upon or beneath the surface of the ocean. With the largest 
bulls the time occupied in performing one expiration and one in- 
spiration is ten to twelve seconds, and the animal will generally 
blow from sixty to seventy five times at one 'rising', remaining 
upon the surface of the sea about twelve minutes. As soon as 
his 'spoutings are out' he pitches head foremost downward; then 
nearly perpendicular attitude, descends to a great depth, and there 
'rounding out,' turns his flukes high in air, and, when gaining a 
remains from fifty minutes to an hour and a quarter. 

"When a Cachelct becomes alarmed, or is sporting in the 
ocean, its actions are widely different. If frightened it has the 
faculty of instantly sinking, (as the sailors say, 'he can let go and 
go down in a jiffy'). When merely startled it will frequently 
assume nearly a perpendicular position, with the greater portion 
of its head above water, to look and listen; or when lying on the 
surface, it will sweep around from side to side with its flukes, 
to ascertain whether any object is within reach. At other times, 
when at play, it will elevate its flukes high in air, then strike them 


down with great force, which raises the water in spray and foam 
about it ; this is termed 'lobtaihng.' Oftentimes it descends a few 
fathoms beneath the waves, then, giving a powerful shoot nearly 
out of the water at an angle of forty-five degrees or less, falls on 
its side, or leaps bodily out in a semi-lateral attitude, coming down 
with a heavy splash, producing a pyramid of foam which may be 
seen from the masthead, on a clear day, at least ten miles, and is 
of great advantage to the whaler in searching for his prey. These 
singular antics of the Sperm AMiale are said to be performed to 
rid itself oi a troublesome parasite, known among sailors by the 
name of 'suckfish' ; but the animal is seldom infested with the 
parasitic Crustacea which are indigenous to the Rorquals and 
Right Whales. 

■'We may further add that it is one of the few species of the 
larger Cetaceans which inhabit every ocean not bound with icv" 
fetters during the rigors of winter, and although great numbers 
of them are found in tlie cold latitudes ; they also like to bask in 
the equatorial waters under a tropical sun. It is true, however, 
that but few are met with in the far northern limits of the At- 
lantic or the Pacific, compared with the numbers that inhabit 
the great range of the southern seas. 

"The Cachelots are gregarious and they are often seen in 
schools numbering from fifteen to twenty up to hundreds. The 
oldest and largest males, however, for the greater part of the 
year roam alone; yet there is no lack of instances where these 
monsters have been found in herds by themselves ; but the usual 
assemblage is made up of males and females — the latter with 
dieir young. At such times two or three large bulls are in at- 
tendance, which lead the van. The female is quite solicitous for 
her playful offspring, and when pursued the mother may be seen 
assisting it to escape by partly supporting it on one of her 

"The principal food of the Sperm Whale is familiarly named 
by whalers 'squid,' which includes one or more species of cuttle- 
fishes (cephalopods) ; occasionally the codfish, albicore, and bon- 


ita are laid under contrilxition. But the true and natural way 
in which this g-reat rover of the hidden depths seeks and devours 
its animal food is stih ting'ed with miystery. 

"The Sperm whale is usually found in the deep, open sea, 
or, as wdialemen term it 'off soundings,' hut many instances are 
known of their being- seen in large numbers, and captures have 
been made, on soundings. This has been the case to our knowl- 
ledge off San Bartholome Bay and Ballena. Bay, on the Lower 
California coast, the depth oi water varying in these places 
from forty to eighty fathoms. Formerly this species was found 
in great numbers along the coast of Upper California. The ships 
cruising for them kept in a belt of water extending about one 
hundred miles from the land and closing in witli the shore." 


Family .Delphinidae. (Dolphins, Porpoises, etc.) 
Teeth usually numerous in both jaws; rostral portion of 
skull lengthened, about as long as cranium in some species, much 
longer in others; costal cartileges ossified. 

This family includes the smaller cetaceans. Because of the 
lack of examples in museums the genera and species of this 
family are not well known and many changes in nomenclature 
may be expected as better material for study is acquired. There 

ird Dolphin. 
3. Striped Porpo 
5. Blackflsh. 

Bay Porpoise. 
Right Whale Porpoise. 

are fifteen or perhaps eighteen genera and probably more than 
fifty species. Many species are pelagic, others frequent the 
vicinity of shores, occasionally entering bays, while a few species 
are i>eculiar to large rivers, such as the Amazon and the Ganges. 
California gets a fair share of the marine species though several 
are almost exterminated. 


These aquatic animals are active, voracious and usually 
gregarious. Their food is fish, squid, cuttlefish, etc. A few 
species are hunted for their oil, but many species yield too small 
amounts to make their pursuit profitable, particularly as their 
activity or peculiar habits make their pursuit difficult. 

Subfamily DelphininsB. 

Cervical vertebra; more or less consolidated; pterygoids nor 
prolonged backward to articulate with the squamosals. 

Genus Lissodelphis Gloger. (Smooth— dolphin.) 

No dorsal fin ; pectoral fin curved ; depression in front of 
forehead moderate; rostrum long, tapering; teetr 43 to 47, small, 

Lissodelphis borealis Pkalk. (Northern.) 


Form slender; beak short, distinct; flukes small; lower jaw 
longer than upper and curved upward at the extremity. 

Length about 2200 mm. (87 inches) ; end of jaw to pec- 
toral fin 625 (z-^) ; length oi pectoral fin 300 (12) ; breadth of 
flukes 400 (16). 

North Pacific Ocean. California. Japan. 

"The Right Whale Porpoise of the western coast of North 
America, in habit and form, is nearly the same as the Right 
Whale Porpoise of the southern hemisphere (peroni), but it is 
not so beautifully marked in vivid contrast, in pure white and 
jet black, as the latter; the former being black above and lighter 
below, with but little of its lower extremities banded with white. 
The Right Whale Porpoise is not usually met with in large 
numbers, and is seldom found in shallow bays or lagoons. We 
have seen them' as far south as San Diego Bay. on the Californian 
coast, and as far north as Behring Sea, showing plainly that the 


l)races at least the western coast of North and South America." 
( Scammon). 

Genus Phocsena Cuvikr. (Seal like.) 
Dorsal fin rather small, varying in shape with species; pec- 
toral fins ovate; rostrum short and broad; teeth i6 to 26, small, 
compressed ; vertebrae 64 to 98. 

Phocsena communis Lesson. (In common.) 


Head conical; body fusiform, slender; front margin of dor- 
sal fin nearly straight, near margin concave; teeth 26 — 26; verte- 
brae 64 to 67; above slaty black; below lighter (male) or white 

Length about 1730 mm. (68 inches) ; end of jaw to dorsal 
fin 740 (29) ; height of dorsal fin 100 (4) ; length of pectoral 
fin 180 (7) ; breadth of flukes 320 (12.5). 

North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans, south to New 
Jersey and Mexico. Ascends rivers. 

"This peculiar species of Dolphin is the least in size of the 
entire whale tribe inhabiting the Pacific North American coast. 
The body of the male is black above, a little lighter below; 
and while the female is of the same color above, it is lighter on 
the sides, with a narrow black streak running from, the corner 
of the mouth to the pectoral, and the lower part of the animal 
is of a milky whiteness, yet the pectoral and caudal fins are black 
underneath or of a dark gray. 

"The habits of this animal dififer from those of other species 
found in the open sea or along the coast. Their favorite re- 
sort seems to be discolored waters between the limits of the pure 
ocean element and the fresh rivers. They are rarely seen far 
from either side of these boundaries. They are never found in 
large schools, but occasionally six or eight may be seen scattered 
about, appearing on the surface alternately, sometimes singly, or 


two or three together at the same insant. Neither do they make 
those playful heaps and gambols that the larger Dolphins do, their 
general habit being to make a quick puff and turn as soon as they 
appear above water, aparently choosing the darkness below rather 
than the light above. It is not from shyness, however, for they 
are met with about roadsteads and harbors, among shipping, and 
frequently play their odd turnings close to vessels under way, or 
at their moorings. By night, when at anchor, we have known 
them to play about the vessels rudder, but this may be regarded 
as an unusual occurrence. 

"They feed on small fish, and are occasionally taken in the 
seines that are hauled along the shores of San Francisco Bay by 
Italian fishermen. The northern Indians frequently capture them 
about the inland waters during the calm, clear weather of the 
sum.mer months." (Scammon). 

Gentts Orcinus Fitzingkr. (A kind of whale.) 
Dorsal fin very large and prominent; pectoral fins large, 
broad, ovate; head conical; rostrum broad, about as long as 
cranium; teeth lo to 13, large; vertebras 52; largest of subfamily. 

Orcinus rectipinna Cope. (Straight — fin.) 


Dorsal fin at right angles to the body, extremely long, six 
feet or more in the male; no large white spot behind the eye; 
length of male about 20 feet. 
North Pacific Ocean. 

Orcinus ater Cope. (Black.) 


Dorsal fin shorter, wider and curved backward ; a white spot 
behind the eye. 

North Pacific Ocean. 

The following notes apply to both Killers, the description 


and names being founded on these notes and Captain Scammon's 

"The Orca — a cetaceous animal commonly known as the 
Killer — is one of the largest members of the Dolphin family. 
The length of the males may average twenty feet and the females 
fifteen feet. The body is covered with a coating of white fat, 
or blubber, yielding a pure, transparent oil. An extremely promi- 
nent dorsal fin, placed about two-fifths of the length of the body 
from the animal's beak, distinguishes it from all other Dolphins. 
In the largest species this prominent upper limb stands quite 
erect, reaches the height of six feet and frequently turns over 
sideways at the extremity. In the animals of more moderate 
size the fin is broader at the base, less in altitude, and is slightly 
curved backward, while upon others it is shorter still, and broader 
in proportion at its juncture with the back, and is more falcated. 
It is usually in color jet black above and lighter below; yet 
many of inferior size are most beautifully variegated, the colors 
being almost as vividly contrasted as the tiger of Ind'ia. Some 
individuals Jiave a clear white spot, of oblong shape, just behind 
the eyes, and a maroon band, of nearly crescent shape, adorning" 
the back behind the dorsal fin, which it more than half encircles. 

"The habits of the Killers exhibit a boldness and cunning 
peculiar to tlieir carnivorous propensities. At times they are 
seen in schools, undulating- over the waves — two, three, six or 
eight abreast — and with the long, pointed fins above their arched 
backs, together with their varied marks and colors, they present 
a pleasing and somewhat military aspect. Three or four of these 
voracious animals do -not hesitate to grapple with the largest 
baleen whale ; and it is surprising to see the leviathan of the deep 
so completely paralyzed by the presence of their natural, though 
diminutive enemies. Frequently the terrified animal — compara- 
tively of enormous size and superior strength evinces no effort 
to escape, but lies in a helpless condition, or makes but little 
resistance to its merciless destroyers. The attack of these wolves 
of the ocean upon their gigantic prey may be likened, in some 


respects, tO' a pack of hounds holding a stricken deer at bay. The 
Orca. however, does not always live on such gigantic food ; and 
we incline to the belief that it is but rarely that these carnivora 
of the sea attack the larger cetaceans, but chiefly prey with great 
rapacity upon their young. The Orca finds its principal food in 
the smaller species of its own family, together with the seals and 
larger fishes. They will sometimes be seen peering above the 
surface with a seal in their bristling jaws, shaking or crunch- 
ing their victim, and swallowing them apparently with great 
gustoi; or, should no other gamie present itself, porpoises and 
salmon may fill their empty maws, or a Humpback or Finback 
Whale may furnish them with an ample repast. 

"Compared with the other species of the Dolphin tribe the 
Orcas are not numerous, neither do they usually go in large 
schools or shoals, like the Porpoises and Blackfish. They are 
seldom captured by civilized whalemen, as their varied and ir- 
regular movements make the pursuit difficult, and the product of 
oil is even less than that of Blackfish, in proportion to their size. 
By chance, however, we were so fortunate as to take one of 
them, a female about 15 feet long, and on examining it to satisfy 
ourselves about the character of its food, found that it consisted 
of young seals. The covering of fat did not exceed three-fourths 
of an inch in thickness, and was very white. The yield of oil 
was one and a half barrels, and nearly as clear as springwater. 

"The Killers I have noticed in the Gulf of Georgia, about 
the northern end of Vancouver Island, and as far north as the 
Aleutian Islands, appear to have more white on their sides and 
are of a dull black on the back, the dorsal fin wider at the base 
and shorter. I am fully convinced that there are two species at 
least on the coast between the latitudes of 20 degrees and 60 de- 
grees north; one with a dorsal fin excessively long, narrow at 
base, standing very erect ; the other species with a shorter dorsal 

fin. somewhat curved, much broader and slanting backward.'^ 



Genus G-lobicephala Lksson. (Ball — head.) 
Dorsal fin lung-, low, curved; pectoral fins long, tapering 
curved; head globose; mouth oblique; rostrum very short and 
broad; teeth 7 to 11, large, in front half of jaws; vertebrae 57 
to 60. 

Globicephala scammoni Copk. (For Captain C. M. 

Scammon. ) 


Size large; form stout; pectoral fins long, slightly curved, 
pointed; skull large and massive; color entirely black. 

North Pacific Ocean. 

"Blackfish are generally found v^dierever Sperm Whales re- 
sort, but in many instances tliey congregate in much larger 
numbers, and range nearer the coast than the regular feeding 
ground of the latter. Although subsisting almost entirely on the 
same kind of food — the squid or octopus — still at times, when 
schools of them visit bays or lagoons, they prey upon the small 
fish swarming in those shallow waters. In Magdalena Bay we 
ha\-e seen them in moderate numl>ers, appearing as much at home 
as the Common Porpoise or the Cowfish. They collect in schools, 
from ten to twenty up to hundreds, and when going along on the 
surface of the sea there is less of the rising and falling move- 
ment than with the Porpoises, and their spoutings before 'going 
down' are irregular, both in number and time between respira- 
tions. If the animal is moving quickly much of the head and 
body is exposed. Whalemen call this going 'eye out.' In low 
latitudes in perfectly calm weatlier, it is not infrequent to find a 
herd of them lying quite still, huddled together promiscuously, 
making no spout and seemingiy taking a rest. 

"On the 14th day of December 1862, on the coast of Lower 
California, in latitude 31 degrees, land ten miles distant, a school 
of Blackfish was 'raised.' The boats were immediately lowered 
and gave chase, and three fish were taken. The largest was a 
male and measured as follows: Length 15 feet 6 inches. Depth 


of body 3 feet 6 inches. Circumference of body 8 feet 9 inches. 
Expansion of flukes 3 feet 6 inches. Breadth of flukes i foot. From 
end of head to spout hole i foot 6 inches. End of head to dorsal fin 
4 feet 6 inches. Length of pectorals 2 feet 10 inches. Length 
of spout hole across the head 4 inches. The spout hole is of half 
circular shape opening like a valve when tlie spout ascends, clos- 
ing- as it escapes. The number of teeth on each side of the upper 
jaw varies from ten to twelve, in the lower jaw from eiglit to 
ten; the exposed parts from one-fourth to three-fourths of an 
inch long. 

"From all we can learn of their breeding habits they bring 
forth their young at any time, or in any part of the ocean as 
necessity may require. Off the coast of Guatemala, in February, 
1853, ^a calf taken from one was three feet long, the mother 
measuring thirteen feet. In the same school it was taken from 
we saw several young ones about the same size as that above 

"The Blackfish is taken for its oil, which is, however, much 
inferior to that of the Sperm Whale. The yield is small, from 
ten gallons to ten barrels. The blubber varies in thickness from 
one inch to ten inches ; its color is white. The flesh of the Black- 
fish is like coarse beef, and after being exposed to the air a few 
days, then properly cooked, is by no means unsavory food. The 
same may be said of the different species of Porpoises. Form- 
erly Blackfish were found in large numbers on the coast of Lower 
California, but, probably from the same cause as made mention 
c; ncerning Sperm Whales, these grounds are now but little fre- 
quented by them." (Scammon). 

Genus Grampus Gray. (Great fish.) 

Dorsal fin long, high, curved ; pectoral fins long, narrow, 
curved; head globose; mouth oblique; rostrum short and broad; 
teeth two to seven, in front half of lower jaw only; vertebrae 


Grampus griseus Cuviek. (Gray.) 


Head globose with a sugg-estion of a beak ; lower jaw shorter 
than upper ; flukes narrow. Adult : hack, dorsal fin and flukes 
dark gray or blackish, more or less tinged with purple; pectoral 
fins blackish mottled with gray; head and front part of body light 
gray tinged with yellow; belly grayish white; body marked w'ith 
numerous irregular unsymmetrical streaks. Young; dark gray 
above; below grayish white; head whitish strongly tinged with 
yellow ; sides with five or more narrow vertical stripes. 

Length about 3200 mm. (125 inches) ; end of jaw to dor- 
sal fin 1200 (48); height of dorsal fin 400 (16); breadth of 
flukes 720 (28) ; length of pectoral fin 600 (24). 

North Atlantic and north Pacific Oceans. Mediterranean 
Sea. Japan. California. 

Dall separated tlie Pacific Ocean animal under the name 
of sfcanisi; but True cansiders them not seperable. The habits 
of Grampuses are similar to those of Porpoises. 

Genus Lagenorhynchus Gray. (Flagon — snout.) 
Dorsal and pectoral fins long and curved ; rostrum large antl 
broad ; teeth 22 to 45 ; vertebrae 73 to 92. 

Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Gill. (Oblique— teeth.) 


Form stout ; beak very short ; dorsal fin high, pointed, strong- 
ly curved; pectoral fins and flukes broad; teeth 31 — 31 ; vertebrae 

Length about 2200 mm. (87 inches) ; end of jaws to dorsal 
fi" 915 (36) ; breadth of flukes 600 (24). 

North Pacific Ocean. Puget Sound. California. 

"This species of the smaller Dolphins varies but little in its 
general proportions from the Common Dolphin, except in its 
back fin which is more falcated and slender, and its snout, which 


is more blunt, in point of color it is greenish black on its upper 
surface, lightened oil the sides with broad longitudinal stripes of 
white, gray and dull black, which in most examples run into each 
other, but bellow it is a pearly or snowy wJiite. The posterior 
edge of the dorsal fin is tipped with dull white or gray, and some- 
times the flanks are marked in the same manner. 

"We have observed that this species has a wider range, con- 
gregates in larger numbers, and exhibits more activity than any 
other member of the dolphin family. They are seen, in numbers 
from a dozen up to many hundreds, tumbling over the surface 
of the sea, or making arching leaps, plunging again on the same 
curve, or darting high and falling sidewise upon the water with 
a spiteful splash, accompanied by a report that may be heard some 
distance. When a brisk bireeze is blowing they frequentiy play 
cbout the bow of a ship going at her utmost speed, darting across 
the cutwater and shooting- ahead, or circling around the vessel, 
apparently sporting at ease. 

"The Striped Porpoises are often seen in considerable num- 
bers about the large bays and lagoons along thiis coast, that 
have no fresh water running into them. They abound more 
alor.g the coasts where small fish are found than in midocean, ai 
they principally prey upon the smaller finny tribes ; and to obtain 
them shoot swiftly through the water, seizing the object of their 
pursuit with the slightest effort. Occasionally a large number O'f 
them will get intO' a schooil of fish, frigJitening themi so that they 
will dart around in all directions, and finally get so bewildered 
as to loose nearly all control over their movements. At such 
times the Striped Porpoise is manifestly the 'sea swine', filling 
itself to repiletion." (Scammon). 

Genus Delphinus Linneus. (Dolphin.) 
Dorsal and pectoral fins long, rather narrow, curved ; a dis- 
tinct depression across the head in front of forehead ; rostrum 
nearly twice as long as cranium, narrow; teeth 47 to 65, narrow , 
small ; vertebrae 73 to 76. 


Delphinus delphis Linn. (Dolphin.) 


Form and disposition of color markings very variable; teeth 
47 — 45 to 50 — 51 ; length about 2265 mm. (90 inches) ; end of 
jaw to dorsal fin 1000 (40) ; end of jaw to pectoral fin 500 (20) ; 
heig-ht of dorsal fin 230 (9) ; length of pectoral fin 350 (14) ; 
breadth of flukes 520 (21). 

"Mr. Dall was unfortunately unable to compare his skele- 
ton with that of D. delphis, to which species D. bairdii, if distinct, 
is undoubtedly most clasely allied. From the evidence now ol> 
tainable I am unable to distinguish between D. delphis and D. 
bairdi, and must therefore regard the latter as identical with 
the former." (True). 

Pelagic. Found in most seas. J have a skull picked up on 
the beach near San Diego, and have seen others. The following 
is from Captain Scammon's account of Delphinus "bairdii." 

"This Dolphin inhabits the Pacific North American coast, 
in common with other varieties which abound in these waters. 
At a distance it much resembles the Common Porpoise of fisher- 
men antl sailors ; but it differs in serv^eral points from that species. 
We were so fortunate as to obtain two female specimens off 
Point Arguello, in the fall of 1872, from wdiich we obtained the 
following notes. Apparently both individuals were adults, and 
nearly the same size and weight. The body of Delphinus bairdii 
is more slender, and its snout more elongated and rounded, than 
that of the Striped or Common Porpoises, and may be compared 
to the bill of a snipe. Its teeth are slender, conical and slightly 
curved inward. Its dorsal fin is more erect and less falcated 
than that of the Lageuorhynchiis obliqnidens, while its pectorals 
are nearly the same shape and comparative proportions ; but the 
caudal fin is less in breadth and greater in proportionate expan- 
sion. Its back, immediately forward of the dorsal fin, is some- 
what concave, so that when taking a side view tlie upper contour 
appears lower before than behind the fin. Its varied colors are, 
top and sides of head black, sides of body behind the vent and 


both sides of pectorals and flukes a greenish black ; a black patch 
around the eye with a black streak passing- forward above the 
mouth, a continuous black streak from the side of the under jaw- 
to the anterior edge of the pectorals. Sides behind the eye gray, 
the upper boudary of this color being somewhat above the plane 
of that' organ, beginning to curve downward just behind the dor- 
sal fin, and meeting both black and white marks between the 
vent and flukes, in or near the mesial line of the under side of the 
body. A lanceolate white patch extending on the ventral side 
from^ the middle of the jaw to the vent. A narrow white stripe 
extending from the corner of the mouth backward, on each side. 
slightly arched above the pectoral and then curving downward 
gradually, the two meeting IdcIow in the region of the vent. An- 
other, still narrower and somewhat obscure, starts at the same 
place as the last, but is soon lost in the white ventral patch be- 
fore alluded to. The Delphinus bairdii may be considered sym- 
metrical in its proportions. It moves through the water with 
great swiftness and' grace. Appended are the dimensions in feet 
and inches, of the examples above mentioned. 

Total length of the animals 6' — 7" 6' — 9" 

Anterior edge of pectorals i' i' 

Expansion of flukes i' — 6" i' — 5" 

Height of dorsal fin 7" 7" 

Circumference before the dorsal fin . ., 3'— 4" 3' — 3" 

Genus Tursiops Gervais. (Dolphin like.) 
Dorsal and pectoral fins long, narrow, curved; sides not 
banded; a distinct depression across head in front of forehead; 
rostrum moderately long, tapering; teeth 22 to 26, large, smooth; 
vertebrse 61 to 64. 

Tursiops gilli Dall. (For Prof. T. N. Gill.) 


"Exterior known only from an outline drawing and record 


of two monientarv observations by vScaninion. Teeth 22 — 22. 
Habitat; Nortli Pacific O'cean , Monterey, California and Lower 
California." (True). 

"This Porpoise is larger than the Striped or Right Whale 
species, and is known by the name of Cowfish. It is longer also 
in proportion to its girth, and its snout is somewhat contracted. 
Its teeth are much larger, straight, conical, and sharply pointed, 
but less in number. A specimen taken at Monterey in 187 1, had 
24 — 2^, 24 — 23. The animal also differs in color, it being black 
all over, lightened a little below. 

"The habits of the Cowfish, as observed on the coast of 
California and Mexico, are strikingly different from those of the 
true Porpoise. It is often remarked by whalemen that they art 
'a mongrel breed' of doubtful character, being frequently seen 
in company with Blackfish, sometimes with Porpoises, and oc- 
casionally with Humpbacks when the latter are found in large 
numbers on an abundant feeding ground. They are met with 
likewise in the lagoons along the coast, singly, in pairs, or fives, 
or sixes, rarely a larger number together, straggling ^bout in a 
vagrant manner in the winding estuaries, subsisting on the fish 
which abound in these circumscribed waters. At times they are 
seen moving lazily along under the shade of the mangroves that 
in many p'laces fringe the shores; at other times lying about in 
listless attitudes among the plentiful supplies of food surround- 
ing them." (Scammon). 


Order XJngulata. 

Toes more or less completely enclosecl by horny hoofs or 
with broad claws; no clavicles; molar teeth with ridged or tnb- 
erctilated grinding surfaces. 

Suborder Artiodactyla. 

Feet cleft; first toe wanting; second and fifth toes small, 
rudimentary or absent. 

Superfaniily Pecora. Rnniinants. 
Stomach with four compartments; food regurgitated and 
remasticated ; horns or antlers usually present ; upper canine teeth 
usually absent, sometimes present and occasionally largely de- 



Tails of Deer. 
1. Mule Deer. 2. Black-tailed Deer. 3. Virginia Deer 4. Wapiti. 


Family Cervidae. (Deer.) 

Male usually, female rarely, with deciduous bony antlers 
placed on a permanent short pedestal ; upper canines usually 
present, sometimes highly developed in males of certain Asiatic 
species; upper incisors absent; second and fifth toes present but 
small ; no oall bladder. 

Genus Cervus Linneus. (Deer.) 
Antlers, on male only, two or three times as long as head, 
usually round, branched, tlie tines turned forward, brow tine low ; 
posterior nares not divided ; canines never projecting beyond edge 
of lips; lachrymal pit large; ears rather small; no interdigital 
"glands"; hoof rounded, oxlike in form; metatarsal gland present 
on hind leg; tarsal gland absent; tail short. 

'Dental formula, I, o — 4; C, i— o; P, 3 — 3; M, 3 — 3X2=34. 

Cervus roosevelti Mkrriam. (For Theodore Roosevelt.) 


Male; size large ; skull and antlers massive ; beams of antlers 
relatively short and straight, with terminal prong aborted ; most 
of face black or brownish black ; hairs of neck long and forming 
a mane on the throat ; a dusky or black stripe on top of neck ; 
extending a greater or less distance 011 the back, remainder 
of neck brown ; breast and belly dull chestnut brown ; sides and 
back grayish brown; a large pale tawny patch on the rump. 
Female; no antlers; smaller; dark colored parts paler. 

Length of adult male about 2500 mm. (98 inches). 

Type locality, Olympic Mountains, Washington. 

Pacific coast from northwestern California to British Col- 
umbia. When the first white men came to California Wapiti of 
this or the next sj>ecies were common in many places in the cen- 
tral and northern parts of the State. Now this species is limited 
to a few inaccessible places in the three or four northwestern 


"Wapiti" ajipcars to have been the lr()(|u<)is name of the ani- 
mal eomnionlv ealled the American "iClk." The h'nropean h'lk 
is closely related to the American Moose, while the European 
analogue of the Wapiti Deer is the Red Deer or Stag-; hence 
"Elk" is misappilied as a name for the American animal, and 
Wapiti, as the next best known name, should be used. 

Wapiti prefer forests moderately free of undergrowth, in 
mountainous or hilly regions. The food is coarse and varied, 
consisting largely of leaves and twigs. They are good trotters 
and usually adopt that gait for rapid traveling- nnless very nmch 
hurried, when they break into a fast run. Tbis gait an old 
fat buck cannot sustain long before coming to bay, but poor or 
young- animals can run a considerable distance. The voice is 
high, sharp and forcible, but is only used in defiance or in great 

Wapiti are somewhat gregarious and are occasionally seen 
in large herds in the Rocky Mountains. They are polygamous, 
the strongest bucks gathering a small band of does in the rut- 
ting seasou and driving away weaker rivals. The rutting season 
cf the eastern species is September and the fawns are dropped 
about May; pro'bably the same dates hold good for our species. 
The bucks are tyrannical to the members of their harem. Twins 
^re infrequent. The venison of Wapiti is not as tender as that 
of the smaller Deer, but it is very nutritious. It is very dif- 
ficult to preserve. Still hunting ou foot is the usual method of 
hunting Wapiti, and in northwestern California this is practically 
the ouly method available. 

Cervus nannodes Mkrrtam. (Small.) 


Size small; legs short; coloration pale; head, neck and 
shoulders grizzled grayish brown ; back and flanks varying from 
buffy gray to grizzled buffy whitish; front of legs and feet light 
tawny; rump patch white, small and narrow. 


The type, a two year old male, measured, length 2030 mm. 
(80 inches) ; tail vertebrae 140 (5.5O') ; hind foot 620 (24.40). 

Type locality, Buttonwillow Ranch, Kern County, Califor- 

The California Wapiti are now limited to a small band run- 
ning in Kern County. This is the pitiful remnant of the thous- 
ands that ranged over the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys 
when the first gold hunters came to this region. The chief ot 
the U. S. Biological Survey (Dr. Merriam) made an unsuccess- 
ful attempt to place this band in the Sequoia National Park in 
the autumn of 1904. It is to be hoped that some means will be 
found to preserve the few individuals left. This seems to be a 
small, valley-loving species, and is not known to have occurred 
outside of California. So far as known, their habitS; are like 
those of other Wapiti, except that they often frequent marshy lo- 

Genus Odocoileus Raf'ine:sque. (Tooth — hollow.) 
Antlers, on male only, less than twice as long as head, round, 
branched, not palmated, brow tine some distance above base of 
antler; posterior nares divided by a bony septum (vomer) ; up- 
per canines absent; lachrymal pit large; ears medium or large; 
interdigital "glands" present ; metatarsal and tarsal glands pres- 
ent on hind leg; hoof narrow and pointed; tail of medium length. 

Dental formula, I, o — 4; C, o — o; P, 3 — 3 ; M, 3 — 3X2=32. 
Odocoileus hemionus Rafinesquk. (Mnle.j 


Antlers usually dividing in two subequal forks and each fork 
disposed to branch again; tail vertebrae shorter than the ear; a 
strip of naked skin on underside of tail; metatarsal gland (on 
outside of hind leg) five to six inches long; ears very large. 
Winter pelage; dark gray above, fading as the season advances ; 
breast blackish ; a large patch surrounding the tail, from the rump 


to between the legs, dull white. Suimiicr pelage; yellowish 
brown to reddish brown. Young; brownish yellow more or less 
regularly spotted with dull white. 

Length of male about 1575 mm. (62 inches) ; tail vertebrae 
185 (7.25) ; hind foot 475 (18.65) J ear from crown 240 (9.50). 
Length of female about 1450 (57); tail vertebrc-e 175 (6.90); 
hind foot 445 (17.50) ; ear 225 (8.85). 

(Note: the length of the hind foot is the distance from the 
point of the longest toe to the extremity of wdiat is popularly 
called the "knee" which is really the true heel. Ungulates walk 
on the ends of their toes). 

Type locality, upper Missouri River. 

The Mule Deer ranges over a large part of the United States, 
from northern Arizona to British America, and from the great 
plains to the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains. In the 
southern part of this range tlie true Mule Deer blends with the 
two succeeding subspecies. It is moderately common on the 
eastern slope oi the northern part of the Sierra Nevada. It pre- 
fers the foothills of mountain ranges and broken ground in plains,, 
but is also found in' mountains. The gait of the Mule Deer is 
less graceful than that of the Virginia Deer. The run is a series 
of high bounds, rapid but too tiresome to be sustained long. 

The Mule Deer is easily distinguished from the Black-tailed 
Deer and Virginia Deer and its western forms by the much 
smaller tail, which is naked part way down on the under side and 
has the terminal third black and the remainder white. The white 
hairs wear away easily and frequently the middle of the tail is 
very slender. The metatarsal gland is the longest found on any 
North American deer. The bare strip is easily seen by parting 
the hairs over it, these hairs being longer than those of the 
remainder of that side of the leg. 

The antlers are different from those of the white-tailed 
group of deer in one respect ; those of the latter species have an 
•indeterminate number of tines, aged bucks having numerous 
tines, though these are on'ly in a general way an index of his 


age; while the antlers of the Mule Deer seldom have more than 
ten points, including the brow tines. Eight to twelve inches 
from the base each antler forks, and about six inches further 
each branch usually forks again in middle aged bucks. This 
is the normal adult form of antlers of the Black-tailed Deer and 
all the subspecies of the Mule Deer. Now and then a buck adds 
a tine or two, but these are not common. The antlers of deer 
are not composed of horn but are bone, and it is a mistake to 
speak of antlers as "horns." They are grown underneath a skin, 
much as other bones are; not from their bases and inner surfaces 
as horns are. 

TJie Mule Deer, as well as our other species, eats a variety 
of plants, prefering a considerable proportion of twigs and foliage 
of shrubs and trees intermixed with grass and other plants, as 
well as seeds, fruits and such nuts as they can chew, such as 
acorns. In localities where they are not distrubed they feed 
more or less in the daytime, but where they are hunted they be- 
come principally nocturnal. 

Odocoileus hemionus eremicus Mearns. (Hennic, i. c, 
a dweller in the desert.) 


Similar to hemionus; larger; paler; in winter yellowish 
drab gray, darkest on the back, palest on the sides ; breast sooty 
•drab; sometimes the dark area from the rump extends a short 
distance down on the tail, but more often it is as indicated in the 
drawing, which was made from a recently killed buck, near Black 
Mountain on the Colorado Desert, December loth. This was a 
medium sized buck and measurements were as follows: total 
length 1680 mm. (66 inches); tail vertebras 190 (7.50); hind 
foot 491 (19.30); ear from crown 250 (9.80); girth of body 
behind fore leg 1050 (41.30). I estimated his weight pt 150 
pounds but others of the party thought he was heavier. A female 
killed a few days previously in the same locality measured, total 



length 1430 (56.30); tail vertebne 180 (7.10); hind foot 430 
(17) ; ear from crown 218 (8.60) ; girth 390 (35). 
Type locality, northwestern Sonora, Mexico. 

TaU of Burro Deer 

Burro Deer are seldom seen in the mountains, but are found 
along their base, and in comparatively level land, even in the 
mesquit timber of the Colorado Valley, where they feed on wil- 
low^ twigs along the sloughs. I saw also where these Deer had 
eaten the wild gourds ("mock oranges"). They are not found 
many miles from w^ater, as in warm w^eather they visit ponds or 
streams nightly to drink, and in cooler weather every second 
or third night. They are found in small parties, sometimes 
singly, a dozen being a large band as far as my observations go. 
The antlers are commonly very regularly double-forked. 

Odocoileus hemionus calif omicus Caton. 


Similar to Jicmiomis; considerably smaller; color more 
tawny; tail rather longer proportionally and usually with a dis- 
tinct browmish or blackish stripe on the upper side from the rump 
to the black terminal switch, which often has a light brown or 


whitish Stripe underneath. The following measurements were 
taken from an average pair. This buck weighed about eighty 
pounds. He was shot December 23rd. and had recently dropped 
his antlers, the scar not being fully healed. The Indian who 
shot him told me that another buck of the same band was still 
carrying his antlers. Length of male 1410 mm. (55.50 inches) ; 
tail vertebrcX 172 (6.77) ; hind foot 440 (17.30) ; ear from crown 
230 (9) ; height at shoulder 890 (35) ; at hip 1005 (40). Length 
of female 1340 (52.70); tail vertebrae 156 (6.15); hind foot 
398 (15.67); ear from crown 312 (8.38). 

Type locality Gaviota Pass. Santa Barbara County. Cali- 

The range of the California ]vlule Deer appears to be limited 
to .'^out lern California and northwestern Lower California. 
Probably intergradation occurs with true hcmionus in the sr;:th- 
ern Sierra Nevada. Tlieir range touches that of the Burro Deer 
along the edge of the Colorado and Cocopah Deserts, where the 
great difference in size of the two subspecies becomes very ap- 
parent. They are found in the mountains and foothills and to 
some extent in the brushy valleys. They frequent pine and oak 
timber and the chemisal of the hillsides. Their antlers are less 
regular in form than those of the Burro Deer. The new antlers 
begin their growth sometimes as early as the middle of May. in 
other cases as late as the end of June. In about two months the 
growth is finished and soon after the buck begins to strip off the 
skin ("velvet") by rubbing the antlers against trees and bushes. 
The antlers are worn until the rutting season is over, and are 
dropped from November to January, the time depending on the 
age of the buck, locality and other circumstances. If a buck is 
castrated, accidentally or intentionally, the growth of the next 
set of antlers is more or less imperfect, the skin is retained an.J 
the antlers do not drop off as usual, but become permanent. The 
next season abnormal points are grown, mostly about the bases of 
the antlers and in the course of years the antlers become a mass 
of points, mostly small and still covered with harsh skin. In 


cold climates such antlers freeze and the points are often broken 
off. I have seen a set of these abnormal antlers from a Cali- 
fornia Mule Deer killed in Riverside County, in which none ol 
the points appeared to have been broken off, but none were of 
greater leng-th than the ears. 

The fawns appear to be dropped principally in July. Twins 
are frequent. The hearing . keen. The sight is comparatively 
poor. The scent is delicate and acute and is depended on nearly 
as much as the hearing for warning. 

Odocoileus columbianus Richardson. (Of the Colum- 
bia River.) 


Size similar to that of the White-tailed Deer and scarcely 
larger than the California Mule Deer; antlers similar to those 
of the Mule Deer ; tail longer than that of the Mule Deer and 
considerably broader, covered with hair underneath, the under 
side white, the upper side brown on the basal half, and dull black 
on the remainder; naked strip of metatarsal gland (on outside 
of hind leg), two or three inches long; ear smaller than that of 
the Mule Deer ; body and legs short. Winter pelage; above gray, 
more or less tawny, darker on the upper side of the neck ; a dark 
streak on the under side of the neck, becoming black oni the 
breast, shading to^ brown on the belly ; between the thighs is a 
white area extending to the tail. Summer pelage; above yellow- 
ish red or dull reddish brown. 

Type locality, the lower Columbia River. 

The "Black-tailed Fallow" Deer" as they called it was first 
described by Lewis and Clark in the report on their memorable 
Expedition. The range of the Black-tailed Deer is from the 
northern Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains to the Pacific 
Ocean, north to British Columbia. 

Townsend says that the Black-tailed Deer in northern Cali- 
fornia migrate, leaving the foothills in spring and going high in 


the mountains in summei , even to timber line on Mount Shasta; 
returning^ in autumn. Belcling noticed a similar migration oi 
Deer in the central Sierra Nevada. 

To'wnsend says that the new growth of antlers begins early 
in April and is completed in July. The antlers drop in January. 
The rutting season is about November, and the fawns are drop- 
ped in May and June. Twins are the rule. The fawns are 
bright bay spotted more or less regularly with white. In that part 
of California north of San Francisco and west of the Sierra 
Nevada only Black-tailed Deer occur. 

Odocoileus columbianus scaphiotus Mkrriam. (Boat — 


Similar to cohimbiamis but ears larger and much broader ; 
colors paler; teeth larger and heavier. 

Length of type specimen (a male) 1465 mm. (58 inches) ; 
tail vertebrce 135 (5.30) ; hind foot 452 ( 17.75) ; ear 178 (7) ; 
breadth of ear 106 (4.15). 

Type locality, Laguna Ranch, Gavilan Mountains, San Benito 
County, California. 

The range of this subspecies is the coast region south of 
San Francisco Bay so far as is known at present. The southern 
limit is not known. 



Family Antilocapridae. (American Antelopes.) 
Horns decickions, hollow, recurved, with a flattened prong- in 
front ; horn cores bony, not branched, flattened ; orbit close be- 
neath l)ase of horn; no lachrymal pit; no tarsal or metatarsal 
glands ; second and fifth toes absent ; interdigital glands present ; 
cutaneous glands present under each ear, on the rump, on each 
hip, and behind each hock; gall bladder present; mamnicne four; 
hairs long, hollow, coarse and brittle: pelage not differing with 
age, sex or season to any material extent. 

This is one of the smallest families of mammals, consisting 
O'f but one genus with a single species, though this will probably 
bear subspecific division. The distribution is North American. 
Gramnivorous, digitigrade, terrestrial and principally diurnal. 

Dental formula, I, o — 4; C, o — o; P, 3 — 3 ; M, 3 — 3X2=32. 

Genus Antilocapra Ord. (Antelope — Goat.) 
Body short; ears of moderate length; eyes .very large; 
hairs on top of neck long, forming a mane. 

Antilocapra americana Ord. 


Horns fully developed in male only, those of the female 
rudimentary, not much longer than the surrounding hairs; nar- 
row transverse band between the eyes, top and sides of muzzle and 
a patch beneath each ear (wanting in the female) brownish or 
blackish ; edges of upper lip, chin, sides of face, spot behind the 
ear, a narrow crescent on the upper part of the neck, a triangular 
patch below this, a large square patch on the rump including the 
tail, befly and lower half of the sides white; remainder of upper 
parts and legs russet yellow or yellowish brown; hoofs, and horns 
except tips, black. 

Length of male about 1500 mm. (59 inches) ; tail vertebrae 
125 (5) ; height at shoulders 840 (33) ; at hips 940 (37). 

Prong-horn Antelopes formerly ranged over most of the 


untimbered parts of the United States west of the Mississippi 
River, northern Mexico and the southern part of British America. 
Prior to the discovery of gold in California they were abundant 
in the San Joaquin-Sacramento Valley and other parts of the 
State. In 1877 I saw a band of about two dozen where Perris. 
Riverside County now stands, and the next year I saw one within 
the limits of what is now the city of Riverside. At this writing 
they are almost exterminated in this State. There are a very 
few in Modoc, Lassen and Mono Counties, and a small band or 
two in the deserts in the southeastern part of the State. All 
told there may be two or three hundred left and this number 
is steadily diminishing. 

Prong-horned Antelopes are found in open treeless regions, 
very seldom among trees, never in dense forests. They often 
frequent broken and hilly ground. Their food is mostly grasses, 
seldom twigs or leaves of bushes and trees, in this respect being' 
unlike the deer family. Their run is very rapid, probably faster 
than that of any deer and thev can continue this rapid run 
longer than the deer. They are able to jump across wide ditches, 
making very long horizontal leaps, but are unable, or do not know 
how, to leap over obstacles three or four feet high. 

The rutting season is September and the }-oung are dropped 
in May. Twins are frequent. Prong-horns are easily tamed 
but are dijfficult to keep in good health. Their power of scent is 
acute, but their sight and hearing is only moderately good. They 
are shy and timid, but are inquisitive, their curiosity being taken 
advantage of by hunters to entice them within gunshot range. 
Their flesh is not vei7 palatable when freshly killed but becomes 
better with a day or two's keeping. It is less nutritious than 
venison. Prong-horns are more gregarious than deer at most 
seasons. They are called Cabree by the French Canadians. 


Fnmily BovidSB. (Cattle, Sheep, Antelopes and Goats.) 
Horns usually present, permanent, hollow and placed on a 
bony core ; canines absent ; second and fifth toes present in some 
genera, absent in others ; gall bladder usually present. 

There are thirty or thirty-five genera of Bovid'se and about 
one hundred and fifty species. Bovidse are digitigrade. gregar- 
ious and principally diurnal. They are principally Old World in 
distribution. Several species are domesticated and have been 
introduced in all civilized countries. Their food is vegetable, 
mostly herbs and their seeds. As is the habit with most Ungulata, 
the food is gathered in with the tongue; pressed tiy the lower in- 
cisors against the pad-like end oi the upper jaw and torn 
loose with a pull. It is then swallowed with but little chewing ; 
and later remasticated. The Bovidse form a large source of 
food supply for the human race, and a considerable part of their 
clothinp- also. 

Genus Ovis Linne:us. (Sheep.) 
Horns present in the males, usually large, curved backwaid 
spirally; females usually with small horns; a small lachrymal pit 
usually present; interdigital glands in all the feet. 

Dental formula, I, 0—4; C, o — o; P, 3 — 3; M, 3 — 3X2^32. 
The domestic sheep has been introduced into nearly all parts 
of the world by man. Its origin is unknown. It is unlike any 
of the now known wild sheep, none of which have such heavy 
coats of w"ool. There are eighteen species of wild sheep now 
known, the greater number being Asiatic. 

Ovis canadensis Shaw. (Of Canada.) 


General color grayish brown; nose and chin lighter; belly 
and a large patch on the rump and about the tail white, tail and 
a narrow stripe on the rump like the back, horns of male massive. 

Type locality. Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. 


Rocky Mountains to Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains 
and intervening- ranges. In California Rocky Mountain Big- 
horns were formerly found in parts of the Sierra Nevada and 
on Mount Shasta, but they are apparently now exterminated in 
those mountains. It is possible that these animals w^ere not 
canadoisis, but were nclsoni or some unnamed form. Material 
is lacking now to determine this point, with little probability of 
more being obtained. Two or three very small bands still exist 
in certain mountains of southwestern California that are prob 
ably intermediate between the above species and nelsoni. Poach- 
ers are destroying them and their destruction is probable in a 
few years. 

Ovis nelsoni Merriam. (For E. W. Nelson.) 


General color above varying with season and locality from 
pale ashy gray or pale dingy brown to dirty white ; rump patch 
and back part of hams white; belly white; breast sometimes 
brownish white but often slate gray; fore part of legs brownish 
gray; tail and a narrow stripe on the rump drab gray and often 
a drab gray stripe from the neck over the withers. 

Length of male about 1525 mm. (60 inches) ; tail verte- 
brae 125 (5); hind foot 400 (15.75); ear from crow^n 130 
(5.15); length of horn around curve 700 tO' 900 {2y to 35). 
Length of female about 1400 (55); tail vertebrae no (4.33); 
hind foot 375 ( 14.75) • ear from crown 130 (5.15) ; horn around 
curve 280 (11). 

Type locality, Grapevine Mountains near Death Valley, Cali- 

The range of the Nelson Bighorn appears to be southern 
Nevada, southeastern California, the northeastern border of 
Lower California and probably western Arizona. An adult male 
Nelson Bighorn in good condition will weigh tw^o hundred and 
fifty pounds and a female one hundred and fifty. They prefer hilly 


or mountainous regions, preferably arid with occasional springs 
or waterholes. I have seen tracks in small valleys but they do 
not often come down on level g"round. If not disturbed they do 
not frequent exceptionally rough mountains, but when hunted 
much they get into the roughest places they can find. 

Their food is principally "browse", i. e., leaves and twigs of 
shrubs. In some of the desert mountains a very coarse perennial 
grass known by the Mexican name of "galletta" grows, which 
they ent. The contents of a stomach of a Bighorn which I killed 
in the Providence Mountains in June consisted principally of 
leaves, twigs and flowers of Rhanmus, Ephedra and Rhus, with 
some unripe fruits of the Rhus, and a little grass. Bunch grass 
was green and plentiful at the time there but evidently the Big- 
horn preferred the coarser food. The Indians tell me that the 
Bighorns eat the larger species of cacti when water is scarce. 

Bighorns vary in their drinking habits with locality and 
season. In the desert mountains in summer they drink daily 
if practicable, coming to water most often about the middle of 
the afternoon, but sometimes in the forenoon. In cool weather 
thev drink less frequently, and even in summer those running in 
cool mountains do not drink often. A small band running in 
the Providence Mountains at 5,000 to 7,000 feet altitude in 1902 
did not appear to go to water more than two or tliree times a 
month. The spring was down in the hot foothills and inconven- 
ient, while on the crest of the mountains the weather was cool 
and feed abundant and green. 

Bighorns seem to be crepuscular and diurnal in habit, but 
if disturbed often they feed some in the night. They appear to 
lie down in the forenoon, sometimes soon after sunrise. In warm 
localities the beds are pawed out in the shade of shrubs or rocks, 
but in cool mountains they are made in open places commanding 
a clear view around them. 

The voice is said to be similar to that of the domestic sheep, 
but coarser. It is probably used but little. A Bighorn ewe lamb, 
three or four weeks old, that I had alive a few days, bleated much 


like a domestic lamb, but coarser and net as loud, nor as fre- 
quently. I had hopes of raising- this lamb but did not succeed in 
getting- into the settlements in time to save her. She was very 
gentle and soon accepted our company in lieu of her own kind. 
If we all went out of sight of where she was tied she soon got 
uneasy and bleated, but when we came back she settled down 

Bighorns are exceedingly sure footed animals and quite 
active. They do not seem to run fast, and I doubt if they could 
run far at their most rapid gait. The soft, rubber-like soles of 
their hoofs do not slip on smooth rocks. In jumping upward they 
can surpass any deer, and they will go rapidly down a cliff where 
it would seem impossible for anything not provided with wings 
to pass. The old stories of Bighorns jumping over cliffs and 
alighting on their horns are untrue. In jumping downward they 
alight on their feet, and the ewes are as active and sure footed 
as the rams. The horns of old rams are more or less bruised 
and worn away at the points by striking against rocks in feed- 
ing and in passing along cliff sides. 

My impression is that Bighorns are more easily killed than 
deer. i. e.. a wound that a deer would probably recover from would 
probably prove fatal to a Bighorn. I consider the mutton of 
Bighorns equal to the best venison in flavor, but the few Big- 
horns whose flesh I have had the opportunity to taste were all 
in good condition. 

The lambing season is principally March. I have never 
seen twins and do not know of any record of more than one 
lamb at a time. The principal natural enemies of Bighorns are 
pumas and coyotes. Indians kill many, but the white hunters 
are responsible for the extermination of Bighorns over much of 
their former range. They seem to be able to hold their ground 
better in the comparatively open hills of the deserts than in 
the high timbered mountains. 


Genus Oreamnos Rafinesque. (Mountain — lamb.) 
Horns, present in both sexes and nearly of the same size, 
black, slightly curved backward; spinous processes of interscap- 
ular vertebras very long- and rigid ; hair very long, under fur 
short, wooly ; a beard-like tuft under the chin. 

Oreamnos montanus ( )rd. ( Of the mountains.) 


Hoofs, horns and edges of the nostrils black ; pelage every- 
where dirty white; smaller in size than the Bighorn; horns 150 
to 200 mm. long (6 to 8 inches). 

Type locality. Cascade Mountains near the Columbia River. 

Higher peaks of the Cascade Mountains. Said to have been 
found in the northern Sierra Nevada but not now known to 
occur there. Newberry says, in speaking of Sheep Rock, Mount 
Shasta : "It is said that the Rocky Mountain Goat is also to be 
found there, but of that I have very great doubt." Captain 
Charles Bendire recorded it from Inyo County in 1868. It is 
practically certain that the species is now not living in this 

This animal has the habits and somewhat the form of a 
goat; nevertheless it is an antelope and a near relative of the 
Swiss Chamois. A better name for the animal would have 
been American Chamois. They frequent the higher parts of 
rough mountains, and are said by some authors to be very watch- 
ful and difficult to hunt, while others say it is stupid and easily 
shot when the hunter succeeds in climbing to the rugged peaks 
which they frequent. In winter they descend to more moderate 
elevations to obtain food. The young are dropped in June. 


Order Glires. (The Rcxlents or Gnawers.) 
Incisors two in lower jaw^ usually two but occasionally four 
in upper, larg-e, with chisel-shaped points, fitted for gnawing; no 
canines, but a considerable gap in their usual place; premolars 
present in some families, absent in others; molars tisually three in 
each side of each jaw, adapted for grinding-; condyles of lower 
jaw not received in special sockets, but permitting more or less 
longitudinal grinding- movement of the jaw; cerebrum small, 
but little convoluted; clavicles present but sometimes rudiment- 
ary; digits generally five, furnished with nails or claws; food 
chiefly vegetable; modes of life greatly diversified. 

Rodents form the largest order of mammals, coniaming- near- 
ly or quite one thousand living species. It is also the most widelv 
distributed terrestrial order. South America seems to be the 
center of distribution. 

Suborder Simplicidentata. 

But one pair of upper incisors; enamel coating incisors con- 
fined to their front surfaces; incisive foramina distnici and or 
moderate size. 

The general structure of the various genera of this sul3- 
order are so similar that the characters available for distinguish- 
ing them are comparatively trivial and of slighr structural im- 

Family Sciuridae. (Squirrels.) 
Skull varying with genera in length relative to breadth ; post- 
orbital processes present, Aarious in form; first premolar small, 
often deciduous; molars rooted, tubercular; palate broad; clavicles 
developed; fibula free; tail without scales, well haired, various in 
length of vertebrc-e and hairs; ears varying in length from quite 
long to rudimentary. 

The Squirrels are a large and important family of rather 
small sized mammals. They are distributed over nearly all parts 


of the world except Australia, and are well represented in Cali- 
fornia. Tlie larger species are hunted for their flesh. Man)- 
species are destructive of crops. 

The food is principally the seeds, fruits, tubers, roots leaves 
or stems of many kinds of plants, shrubs, and trees. Many 
species eat more or less insects and a few eat flesh occasionally. 
Most species are strictly diurnal, but the Flying Squirrels are 
principally nocturnal. Some species are arboreal, some are ter- 
restrial and many are fossorial. 

The sexes are alike. The young differ Ixit little from adults. 
In many species there are considerable seasonal changes of pelage, 
and a number of species are dichromatic, but dichromatism does 
not appear to occur in any Californian species. There are us- 
ually four pairs of mamm^, occasionally five. The number of 
young in a litter varies greatly, rarely as few as one or two, fre- 
quently six or eight, rarely ten. 

Genus Marmota Frisch. (Marmot.) 
Skull very short, broad posteriorly, narrow and flattened 
between the orbits ; anteorbital foramen rather large, oval or pear 
shaped ; postorbital processes long ; penutimate premolar com- 
paratively large; small internal cheek pouches; ears rather short; 
tail rather broad, about one third as long as head and body ; inner 
toe on front foot rudimentary, with a flat nail ; habit fossorial : 
mammae ten ; pelage coarse ; size very large for the family. 

Dental formula I, i — i ; C, o — o; P, 2 — i ; M, 3—3X2=22. 

Marmota flaviventer Aud. and Bach. (Yellow — belly.) 


Above grizzled brown, the hairs being whitish at tip, with 
a broad pale chestnut zone and pale drab base; forehead, chin 
and lips dull white; nose sepia; top of head dark sepia; sides of 
neck buff; fore legs, hind feet and under surface of body vary- 
ing from yellowish brown or wood brown to burnt umber; tail 
russet or cinnamon rufous on both surfaces. 


Length about 485 mm. (19 inches); tail vertebr?e 150 
(6) ; hind foot 70 (2.75). 

Type locaHty, Mountains between Texas and CaHfornia. 

Yeillow-belHed Marmots inhabit the hig-her parts o'f the 
Sierra Nevada and the mountainous parts of northern CaHfor- 
nia, the same or a closely related species being- foundl in the 
mountain ranges north and east to the Rocky Mountains. They 
live in crevices of rocks near valleys and meadows in the higher 
mountains, and rarely burrow in level land. I have seen no evi- 
dence of their presence lower than 5,000 feet altitude. Their 
upper limit is unknown, but probably they go nearly to timber 
line in favorable localities. 

The food is necessarily limited to those things of a vegetable 
nature that are available. In spring when but little bare ground 
was visible I found freshly cut juniper twigs about the entrance 
to their burrows. In summer a variety of succulent plants are to be 
had and then the Marmots take on fat rapidly. With the advent of 
freezing weather the Yellow-bellied Marmots probably hiber- 
nate, as the eastern species is well known to do. 

Their hearing and sight are good. Their note is a single 
loud, clear whistle. Their breeding season is' early, as I shot 
a suckling female in May above 7,000 feet altitude, where snow 
dpfts were still deep. 

Very few^ of these animals live near cultivated fields and 
hence they are practically harmless to man's interests. Marmots 
are often eaten, but to my taste their flesh is too rank to be agree- 
able. They are often called Wood-chuck and also Ground-hog. 

Genus Citellus Ok^n. 

Skull varying in comparative width ; postorbital processes 
usually well developed ; penultimate premolar present, usually one- 
quarter to one-third as large as the last premolar ; cheek pouches 
rather large ; ears varying with species from large to rudiment- 
ary ; tail varying in length and breadth; inner toe on front foot 
rudimentarv ; habit fossorial. 

SCIURID.y. 65 

Subgenus Otospermophilus. (Ear — spermophile. ) 
Ears large; tail nearly as long- as head and body, full 
haired; pelage mottled; audita! bullae rather small, with large and 
well rimmed external orifices; skull comparatively long and nar- 

Citellus beecheyi Richardson. (For Captain F. W. 
Beechey. ) 


Size large; tail long- and comparatively bushy; ears large; 
back and sides thickly sprinkled with indistinct small whitish or 
pale brown spots on a sepia or drab ground, each spot bordered 
behind with dusky, the spots with a tendency to coalesce in irregu- 
lar bars; a whitish patch on the sides of tlie neck, commencing 
behind the ears and prolonged across the shoulders in a stripe 
ending on the upper part of the side, these neck patches usually 
distinct and separated from each other by a pointed extension of 
the color of the back ; top of head bistre grizzled with whitish ; 
eyelids grayish buff or white; feet, sides of head and sometimes 
the face brownish gray; inner (concave) surface of ears and 
back border of outer surface yellowish gray, remainder of ears 
black; below brownish white or grayish; tail grizzled brown, the 
hairs having two or three dull black rings and the remainder, in- 
cluding base and tip yellowish white, the under surface of tad 
grayer than the upper side. Young; paler; white neck patches 
distinct; spots on sides and back dim. 

Length about 415 mm. (16.33 inches) ; tad vertebrcT 170 
(6.70) ; hind foot 55 (2.15) ; ear from crown 20 (.80). 

Type locality, California, probably Monterey, possibly San 

California Ground Squirrels are abundant in nearly all parts 
of central and southern California, frequenting open valleys, brush 
and rocky hillsides alike ; any sort of place that will supply abund- 
ant food wdll answer, but the borders of open ground where they 
can retreat to the cover of brush or rocks is preferred. They are 


found from sea level to the pine belt, to 8,000 feet altitude in 
southern California. 

The food is principally of a veg-etable nature, preferably grain 
and other seeds, fruit, potatoes, green plants, etc. Eggs of 
poultry and wild birds are relished. Some insects, such as 
grasshoppers are eaten, which is one of the too few things that 
can be put to their credit. On the label accompanying one of my 
Ground-Squirrel skins is the note "cocoons in the cheek pouches." 
Flesh is sometimes eaten. These Ground-Squirrels are serious 
pests to the farmer, and, in isolated places, to the fruit grower. 
They can climb well enough to get into peach and other fruit 
trees, and they make serious waste in small orchards in some 
places, as I know from personal experience. One often sees a 
strip several yards wide around a field stripped of the grain, and 
patches cut through the fields where they have established bur- 

There are various methods of destroying Ground-Squirrels, 
their effectiveness depending much on local conditions. In large 
areas of grain land poison is probably the most effective for a 
beginning. In some places men make a business of poisoning 
the Ground Squirrels, taking contracts by the acre or for the 
ranch. Each man Jias some favorite method or formula for 
preparing the poison that he has been successful with. It will us- 
ually pay best to give the expert the job if one can be employed. 
The mistake is usually made of letting the work stop after the 
expert has filled his contract. If the area is large, so that when 
once cleared of Ground-Squirrels there is a good chance to keep it 
clear, every effort should be made to completely exterminate the 
pests. After the most thorough poisoning a few animals will 
be left, enough to re-stock the fields in a year or two, and if these 
are destroyed by one method or another before the next breeding 
season it will be comparatively easy to keep the borders clear in 
the future. Poisoned grain for destroying Ground-Squirrels is 
sold in all the towns, and unless large quantities are used it is 
as well to buy it ready prepared. Put a teaspoonful of the grain 


in each squirrel hole; In a few days repeat the dose in all holes 
that appear to be still used. Some Ground-Squirrels get cautious 
Mid do not eat enough to kill them. These may perhaps be dis- 
posed of by the use of bisulphide of carbon, which is fairly ef- 
fective, and nearly as cheap as poisoned grain. The crude bisul- 
phide is best as well as cheapest for this purpose. Its vapor 
is heavier than air and flows down the burrow, replacing air, and 
killing by suffocation. About a tablespoonful should be put on 
a bunch of rags or dry balls of horse manure and placed in each 
entrance to the burrow. It is best to close the mouth of the 
burrow. Coal oil fumes are successful if the burrow is not too 
large; use the coal oil in the same manner as the bisulphide of 
carbon. It is the cheapest of all methods but not always success- 
ful as the fumes are not as strong. 

Filling the burrows with the smoke of straw and sulphur 
by using some of the patent smokers does well if the work is 
done thoroughly, but it is rather slow work on a large scale. 
Strychnine may be put on bits of apples, potatoes, etc., melon rind 
being particularly useful. Trapping with No. o steel traps is 
effective in a small place. The trap may be placed in the mouth 
of the burrow and lightly covered with dust or left bare. Grain 
or fresh meat may be used as bait, but if the trap is well located 
in the mouth of the burrow bait is scarcely necessary. Stake the 
traps well. Shooting may be the best method in some places. 
Often it is necessary to use one of these methods after another to 
get rid of the last squirrel, which may be exceptionally located,, 
or unusually shrewd, but perserverance will conquer in the end 
unless ones place joins land that cannot be cleared. 

The common note of the California Ground-Squirrel is a 
single loud whistle, short, repeated at intervals. When cornered 
in a rockpile or similar place they utter an angry chirring sound. 
Their sight and hearing are good. They do not hibernate, but 
in cold weather they remain in their burrows several days at a 
time, but a warm spell soon brings them out. The number of 
young at a birth is five to ten; they are born from the middle of 
April to the first or middle of June, according to locality. 


Citellus beechey douglassi Richardson. (For David 
Doug-lass. ) 


Pattern of coloration as in bcccheyi; liglit spots white; 
gray tips of hairs of tail whiter ; a wedge shaped black area on the 
shoulders and neck between the light neck patches; black stripe 
on ears indistinct, sometimes lacking ; occipital rest of skull heav- 
ier. In examples from Mendocino and Lake Counties the hoary 
patches on the sides of the neck are nearly as dark as the sides. 
'These western animals have smaller feet than those from the 
northeastern part of the State. 

Length about 445 mm. (17.50 inches) ; tail vertebr?e 195 
(7.66); hind foot 57 (2.25). 

Type locality, Columbia River, eastern Oregon. 

Douglass Ground-Squirrels are more or less common in the 
valleys in the northern part of the State, though not as abund- 
ant as the southern form often becomes. Tliey are found in 
many parts of O'regon and in Washington. In the northern 
parts of the Sacramento Valley the Ground-Squirrels are in- 
termediate between the Douglass and Californian subspecies. 
The habits of these races are similar. 

Citellus beechey fisheri Merriam. (For Dr. A. K. 


>Similar to beccJieyi but everywhere paler ; sides of neck and 
■s"houlder stripes clear silvery white, in strong contrast with the 
color of the body ; sides of body thickly beset with indistinct whit- 
ish spots, narrowly bordered with dusky posteriorly ; black ear 
stripe not sharply defined ; eyelids and lower jDart of face whitish, 
under parts and feet bufify. 

Size of heccheyi. 

Type locality, 25 miles above Kernville, California. 

Fisher Ground-Squirrels occur in the southern part of the 


Sierra Nevada and eastward to the Panamint Mountains, but are 
common in few places. The}- prefer rocky liillsides bordering 
valleys. They are a desert race of the Californian Ground- 
Squirrel, with otherwise similar habits. 

In the Providence Mountains, in the eastern part of the 
Mohave Desert, are a few Ground-Squirrels that I suppose are 
some form of CitcIIus gramimtrus, but I have no examples and 
cannot place them jjositively. As near as I remember the ap- 
pearance of tliose that I sent the National Museum the whitish 
neck patches were indistinct and confluent and the hmd parts were 
tinged with reddish brown. They are about the size, general 
appearance and habits of the California Ground-Squirrel. 

Subgenus Xerospermophilus. (Dry — spermophile.) 
Ears rudimentary ; tail various in length and shape, usually 
narrow and one-fourth to one-half as long as head and body ; 
pelage usually plain, sometimes striped; skull wide and strong; 
size small. 

Citellus tereticaudus Baird. (Round-tail.) 


IV inter pelage; above pale brownish cream buff; below 
creamy white; hairs comparatively long and soft. Summer pel- 
age; above from nose to tail pinkish drab; below, sharply out- 
lined along the sides, white; hairs short and coarse. Young; 
similar to winter adult. 

Length about 240 mm. (9.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 95 
(3.75); hind foot 35 (1.40); ear a mere rim. 

Type locality, old Fort Yuma, California. 

Round-tailed Ground-Squirrels inhabit southeastern California. 

southern Arizona, northwestern Sonora and northeastern Lower 

California. In California they are most common in the lower 

Colorado Vallev and in a few places in the Colorado Desert, 


though not really common anywhere. Some occur in the Mojave 
Desert. They avoid the rocky hills, preferring the level land. 

The food is seeds the greater part of the year ; these are 
stored to some extent. In the spring, during the few weeks when 
green vegetation is obtainable, leaves and buds are eaten vorac- 
iously, the usually slender squirrel distending its stomach until 
it can hardly crawl away. 

The voice is a peculiar low hissing whistle, sounding more 
like the note of some bird. This note is uttered at intervals 
by the Squirrel when concealed in the mouth of its burrow, and 
is Hkely to puzzle one to account for it when first heard. 

The breeding season is March and April. The number 
of young in a litter is four to seven. I have seen several Round- 
tailed Scjuirrels in low mesquit trees, where they were apparently 
feeding on the leaves, but they seemed awkw^ard and slow climb- 
ers. They are commonly shy and difficult to shoot. 

Citellus beldingi Merria^i. (For Lyman Belding.) 


A broad indeterminate band of chestnut or umber from nose 
to tail , more or less interrupted on the neck, varying in intensity 
from dark chestnut to dull raw umber; sides brownish or yel- 
lowish drab; below pale dull brownish or yellowish g'ray; tail 
small and slender, its upper surface similar to the back, low-er 
surface cinnamon rufous or hazel edged with grayish and tipped 
with black. Young; dorsal stripe pale brown. 

Length about 260 mm. (10.25 inches); tail vertebrae 70 
(2.75) ; hind foot 42 (1.65) ; ear from crown 8 (.30). 

Type locality, Donner, California. 

Belding Ground-Squirrels are common in the valleys of 
the Sierra Nevada from the northwestern part of Inyo County 
north to the Oregon line. In the western part of their range they 
do not seem to pass much below 5,000 feet altitude. They 
reach to 9,000 feet in places. In a few localities in Lassen and 


Modoc Counties they do some harm, more particularly by reduc- 
ing the pasturage where they are abundant. 

The food is principally grass and annual plants, but on one 
occasion I caught a Belding Ground-Squirrel in a meat baited 
trap, and it is probable that they eat grasshoppers and other 
insects as well as seeds. They are not edible as their flesh is 
very rank. The alarm is half a dozen loud, clear, sharp whistles 
rapidly uttered. They often sit up very erect, with the fore- 
feet held close to the breast. This habit has given them the 
name of "Picket-pin", from the resemblance to a stake driven 
in the grass. They are also known locally as "Prairie-dog" and 

The young are born late, as might be expected from the 
altitude of the region which they inhabit, from the latter part 
of May to July. This species hibernates regularly, going into 
winter quarters in September. 

Citellus mollis Stephens! Merriam. (Soft; for F. 
Stephens. ) 


Pelage comparatively long and soft ; head, neck and should- 
ers grayish buff; back grizzled buffy drab; tail above like the 
back, the tip and under side grayish buff; below soiled buffy 

Length about 212 mm. (8.33 inches) ; tail vertebrae 50 
(2) ; hind foot 33 (1.30) ; ear from, crown 3 (.12). 

Type locality. Queen Station, north end of Owen Valley, 

The Stephens Ground-Squirrels were rather common in the 
valleys of eastern Mono County, California, and the adjoin- 
ing part of Nevada, from 5,000 to 7,000 feet altitude. They 
were feeding on the sage brush and were excessively fat. Their 
habits appeared to be similar to those of the Mohave Ground- 


Citellus mohavensis Mkrkiam. (Of the Mohave Desert.) 


Abc)\e uniform g-rizzled brownish drab or pinkish drab; 
upper side of tail siiuilar to the [)ack with more black intermixed; 
below dull buff}' white. 

I^enyth about 230 mm. (9 inches) ; tail vertebra; 70 
(2.75) ; hind foot 37 (1.45) ; ear rudimentary. 

Type locality, Mohave River above Victorville, California. 

The Mohave Ground-Squirrel ma}^ be distinguished from 
the Stepheus Ground-Squirrel by its sliorter and coarser pelage, 
longer and broader tail, darker head, and larger average size. 
In color it is usually darker than the Round-tailed Ground-Squir- 
rel and the tail is shorter and broader, that of the latter being 
rat-like. The habits of all three species are similar. The Mo- 
have Ground-Squirrel seems to be confined to the western and 
central part of the Mohave Desert. They do not appear to be 
verv common. 

Siibgeniis Callospermophilus. ( Beautiful — spemiophile. ) 
Ears rather large; tail about half as long as head and body, 
flat ; pelage striped ; nasals extending back further than premaxil- 
laries; crown rather flat. 

Citellus chrysodeirus Merrtam. (Gilded.) 


Pelage long and rather coarse, heavily striped; tail of med- 
ium breadth. Summer pelage; top of head chestnut; eyelids 
buffy ; sides of head, neck and shoulders ochraceous or cinna- 
mon ; throat and legs dull ochraceous buff; broad dorsal band 
grizzled grayish brown, sometimes tinged with rufous, this band 
usually distinguishable to the crown and spreading over the 
rump and hips ; two black stripes on eacli side, inclosing a bufify 
white stripe of about equal width wdiich is usually tracable to 

SCIURID.?^: 73 

ears and tail ; sides and lower parts pale grayish ochraceous, 
the hairs of the helly dnsky at base, this shade showing through ; 
tail dusky above, edged with ochraceous, cinnamon beneath. 
ir inter pelage; head and neck gray, more or less tinged with 
ochraceous. Yoiiiig; similar to summer pelage; hairs long and 

Lengtli about 260 mm. (10.25 inches); tail vertebrae 93. 
(3.65) ; hind foot 40 (1.60) ; ear from crown 15 (.60). 

Type locality. Fort Klamath, Oregon. 

Gilded Ground-Squirrels are common in the Sierra Nevada 
and other mountains northward, in the pine timber, but are not 
often seen below 4,000 feet altitude. On the eastern slope they 
sometimes occur out of the pine timber. They prefer open for- 
ests with occasional rockpiles and old logs for places of refuge,, 
under which tliey burrow. They feed on many kinds of seeds,, 
on succulent plants, on mushrooms, and on the bulbs of such 
plants as have bulbs near the surface. I caught a number in 
traps baited with meat, and they probably eat various kinds of 

Five or six young are born between the middle of May and 
the first of July. As with others of this genus the mammcT are 
ten in number. They have the habit of standing erect. They 
are said to hibernate, which is no doubt true. I found them out 
in the high Sierras up to the middle of September, but they 
then appeared nearly ready to go into winter quarters. 

Citellus chrysodeirus bernardinus Nklson. (Of the 
San Bernardino Mountains.) 


Very sifnilar to cJirysodeinis; "tail and hind foot shorter; 
duller mantle over head and shoulders." 

Type locality, San Bernardino Peak, California. 

Rather common about Bear Valley, San Bernardino Moun- 
tains and occasional in other parts of that range. I have not 


leen this species in any other range in southern California, though 
both the San Jacinto and San Gabriel Mountain ranges are well 
adapted to their wants. Bernardiniis differs very little from true 

Citellus chrysodeirus trinitatus ^Ierriam. (Of the 
Trinity Mountains.) 


In fall pelage similar to chrysodeirus ; larger; ground color 
darker; inside of tail dark chestnut; skull and teeth larger; nasals 

Length about 280 mm. (11 inches); tail vertebrae 100 
(4) ; hind foot 43 (1.70). 

Type locality. Trinity Mountains, California. 

"Common in the Siskiyou, Salmon and Trinity Mountains 
of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon." I have 
not seen this subspecies. It is supposed to lack the golden mantle 
of the head and shoulders. 

Subgenus Ammospermophilus. (Sand — spermophile.) 
Ears small; tail about half as long as head and body; pelage 
striped; nasals small and short; rostral part of face small: 
crown well arched; skull narrow and light; size small. 

Citellus leucunis Merriam. (White — tail.) 


Above smoke gray or drab grizzled wath white; a narrow 
w^hite stripe from shoulder to hip. below which is a broad stripe 
on the side similar in color to the back, but often tinged with 
cinnamon ; outer surface of legs vinaceous cinnamon or vinaceous 
buff; eyelids, inner surface of legs and lower parts wdiite; tail 
short, broad, flat, white underneath, mixed black and white 


alxDve, the hairs being blad< at root, then white, then black and 
tipped with widte; tail often tinged with salmon above at base. 

Length about 210 mm. {^.2=^ inches); tail vertebr.T 66 
(2.60) ; hind foot 37 (1.45) ; ear from crown 6 (.25). 

Type locality, San Gorgonio Pass, below Banning, Califor- 

Antelope Ground-Squirrels are more or less common in the 
hills Ixirdering tlie Colorado and Mohave Deserts and in rocky 
places in these Deserts and north to Lassen County. In a very 
few^ places they occur a short distance down on the Pacific slope. 
They are not often seen out on open plains, preferring rocky 

The food is principally seeds as is usual with Grounil-S(|uir- 
rels. TJie cheek ponches together will hold more than a heaping 
teaspoonful of seeds. The note is a loud, prolonged, tremulous 
whistle. The breeding season is early, March and April. Five 
to eight is the usual number of young'. In running these 
Ground-Scjuirrels carry their tails curled over their backs, the 
underside of the tail appearing like a white rump, hence their 
common name. 

Citellus nelsoni Merriam. (For E. W. Nelson.) 


v'^imilar to Icitcunis but larger and paler; above dull yellow- 
ish brown or huffy clay color, dark beneath the surface: white 
lateral stripe tinged with ochraceous ; outer surface of legs and 
upper side of tail near base, buffy clay color; remainder of upper 
side of tail black and white, the white border broad ; lower part 
huffy white. In winter the l)ack is nearly as dark as Iciicurus. 

Length about 223 mm. (8.65 inches) ; tail vertebrcT 70 
(2.75) ; hind foot 40 (1.60). 

Type locality, Tipton, San Joaquin County. California. 

The Nelson Ground-Squirrel is found in the southern part 
of the San Joaquin Valley, where it is common in a few places. 


Tiulging from my limited experience with this species they occur 
in open g-roiind principally. I saw none in rocky places. Those 
I saw were very shy. 

Genus Eutamias Troukssart. (Good or typical; a 

Skull light and thin, moderately arched in upper outline; 
postorbital processes small and slender ; penultimate premolar 
present but small, rarely functional; anteorbital foramen small, 
oval, with a prominent tubercle at its lower edge; internal cheek 
pouches large; ears rather large; tail about as long" as body w'ith- 
out the head ; inner toe on front foot rudimentary ; pelage striped, 
rather long ; mammae eight ; habit terrestrial and fossorial ; size 

Dental formula. I, i — i ; C, o — o; P. 2 — i ; M, 3 — 3X2=22. 

The species of this genus are very much alike, and even 
experts are sometimes in doubt what species a given specimen 
should be assigned to when material for comparison is not avail- 
able. The skulls show no differences of sufficient value to be of 
much use in separating species, and there is considerable in- 
dividual variation in externals. More or less marked seasonal 
variations in pelage help complicate the situation. The group 
is very "plastic," being usually susceptible to modification from 
climatic causes, in the directions of size and color; hence differ- 
ences in climatic through differences of altitude, isolation on 
mountain ranges separated from other mountains by climatic 
barriers, etc., have brought about a separation of the genus into 
a number of closely related forms. From the nature of these 
causes the lines of separation are often indistinct. 

The following characters are common to all Calif ornian 
species in fresh pelage, in old worn pelage some points will be 
lacking : 

Five dark stripes on the back from the neck or shoulders 
to the rump, enclosing four light stripes in decided contrast; 

SCIURIl).^^ 77 

three dark and two light stripes on each side of the face, some of 
these indistinct in some forms ; top of head from nose to ears 
gray or brown; ear striped, the front edge usually reddish, the 
front half of the outer (convex) surface black or blackish, the 
back half g'ray or white, usually in strong contrast; a gray or 
white spot behind each ear, varying in distinctness; lower sur- 
face of body lig-ht colored, white, gray or buffy ; sides gray, more 
or less tinged with buff or rust color, this tinge strongest in sum- 
mer pelage; feet grayish or brownish; hairs of upper surface of 
tail and its edg"es banded in contrasting colors, each hair being 
blackish at base, then buffy or rusty, then black, then with a 
longer or shorter tip of buff, gray or white; hairs of under sur- 
face of tail dusky at base, the remainder yellowish or reddish, 
producing a distinct light stripe the length of the tail, except 
tip which is black. 

The summer moult takes place at the end of the breeding- 
season, earlier with males. The summer pelage is brighter than 
that of winter and lasts about three months. In the spring the 
colored tips to the hairs on tlie back may be so worn that the 
stripes are indistinct or entirely worn off. 

Eutamias alpinus Me:rriam. (Alpine.) 


Very small and very pale in winter pelage; dark face stripes 
narrow, pale rusty brown ; top of head gray ; ear markings pale ; 
spot behind the ear dull white, diffused; outer pair of light stripes 
broad, white, inner pair pale gray or grayish white, middle back 
stripe rusty brown the others fulvous, more rust colored in sum- 
mer and the outer pair shading into the fulvous of the sides, 
which, are grayer in spring; tail rather long-, broad, ochraceous 
buff below, very narrowly bordered with black and broadly edged 
with buff, above blackish shaded with yellowish or hoary, black 
toward the tip, particularly below. 

Length about 185 mm. (7.30 inches); tail vertebrse 79 
(3.10); hind foot 29 (1.15). 


Type locality, Big Cottonwood Meadows, southeast of 
Mount Whitney, Cal. 

Alpine Chipmunks are found high in the southern Sierras, 
living in the crevices of the rocks about timber line, going occas- 
ionally nearly to the summits of the highest peaks. They do 
not occur much below ten thousand feet altitude. I found them 
shy and hard to get, as when shot they were likely to fall in deep 
inaccessible crevices among the rocks. 

Eutamias amoenus Allkn. (Pleasant.) 


Small; facial stripes distinct; spot behind the ear grayish 
white, not in strong contrast with surrounding darker pelage; 
outer light stripes narrow, grayish w^hite; inner light stripes pale 
brownish gray; dark stripes of body, blackish, more or less edged 
or tinged with reddish ; tail narrow, blackish, the hairs tipped with 
buffy white, the concealed band pale yellowish much lighter than 
the tawny olive or ochraceous bufif stripe on the under side; sides 
russet, more grayish in winter pelage, and shading to the buf¥y 
white belly. 

Length about 198 mm. (7.80 inches) ; tail vertebrae 90 
(3.55) ; hind foot 31 (1.22) ; ear from crown 16 (.63). Weight 
about two and one-half ounces. 

Type locality. Fort Klamath, Oregon. 

Klamiath Chipmunks are common or abundant in the high 
mountains from Inyo County north to Idaho and Washington. 
Their range in the Sierra Nevada is from about 4,000 to 8,000 
feet altitude. They frequent the brushy places and the open 
timber adjoining, but are rarely seen in thick forest. Three to 
five young are born in May and June. 

Eutamias pictus Allen. (Painted.) 


Similar to amce^nns; tail narrower and concealed stripe on 
upper side O'f tail about the color of that on the under side; 


dark stripes on back l)lack or brownisli black sliglitlv edited witb 
chestnut and contrasting sharply with the light stripes ; sides pale 
buffy gray in winter, tawny ochraceous in summer; specimens 
from the middle and eastern parts of their range are probably 

Length about 195 mm. (7.70 inches) ; tail vertebrae 93 
(3.65) ; hind foot 30 ( 1.18). 

Type locality, Kelton, Utah. 

Desert Chipmunks are rather common in the sage brush 
plains of the Great Basin, having their western limit in the east- 
ern foothills of the Sierra Nevada, from the Owen Valley 
north to Oregon. Four to six young are born in May and June. 
I saw these Chipmunks occasionally in juniper trees and they 
frequently climb to the tops of the sagebrush. 

Eutamias panamintus ^^Ierriam. (Of the Panamint 


Small; dark facial stripes indistinct; ear markings obscure; 
dark back stripes fulvous brown and not reaching the rump which 
is clear gray; sides grav^ washed with buffy ochraceous in winter 
pelage, more rusty in summer; upper side of tail orange rufous 
thinly shaded with black and washed with yellowish. 

Lengtii about 208 mm. (8.20 inches) ; tail vertebrae 90 
(3.55); hind foot 31 (1.22). 

Type locality, Panamint Mountains, Cahfornia. 

Panamint Chipmunks inhabit the pinon and pine timber of 
the Panamint and other isolated desert ranges. They are com- 
mon in few places. 

Eutamias speciosus Allen. (Appearing well) 


Size medium; facial stripes very distinct, that one passing 
across the eye broad and black ; ears distinctly striped ; spots be- 


hind the ear large, white and distinct in summer, less distinct in 
winter ; in summer the dark stripes of the back are prout brown, 
more or less tinged with rusty, the outer pair shading into the 
burnt umber of the sides ; in winter all these stripes and the sides 
are grayer and duller, middle pair of light stripes brownish gray, 
the outer pair broad and white; lower parts white shading into 
the gray of the lower part of the sides ; tail rather short and 
narrow, russet or cinnamon rufous below, indistinctly bordered 
and broadly tipped with black, edged with yellow; tail above 
rusty black, the russet band showing through more or less. " In 
badly worn spring pelage the stripes on the back may be nearly 
or quite obliterated, leaving the back plain. 

Length 210 mm. (8.25 inches) ; tail vertebrae 95 (3.75) ; 
hind foot 33 (1.40); ear from crown 16 (.63). 

Type locality, San Bernardino Mountains, California. 

San Bernardino Chipmunks are common in the higher parts 
of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains. They are 
better climbers than most other species of this genus, frequently 
running up the smaller trees and sitting on a knot or limb and 
chipping at the passer-by. The breeding season is May and June. 
The number of young appears to be four and five. 

Eutamias speciosus callipeplus Merriam. (Beautiful — 

mantle. ) 


Similar to speciosus; dark dorsal stripes narrower; outer 
white stripe broader and white spot behind the ear larger; in 
summer pelage the sides are cinnamon rufous and the rump is 
tinged with rusty ; in winter the sides are gray with a rusty tinge 
and the back stripes are grayer. 

Type locality. Mount Pinos, Ventura County, California. 

Tliis subspecies appears to be limited to the small area of 
Mount Pinos at the extreme southern end of the San Joaquin 
Valley and to the upper part of the western slope of the southern 


Mt Pinos Chipmunk. One-third life size. 

Siei'i'a Nevada. I liave not seen examples from the western 
side of the southern Sierras, it would seem that these should be 
nearer frater as there is nO' break in this part of the range as 
there is to the southward. 

Eutamias speciosus inyoensis Merriam. 

Comity. ) 

(Of Inyo 


Similar to speciosus; larger ; facial stripes less distinct ; light 
spot behind the ear indistinct; back of neck gray; middle stripe of 
back mostly black; rump grizzled golden yellowish ; upper side of 
tail very fulvous; black tipof tail short. 

Type locality, White Mountains, Inyo County, California. 

The Inyo Chipmimks are found in the higher parts of the 
White and Inyo Mountains along the eastern border of Califor- 
nia. Thev are not common. 


Eutamias speciosus frater Allkx. (Brother.) 


Rather larger than speciosus; facial stripes not so promi- 
nent ; outer light stripes of back narrower, white tinged with buff ; 
(lark stripes rather broad, seal brown or dark chestnut ; belly gray- 
ish white; sides very red in summer pelage, between russet and 
cinnamon rufous, winter pelage grayer. 

Type locality, Donner, California. 

Sierra Nevada Chipmunks range through the Sierra Nevada, 
excepting perhaps the southwestern part, from 5,000 to 9,000 
feet altitude, coming lowest in the northern part of their range; 
where they occur in the yellow pines. They climb trees to some 
extent. They do not seem to be veiy sh}'. 

Eutamias quadrimaculatus Gray. (Four — spotted.) 


Size large; facial stripes very distinct; ears larger than 
any other Californian species of the genus ; front edge of convex 
side of the ear rusty brown shading into blackish sharply bordered 
behind with white, the contrast less sharp in summer; dark 
stripes of back seal brown edged or tinged with rusty; outer 
light pair of stripes white and distinct in summer, grayer in win- 
ter pelage; sides fulvous gray in spring and fall, rusty brown in 
summer; lower parts white; tail long, of medium breadth, the 
stripe underneath rich light chestnut ; tips of hairs of upper side 
of tail whitish. 

Length about 235 mm. (9.25 inches) ; tail vertebrse 108 
.(4.25); hind foot 35.5 (1.40); ear from crown 20 (.78). 
Weight three to three and a half ounces. 

Type locality, Michigan Bluff, Placer County, California. 

Long-eared Chipmunks are common in the yellow pine for- 
ests of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada from the Yosemite 
Valley north to Lassen County. I obtained a number of Chip- 
munks on the headwaters of the Carson River in Alpine County, 
that I suppose to be Long-eared. 


Tliese Chipmunks are found in thicker forests than most 
of the genus Hke. They cHmb trees but Httle. The young are 
born from the huter part of May until in July. 

Eutamias quadrimaculatus senex Ai.i.i>:n. (Old.) 


Similar to quadriiHch-ulatiis: ears considerably shorter and 
less pointed; facial stripes not as distinct; light spots behind 
the ear smaller and tinged with ashy; white markings grayer; 
size about the same. 

Type locality. Donner Pass, Placer County, California. 

Allen Chipmunks range from the higher peaks above the 
Yosemite Valley north along the Sierra Nevada and Cascad.e 
Mountains to central Oregon ami west on the Siskiyou Moun- 
tains. I obtained Chipmunks in the Warner Mountains which 
I refer to this subspecies. Allen Chipmunks seem to be the 
northern and high mountain form of qmidriniaciilatus. 

Eutamias hindsi Okay. 


Light face stripes grayish white in winter, tinged with 
ochraceous in summer; whitish ear stripe and spot behind the 
ear distinct, most so in summer; other dark stripes of back in- 
distinct, the three middle stripes black, edged with rusty in win- 
ter ; inner pair of light stripes wood brown or russet grizzled 
with gray in winter pelage, deeper brown in summer; outer pair 
of light stripes rather narrow, grayish white in winter pelage 
tinged with fuh'ous in summer; sides light burnt umber in 
summer, gray tinged with umber in winter; lower parts dull 
white in winter, washed with fulvous in summer; tail long, 
broad, the stripe underneath cinnamon rufous or Hght chestnut, 
rather narrowly bordered with black, edged with grayish white. 

Length about 250 mm. (9.85 inches); tail vertebra? 118 
(4.65); hind foot 36 (T.42). 


Type locality, near San Francisco. California. 
, The northern part of the range of the Hinds Chipmunk lies 
east of and joining that of the Redwood Chipmunk from eastern 
Humboldt County southward, and reaches the coast a little north 
of San Francisco. They prefer localities where mixed timber is 
interspersed with brush and patches of open grass land. The 
breeding season commences early, the latter part of March, 
the greater number being born in April. The young number 
from three to five. 

Eutamias hindsi pricei Allen. (For W. W. Price.) 


Winter pelage, similar to hindsi but tinged more with rusty 
and pelage more grizzled with white; apparently averaging 
larger. I have not seen the summer pelage. 

Type locality, Portola, San Mateo County. California. 

Price Chipmunks occur through the Santa Cruz Mountains 
and probably in the mountains of Monterey County also. 

Eutamias merriami Allen. (For Dr. C. Hart Merriam.) 


Most like hindsi but grayer. Light face stripes dull wliite, 
sometimes slightly tinged with ochraceous in summer; stripe on 
back part of ear gray, indistinct ; spot behind the ear grayish 
white in summer, ashy gray in winter; dark stripes of back in 
winter dull brownish black, the middle stripe darkest and the out- 
ermost pair almost obsolete; ground color of upper surface and 
sides hair brown grizzled with whitish, particularly on the in- 
nermost pair of light stripes ; sides tinged with raw umber ; outer 
pair of light stripes, dull grayish white; belly grayish white some- 
times tinged with buff; stripe on under side of tail cinnamon ruf- 
ous, rather broadly bordered with black and edged with yellowish 
white. In Slimmer pelage the sides are heavily tinged with russet or 


fulvous and the dark stripes of back more or less ting-ed with the 
same color; outer pair of light stripes whiter. 

Length about 250 mm. (9.85 inches) ; tail vertebr?e 120 
(4.70) ; hind foot 36 (1.42) ; ear from crown 16 (.63). 

Type locality, San Bernardino Mountains, California. 

The Merriam Chipmunk is common in the San Bernardino 
and San Jacinto Mountains, in the higher parts of the mountains 
of San Diego County and on the lower western slope of the 
southern Sierra Nevada. They do not extend very far below the 
belt of coniferous trees, and are usually found in brush, rareK 
climbing trees. Four or five young are born in the last half 
of May or in June. 

Eutamias townsendi ochrogenys Merriam. (For J. K. 
Townsend; pale yellow — chin.) 


Large and very dark colored. Light face stripes pale 
ochraceous, increasing in intensity as the season advances; back 
part of ear and light spot behind the ear bluish white, distinct; 
middle back stripe black, the next dark pair rusty black, outer 
pair narrow and indistinct; inner pair of light stripes sepia 
or bistre grizzled with white, outer pair pale olive gray; top of 
head and rump grizzled dark sepia ; sides bistre or wood brown ; 
lower parts ochraceous white; tail long and narrow, blackish 
above, the sfripe beneath chestnut broadly bordered with black 
and edged with grayish white. Summer pelage; strongly tinged 
with fulvous. 

Length about 260 mm. (10.25 inches); tail vertebrae 117 
( [.60) ; hind foot 37 ( 1.45) ; ear from crown 16 (.63). 

Type locality, Mendocino, California. 

Redwood Chipmunks are more or less common in the red- 
wood forests in a narrow belt a few miles wide along the coast 
of northern California from Sonoma County to Oregon. They 
frequent the thick forest, seldom coming out in the open places. 


'I'liey are fond of running- along fallen trees, but I saw noKie 
climb standing trees. The number of young is unusually small, 
two and three in a litter. These are born in the latter part of 
Alay and in June. 

Genus Sciurus Linneus. (Shade — tail.) 
Skull short, broad between the orbits; anteorbital foramen 
very small; postorbital processes long, slender, bent obliquely 
l/ackwrird and downward; penultimate premolar very small or 
absent; incisors narrow; inner toe on front foot very rudi- 
mentary; ears large, sometimes tufted; tail long and bushy; no 
internal cheek pouches ; mammae four to eight ; diurnal ; arboreal. 
Dental formula, I, i — i; C, o — o; 2 — i or i — i; M, 
3 — 3X2^22 or 20. 

Subgenus Hesperosciurus. 

Skull comparatively long, strongly arched in upper outline; 
posterior part of cranium depressed ; rostrum long and deep ; 
nasals long and narrow. 

Sciurus griseus Ord. (Gray.) 


Size large; general color of upper surface of head, body and 
tail mouse gray thickly grizzled with white; eye ring dull white; 
ears in winter pelage clothed on the convex surface with soft 
fur, dusky at tip, light brown at base, in summer scantily haired, 
never tufted ; no lateral stripe ; under surface from chin to tail 
white to roots of hairs, sharply defined against the ashen gray 
sides; tail very large, long, bushy, flat, the hairs often three 
inches long, slate gray mixed with whitish annulations. each 
hair with a long white tip: under surface of tail pale ashy gray 
centrally with blackish lateral bands and white border; ashy gray 
of shoulders and hips extending down on the outside of the 



legs and feet to the toes, becoming- paler gray on the feet. Ex- 
amples from northern California and the Sierra Nevada aiv. 
lighter colored than those from Oregon through greater extern 
of the white grizzle on the upper surface. 

Length about 560 mm. {22 inches) ; tail vertebr?e 2feu 
(11) ; hind foot 79 (3.10) ; ear from crown 30 (1.18). 

Type locality, near the Columbia River in Oregon or VVasii- 
ington. (From Lewis and Clark's description.) 

Columbia Gray-Squirrels occur in western VVasnmgion, 
western Oregon, northern California and through the Sierra 
Nevada. This seems to be the form along the coast north of 
San Francisco. I have taken examples in Mendocino and Plumas 
Counties and in the southern end of the Sierras that vary no more 
than individuals do in any of these places. They are all grayer 
than those from Otegon, but not greatly so. 

Sciurus griseus nigripes Bryant. (Black— foot.) 


Considerably darker than griseus, the white surface grizzl- 
ing being reduced in amount and the sub-color darker; tail 
darker; upper surface of feet much darker, slaty or black, the 
hind feet often black to the toes; back more or less suffused with 
umber brown. 

Black-footed Gray-Squirrels occur from San Francisco 
southward in the Santa Cruz Mountains. I have seen no ex- 
amples from the Mountains of Monterey County, but probably 
they would be nearest this subspecies. 

Sciurus griseus anthonyi Mf:ARNs. (For A. W. An- 
thony. ) 


Very similar to griseus; feet darker, intermediate in color 
between griseus and nigripes. In winter the whitish grizzling 
becomes more ochraceous on the back, resulting in an indefinite 
brown band. 


Length about 550 mm. (21.65 inches) ; tail vertebrae 207 
( 10.30) ; hind foot "j^ (3) ; ear from crown 30 (1.18J. 

Type locaHty, Laguna Mountain, San Diego County, Cah- 

Anthony Gray-Squirrels inhabit the higher mountains of 
southern California. They are rarely seen below the lower 
edge of the pine forests, about 4,000 feet altitude and prefer 
those localities where oaks are mixed through the conifers. They 
are not found much above the upper limits of the oaks, about 
8,500 feet altitude. 

The food is principally the seeds of coniferous trees and 
acorns, but other kinds of seeds are also eaten. The "bark" is 
a series of hoarse notes rapidly uttered, which can be heard a 
considerable distance. The hearing and sight are keen. 

The breeding- season is prolonged, the young being born 
from April to August. I do not believe that more than one 
litter is reared annually, as the young are born in a very im- 
mature condition, and remain in the nests a considerable time. 
When born they are blind and almost hairless. The number of 
young in a litter is one to four, two and three being the most 
frequent numbers. The breeding nests are large globular masses 
of twigs and leaves situated well up in trees. The ordinary 
dwellings are hollows of trees lined with leaves and strips of 

Anthony Gray-bquirreis do not hibernate, but m stormy 
weather they may remain in their nests several days at a time. 
In fine weather in winter they run about on the snow or bare 
ground, as the case may be, foraging for food. My impression 
is that they do not store up much food for winter use. , 

These Squirrels run about on the ground a great deal, or- 
dinarily preferring to travel on the ground rather than through 
the treetops. They seem to be subject to epidemics and ir- 
regular fluctuations in abundance. They do practically no harm 
to crops and are fair eating. 


Subgenus Tamiasciurus. 

Skull short, moderately arched ; posterior part of cranium 
Wide, not greatly depressed ; rostrum short ; nasals wide and very 

Sciurus douglassi albolimbatus Alli-n. (For David 
Douglass ; white — border. ) 


Summer pelage; above from crown to tail brownish gray 
tinged with tawny, the hairs being slightly tipped with this 
color; eye ring buff; ears large, more or less tufted with black 
hairs; a black stripe on the side varying in length and distinctness 
with season and individual; fore legs and feet and hind feet 
tawny olive; under side of head and neck white, tinged with 
buff; remainder of under parts buff or ochraceous buff varying 
in intensity of color, the hairs being of this color nearly or cjuite 
to the roots ; tail blackish mixed with ochraceous above and gray- 
ish below, the hairs tipped with white, most distinctly at the 
sides ; terminal fourth of tail mostly black. JVmter pelage; 
lower parts nearly pure white ; tawny tips of hairs of upper parts 
longer; black stripe on side obscure; ear tufts longer. 

Length about 330 mm. (13 inches); tail vertebrae 135 
(5.25); hind foot 52 (2); ear from crown 21 (.83). Weight 
ten ounces. 

Type locality, Blue Canon, Placer County, California. 

California Chickarees are common locally in the coniferous 
forests of the Sierra Nevada and other mountains of the north- 
eastern part of California, from 3,000 feet altitude up nearly to 
timber line, but are most common in mixed pine and fir forests. 
Not known to occur south of the Sierra Nevada. 

The food is quite varied but consists principally of the 
seeds of conifers, such as fir, big trees, sugar pine and yellow- 
pine, berries, nuts, acorns and chinquapins. Mushrooms and 
some insects are also eaten. I have caught these Chickarees in 
meat baited traps set for other animals. They often store seeds 


in shallow holes scratched in the ground. A portion of these 
seeds are not recovered and some germinate, so the Chickaree is 
quite an important agent in nature's system of tree planting. 
They usually bite off the stems of the large cones letting the 
cones fall to the ground, coming down to gnaw their seeds loose 
at the foot of the tree. 

Chickarees are very active, keeping mostly in the larger 
trees, often running up and down their trunks, apparently for 
sport. They are wan,-, yet inquisitive, and if one keeps quiet 
thev will soon come out on a knot to scold the intruder. The 
voice is varied, commonly a rapid chirring series of notes is 
heard, sometimes a sharp yelp, or again a bird-like note. Most 
of these sounds are emphasized by jerks and wags of the tail. 

Chickarees do not hibernate in California, though in stormy 
weather they remain several days at a time in their nests in hol- 
low trees, but in fine weather they run about on the snow as if 
thev enjoyed the cold weather, as they doubtless do. They do 
not like hot weather and are not found in the warm valleys or low 
mountains. , 

The breeding season is late, as the young are born in June, 
and July. The young are four or five in number. I have shot 
females in August that were then suckling young. The sum- 
mer moult takes place in June and the autumn moult in Septem- 

Sciunis douglassi moUipilosus Aud and Bach. (Soft — 
haired. ) 


Similar to alboUmbatus ; color above darker : below ochrace- 
ous buff or pale salmon shaded with dusky, the basal half of the 
hairs being dusky and showing through the tips. Averaging 

Type locality. Coast of northern California. 

The Redwood Chickaree is found principally in the redwood 
forests, more particularly where the firs are mixed among the 


redwoods, and in the oaks in the openings among the redwoods. 
I did not hear the chirring song that is made by most other sub- 
species, but heard the "bark," a monotonous "quoo" uttered at 
intervals of two or three seconds. When startled or disturbed 
this changed to a querulous "queeo." My impression from my 
brief acquaintance with the Redwood Chipmunk is that they are 
tame and unsuspicious. I saw them occasionally on the ground. 

Genu.s Sciuropterus Cuvier. ( Squirrel — wing. ) 
Upper outline of skull strongly arched; penultimate pre- 
molar present ; anteorbital foramen triangular, rather small ; skin 
of sides loose, extensible between the fore and hind legs to form 
parachute-like "wings'" and extended by a long slender bone ar- 
ticulated with the carpus and directed backward and outward; 
tail long, broad, very much flattened; no cheek pouches; eyes 
large ; ears of moderate size, thinly haired ; pelage soft ; size small ; 
habit crepuscular and nocturnal : eight mammae. 

Sciuropterus alpinus klamathensis Merriam. 


Above dark drab brown, sometimes tinged with pale dull ful- 
vous brown ; under parts pale yellowish buflf. the plumbeous un- 
der fur showing through : upper surface of tail like back, but 
somewhat darker, especially toward the end; under side of tail 
uniform deep buflf: nose and feet pale; cheeks pale yellowish gray. 

Length of type 329 mm. (13 inches); tail vertebrae 135 
(5.45) ; hind foot 38 (1.50). 

Type locality. Fort Klamath, Oregon. 

Southern Oregon and probably northeastern California. 

Dr. !Merriam saw a Flying Squirrel on Mount Shasta which 
he thought was of this subspecies. 

Sciuropterus alpinus calif ornicus Rhoads. 


Similiar to klamathensis: apparently paler and smaller. 


Length of type 286 mm. ( 11.25 inches) ; tail vertebrae 127 
(5.10); hind foot 38 (1.50). A female that I took in the 
type locality measured, length 245 (11.60); tail vertebrae 140 
(5.50) ; hind foot :i^y ( 1.45) ; ear from crown 20 (.78). Weight 
five ounces. 

Type locality, San Bernardino Mountains, California. 

Flying- Squirrels appear to be rare in southern California 
and are not known to occur below the coniferous forests. They 
are nocturnal in habit and may be more common than we sup- 

The food of Flying Squirrels consists of seeds, buds, beetles 
and flesh, occasionally at least ; whether or not they habitually 
kill small mammals and birds is not certainly known. They live 
in holes in trees and rarely come out until twilight. 

The flight of Flying Sc[uirrels is not true flying but is a 
sailing leap. They leap from the upper part of a tree with the 
side membranes extended and with the aid of these and the 
broad flat tail sail down and out, alighting against the lower part 
of another tree, running up, to again leap from the top. They 
can guide the flight to some degree, but cannot rise to the height 
from which they started. 

Sciuropterus oregonensis Stephens! Merriam. 


Above wood brown, the tips only of the hairs being of this 
color, the remainder slate gray, this color showing through the 
tips; upper part of head and neck a lighter brown; a narrow 
blackish eye ring; sides of head and cheeks pale brownish gray; 
feet drab gray; under surface of head, body and wings white 
tinged with pale brownish yellow, the slaty under fur showing 
through ; upper surface of tail mouse gray tinged with drab 
toward the base; under side of tail light smoke gray, darker at 
the edges. 

Length of type 277 mm. (10.90 inches) ; tail vertebrae 131 
(5.15) ;hind foot 37 (1.45) ; ear from crown 19 (.75). 


Type locality, Sherwoods, Mendocino County, California. 

I cang-ht the type of this subspecies in a thick redwood 
forest, in a steel trap baited with meat and set for mink at the 
roots of a large redwood tree a few inches from a brook. 

Family. Aplodontidae. Sfaveli^kls. 

Skull massive, flat, much constricted interorbitally, excess- 
ively widened posteriorly; brain case comparatively small; zygo- 
matic arches widened posteriorly; no postorbital processes; 
anteorbital foramen small, low, oval ; nasals short and broad ; 
audital bullae peculiar, tubular, being greatly lengthened later- 
ally; descending ramus of lower jaw very wide with a project- 
ing lateral angular flange; coronoid process high; molariform 
teeth simple, rortless, prismatic, penultimate upper premolar 
present but small ; five toes on each foot, the inner toe of front 
foot small but functional ; tibia and fibula separate though closely 
apposed; outlets of genito-urinal and digestive organs separate. 

This peculiar family contains but a single genus, consisting 
of half a dozen species and subspecies. It appears to^ be one of 
the most primitive types of mammals now existing, having no 
very close afiinities with any other living family. It is of lim- 
ited distribution, being found only in western North America 
from California to British Columbia, in the Sierra Nevada and 
Cascade Mountains and in parts of the lower region west to 
the Pacific coast. 

The food is twigs, stems and leaves of shrubs and plants, 
mostly perennial. They are plantigrade, nocturnal, semi-aquatic, 
fossorial, living in burrows in wet ground. The sexes are alike; 
the young are darker in color but are otherwise similar to the 
adults. There are five pairs of mammse, nearly equally distrib- 
uted from the armpit to the groin. 

Genus Aplodontia Richardson. (Simple-tooth.) 
Eyes small; ears projecting a short distance above the sur- 


rounding fnr ; no cheek pouches ; neck short and thick ; legs 
short ; claws of fore feet largest ; feet not webbtd ; soles naked ; 
tail haired and very short; form depressed, stout; pelage con- 
sisting of thick underfur mixed with long hairs. 

Dental formula, I. i — i ; C, o — o; P, 2—1 ; M. 3— 3'X2=22. 

Aplodontia major Me:rriam. (Greater.) 


Above from nose to hips, and on the sides grayish sepia 
brown grizzled with black, the pelage slate colored at base and 
the long intermixed hairs black tipped; hips, rump, tail and 
under parts smoke gray ; a small white anal spot ; whiskers 
mostly black. Voiuig; slate brown. 

Length about 355 mm. (14 inches); tail vertebrse 42 
(1.60) ; hind foot 62 (2.45) ; ear from crown 8 (.32). Weight 
three to four pounds. 

Tiype locality. Placer County, California. 

California Mountain Beavers occur in isolated localities in 
the Sierra Nevada and northward, and also- in the Siskiyou Moun- 
tains. I have taken them in Alpine County, on the eastern slope 
at the headwaters of Carson River. 

They live in wet springy land in canyons and on mountain 
sides where suitable springs occur, usually at considerable al- 
titudes. I obtained mine at 8,000 feet altitude. The burrows 
in most cases ran up and down the wet hillside, for drainage, 
and often had openings every few feet. Some of the burrows 
were fifty yards or more in length, and in a few cases spring 
brooks had broken into the upper entrance and ran in the burrows 
instead of in their natural channels. In one case a brook was 
cUverted from its own channel to that of one several yards away. 
Most of the entrances to the burrows were under clumps of wil- 
lows. Many of the burrows had more or less water running 
from their lower entrances, but rather the greater number were 


The jjlants that I saAv cut for food were an Iris, an Astragu- 
lus, willow and alder. To these Allen adds fir, manzaiiita and 
lilies ; and Price CeanotJms, Rhododendron and mountain cran- 
berry. Probably many other plants are also eaten. They can 
climb bushes, and Allen and I each saw brush and small trees 
trimmed off tliree or four feet from the ground. I saw bunches 
of plants laid up on low^ bushes to dry, commonly over entrances 
to burrows, most of these not being much dried, as if they car- 
ried them in as soon as they were well wilted. 

All the animals caught were alive when I reached them in 
the morning. None had made any attempt to gnaw off the 
leg, as true beaver would have done. Most of them were the 
length of the trap chain down their burrows. While pulling 
them out they made a whining sound. Some showed fight. 
They used their hind feet in grasping as readily as their fore 
feet and as well as a squirrel. It would appear that other ani- 
mals prey on the ]\Iountain Beaver as I caught a weasel and two 
skunks in traps set for Mountain Beaver. Hibernation is prol> 
ably imperfect. The fur is of no value. 

Aplodontia phsea Mkrriam. (Dusky.) 


Similar to major; smaller; above grizzled bistre. 

Length of type specimen 330 mm. (13 inches) ; tail verte- 
bra? 30 (1.201) ; hind foot 55 (2.15). 

Type locality, Point Reyes, Marin County, California. 
Limits of distribution unknown. The only other record that I 
have seen that may apply to this species is that of a specimen in 
the collection of the California Academy of Sciences from near 


Family Castoridae. Beavers. 

Skull massive, flat, not constricted interorbitally, nor exces- 
sively widened posteriorly; zygomatic arches widened posteriorly; 
no postorbital processes ; nasals short, broad, oval in outer out- 
line; audital bullae moderately lengthened laterally; descendin,^ 
ramus of lower jaw wide but of normal shape; molariform teeth 
single rooted, with the pulp persisting late in life; planes of up- 
per molars convergent anteriorly; outlets of genito-nrinal and 
digestive organs combined in one. 

Dental formula, I, i — i ; C, o — o; P, i — i ; M, 3 — 3X2=20. 

The Beavers are a very small family, containing but one 
living genus, consisting of but two species as now recognized. 
They are distributed over the colder parts of the northern hemis- 
phere. The food is strictly vegetable, consisting mostly of twigs 
and bark obtained by gnawing down trees and shrubs. Their 
fur is valuable and has been an important article of commerce. 

Beavers are plantigrade, nocturnal, semiaquatic and live in 
burrows or in "hoiuses" constructed of sticks and mud. The 
males are somewhat larger than the females but the sexes are 
otherwise alike and the voung differ but little from the adults. 

Genus Castor Linneus. (Beaver.) 
Form stout ; tail broad, flat, tongue shaped, covered with 
scales instead of with hairs; front feet small, not webbed, the 
inner toe developed but smaller than the others ; no cheek pouches ; 
pelage consisting of thick fine underfur interspersed with long 
coarse hairs. 

Castor canadensis frondator Mearns. (Twig-stripper.) 


Above russet; below grayish cinnamon; sides wood brown; 
feet burnt sienna color. 

Length of adult male about 1090 mm. (43 inches) ; tail 

CASTOR 11)^ 97 

vertebrae 355 (14); hind foot 185 (7.25); bare part O'f tail 
about 125 (4.90) wide, by 290 (11.40) long. Weight 40 to 60 
pounds; female smaller. 

Type locality, San Pedro River, near Monument 98 on the 
Arizona-Sonora, boundary line. 

Broad-tailed Beavers are found in the interior southwestern 
United States and northern Mexico from Sonora to Montana. 
Those found in eastern California along the Colorado River are 
of this subspecies. 

In February and March, 1903, I saw signs of Beavers along 
the banks of the Colorado River a few miles below old Fort 
Yuma, but failed tO' get any in the traps which I set for them. 
They were few^ in number, probably only a pair, and seemed to 
choose a new place to come out on the bank each night. I found 
very few trees cut, these being mostly small willow saplings. 
The principal "signs" w'ere at small, but dense, thickets of cane 
that grow here and there along the banks, and I saw some canes 
that had been cut. Beaver are known to live in suitable places 
all along the Colorado River, but they are trapped so persistently 
tliat they do not get a chance to^ become plentiful. 

Castor canadensis pacificus Rhoads. 


Underfur of upper surface of body and head seal brown; 
overhair glossy reddish chestnut, almost concealing the under- 
fur along the back ; underfur of belly drab gray at roots and over- 
hair broccoli brown ; fore legs and feet dark wood brown ; hind 
feet seal brown; ears black. 

Length of type specimen (a female) 1145 mm. (45 in- 
ches) ; tail vertebrse 330 (14) ; hind foot 185 (7.25) ; bare part 
of tail 122 (4.80) wide by 295 (11.60) long. 

Type locality, Lake Kichelos, Washington. 

Pacific slope from Alaska to central California east to -^nd 
including the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains. I saw 


old Beaver dams and aspens cut by Beavers a few miles east of 
Goose Lake, Modoc County, but all the Beavers had been caught 
a few years previously. Dr. Cooper says that Beavers were for- 
merly common in the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, and' I 
have reasons for believing that they are not exterminated theie 
yet, though rare. 

I can find no records of any "houses" having been seen in 
Crdifornia and I have seen none west of Colorado. In phccs 
>A here dry banks that Beavers can burrow in occur the Beavers 
do not build houses. In fact all houses that I ever saw ,vere 
pi -iced in ponds made by damming- streams so as to get sliH wa- 
ter to build in, and these localities were either too rocky to bur- 
rr..v in easily or suitable dry banks, were not available. Dams 
are nol often built in streams that do not freeze over, the princi- 
pal use cf the dam^ being to provide deep water to stjre logs and 
branches in for a food supply when the streams are frozen over 
and it is not practicable to cut wood and float it to where they 
wish to eat the bai-k and twigs. In most parts, o'^ Califorina the 
presence of Beavers is only made known by iP.c stumps of the 
trees and saplings that they have cut. 

The use of the tail as a trowel or barge is but another of 
those "fairy t.i'c?" that unfortunately creep into natural liisiory 
accuur.tb. The use of the tail in water is in (li\'in^' and Ic some 
extent as a ludcki'. When on land it is us-^d :is a prop when ihe 
animal wishes to sit up and gna\v the bark from a stick held in 
the fore paws, or to cut down a tree. Swimming is done with 
hind feet, the fore feet being mostly held folded back under the 
breast. When swdmming on the surface, if frightened or suspic- 
ious, it is not unusual for the Beaver to strike the surface of the 
water with the flat tail, making a sharp report, that heard near 
one on a still night is startling enough, as I know from exper- 
ience. Beavers have been credited with great intelligence, but the 
facts do not indicate an uncommon account of reasoning power; 
many other rodents are nearly or quite as cunning. 

MURID^ 99 

Family Muridae. Rats and Mice. 

Skull much contracted interorbitally ; anteorbital foramen 
large, wide in its upper part, narrow at bottom' ; zygomatic arch 
spreading, slender, the m,axillar part prolonged backward and the 
malar correspondingly diminished ; no premolars ; molars rooted 
or rootless, tuberculate or with angular enamel folds on grind- 
ing surface; no external cheek pouches; internal cheek pouches 
sometimes present; clavicles present; tibia and fibula united in 
their lower parts; inner toe of front foot rudimentary. 

This is a large family of nearly fifty genera and probably 
five hundred species divided among several subfamilies. The 
family is represented in all parts of the world, but each family 
preponderates in some particular zoo-geographical region. 

Few members of this family are utilized by mankind as 
food. Taken as a whole it may be classed as noxious through 
their destroying considerable amounts of cultivated or indigenous 
crops or their stored products. Rats and Mice are more or less 
omnivorous. Perhaps their largest item of food is seeds, but 
scarcely anything edible comes amiss to some or another of the 

Most of the species are nocturnal. The modes of life are 
varied ; some are semiaquatic ; a few are semiarboreal ; most 
species are terrestrial and again others are more or less sub- 
terranean. The sexes are practically alike; the young are usually 
darker than the adults; distinct seasonal changes are few. 

Dental formula, I, i — i ; C, o — o; P, o — o; M, 3 — 3X2=16. 

Subfamily Murinae. 

Skull long and narrow; rostrum long; nasals projecting be- 
yond premaxillaries; enlargement at root of lower incisor near 
base of condylar process greatest on the outer surface ; tip of 
angular process below the plane of the summits of lower molars; 
notch between tip of angular process of lower jaw and condyli 
shallow ; molars rooted, tuberculate, with tubercles in three series ; 
palate extending further back than molars. 


Genus Mus Linn. (Mouse.) 
Incisors narrow, not grooved in front ; tail long, nearly nak- 
ed, the short sparse hairs not hiding the rings of scales covering 
it ; ears rather large ; pelage usually harsh. 

Mus norvegicus Erxleben. (Of Norway.) 


Tail shorter than head and body; color above rusty brown 
thickly mixed with coarse black hairs; sides grayer; below 
ashy white; tail dusky, slightly paler below. 

Length about 400 mm. ( 15-75) inches) ; tail vertebrae 190 
(7.50); hind foot 42 (1.65). 

Brown Rats were originally from central Asia, whence they 
spread to Europe. They were incidentally introduced into Am- 
erica in 1775. They have been known on the Pacific coast more 
than fifty years, coming ashore from shipping and gradually 
spreading through the country, but are yet unknown in many 
parts of the State distant from large towns. They inhabit towns 
preferably and are seldom seen far from buildings, in and under 
which they find shelter. 

They are omnivorous and are great nuisances about barns, 
warehouses and dwellings. They are hardy, courageous and 
wary. They are more pugnacious than our native rats and soon 
drive the latter away from their neighborhood. They are some- 
times called Norway Rats and Wharf Rats. 

Mus rattus Linn. ( Rats . ) 


Tail about as long as head and body ; above sooty black ; be- 
low plumbeous; feet brown; averaging smaller than norvegicus. 

Introduced from Europe earlier than the Brown Rat, but 
overpowered by the latter and now rare. The habits of the 
two species are similar. 

MURID^ 101 

Mus musculus Linn. (Little Mouse.) 


Tail longer than head and body ; above yellowish brown 
thickly mixed with black hairs; below ashy brown; feet brown; 
tail dusky, sometimes lighter below. 

Length about i6o mm. (6.30 inches) ; tail vertebrae 82 
(3.25) ; hind foot 18 (.70). 

Introduced from Europe. Now found in most old settle- 
ments in the State. Principally frequent houses and other build- 
ings, from which they drive the less objectionable native mice. 

Subfamily Cricetinae. 

Skull short and moderately broad; rostrum rather short; 
nasals projecting beyond premaxillaries; enlargement at root 
of lower incisor near base of condylar process greatest on outer 
surface; tip of angular process of low^er jaw below plane of sum- 
mits of lower molars ; notch between tip of angular process and 
condyle shallow; molars rooted, tuberculate, the tubercles in two 
series; palate ending opposite end of molar row\ 

Genus Onychomys Baird. (Claw — mouse.) 
Upper incisors broad, causing a broadening of the rostrum 
at their roots; posterior molars above and below much smaller 
than the others ; nasals long, wedge shaped posteriorly ; coronoid 
process of lower jaw long, slender, curved backward; fore feet 
large with long claws; tail thick, blunt, short, about half as 
long as head and body. 

Onychomys torridus ramona Rhoads. (Torrid; for 


A broad indefinite dorsal band from nose to tail dark brown ; 
sometimes blackish; sides reddish bistre; below white, this color 


including the feet, sides of face nearly to the level of the eyes 
and nose; upper third of tail similar to the back, the remainder 
white, usually including- the tip; nasals long and pointed; a more 
or less distinct supraorbital bead. Immature ; mouse gray above. 
Lengih about 140 mm. (5.50 inches); tail vertebrae 53 
(2.10) ; hind foot 20 (.80) ; ear from crown 15 (.60). 
Type locality, San Bernardino Valley, California. 
San Bernardino Grasshopper Mice inhabit the valleys of 
southwestern California and northwestern Lower California. Tliey 
are more frequently found in sandy land in valleys, but are no- 
where common. I have taken them along the seashore and in 
the foothills, but not in the mountains. They are more car- 
nivorous than is usual with this family, the food consisting or 
insects, such as grasshoppers, beetles and larvae. They attack 
other mice and often devour parts of such mice as they find 
caught in the collectors' traps. They take grain bait, but meat 
bait is preferred. They have a musky odor. They decay more 
readily than common mice, probabl because of their carnivorous 
diet. The young are about four in number and are born in 
March, April, May and June. The mamma; are six in number, 
one pair pectoral and two pairs inguinal. 

Onychomys torridus perpallidus Mearns. ( Very pale. ) 


Pelage long and soft ; above vinaceous cinnamon, the hairs 
tipped with black, sometimes producing a dark dorsal band ; nose, 
face nearly to eyes, feet and belly white; basal three fourths of 
tail on the upper side mixed dusky and white; tip and underside 
of tail white. 

Length about 155 mm. (6 inches) ; tail vertebras 57 (2.25) ; 
hind foot 22 (.87) ; ear from crown 16 (.63). 

Type locality, Boundary Monument No. 204 (below Yuma, 

The Yuma Grasshopper Mice seem to be local in distribu- 

MUKID.E 108 

tion, and are common in a few places in Arizona, but rare on 
the California side of the Colorado River. Herbert Brown 
found them about Yuma in bottom lands thickly overg-rown with 
weeds and cockle burs. 

Onychomys torridus tularensis Mi^rrfam. (Of Tuhire.) 


Small; above pale drab gray barely tinged with buffy. 

Length about 143 mm. (5.65 inches); tail vertebra* 50 
(2) ; hind foot 21 (.83). 

T'ype locality, Bakersfield. California. 

Range, the Tulare Basin and vicinity; apparently not com- 

Onychomys torridus longicaudus iMkrriam. (Long — 



"Above cinnamon-fawn well mixed with black tipped hairs; 
ears small". 

Length 145 mm. (570 inches); tail vertebrae 55 (2.15); 
hind foot 20 (.78) ; ear from crown 10 (.40) ; in dry skin. 

Type locality, St. George, Utah. 

An Onychomys occuirs from Owen Valley and Death Valley 
eastward which I suppose to be longicaudus, but having no ex- 
amples I may be mistaken in the species. 

Genus Peromyscus Glogeir. (Pouch — little mouse.) 
Upper incirsors narrow; posterior molars somewhat smaller 
than the otliers ; coronoid process of lower jaw sma:ll and low; 
tail tapering, shorter than head and body in some species, longer 
in others; pelage not harsh nor bristly. 

Peromyscus texanus gambeli Baird. (For Dr. \Vm. 


Tail shorter than head and bodv. Above variable in color 


from light grayish wood brown to dark drab or hair brown, 
darkest along the back and top of the shoulders ; feet and lower 
parts from nose to tail white; tail distinctly bicolor, the upper 
third brown or dusky, the remainder white. Occasionally a red- 
dish or fawn colored individual is found ; these are usually 
old animals. You7ig; mouse gray, scarcely lighter on the sides; 
belly grayish or ashy. 

Length about i6o mm. (6.30 inches) ; tail vertebrae 74 
(2.90) ; hind foot 20 (.80) ; ear from, crown 17 (.67). 

Type locality, Monterey, California. 

The Gambel Mice are generally distributed from northern 
Lower California to Oregon, and from the western border of the 
Deserts west to the seacoast. They are found in the greatest 
variety of situations from the seacoast to timberline in tne high 
mountains. They are perhaps less fond of brushy localities than 
several other species of the genus and frequent rocky localities 
more than they do. 

The food consists of a great variety of seeds, leaves, twigs, 
bark, insects or flesh of any kind that may fall in their way. 
The young are born at all times of the year except in the coldest 
part of the winter ; they are four to eight in number. The nests 
are warm masses of grass, sometimes lined with hair or feathers, 
and are placed in crevices among rocks, hollows in trees, or in 
burrows in the ground. The young are nearly hairless when 
born and are blind, the eyes not opening for several days. 

This species frequents houses and other buildings in regions 
where the introduced house mouse has not become common. 
They are easily trapped in almost any kind of trap baited with 
grain, bread or fresh meat. 

Peromyscus texanus deserticolus Me:arns. (Desert in- 


Pale; above yellowish drab, the sides tinged with ochraceous; 

MURII)^: 105 

feet and K)vver parts white; tail bicolor, dusky or brownish alx)ve; 
remainder white. 

Length about i8o mm. (7.10) inches); tail vertebrae 82 
(3.25); hind foot 21 (.83); ear from crown 16 (.63). 

Type locality, Mojave Desert near Hesperia, California. 

lOesert Mice are common in the arid regions of northeast- 
ern Lower California, southeastern California, southern Ne- 
vada, southwestern Utah and western Arizona, in all places where 
they can find food. Like most mammals of this arid region they 
are independent of water, though probably using it when it is 
to be had. Like other mice the food is varied. 

The label of one of my skins from Salt Creek, Colorado 
Desert, taken March 29th, bears the notes "contained eight 
fcEtuses". I have other fatal notes in April (seven), June (five) 
and November (five). The habits of this subspecies do not dif- 
fer materially from those of others of the species. Examples 
from parts of the San Bernardino and other mountains are very 
similar to dcscrticolus and perhaps should l>e referred to that 

Peromy scus- texaniis dementis Mkakns. (Of San Cle- 
mente Island.) 


"Above drab anteriorly, strongly tinged with burnt umber 
posteriorly ; top of head drab gray ; ears black with faint hoary 
edging; feet and under surface white; tail sharply bicolored". 

"Length 177 mm. (7 inches); tail vertebrae ']'] (3); hind 
foot 21 (.83) ; ear 17 (.67)". 

Type locality, San Clemente Island, California. 

I have seen a few Peromyscus from each of the following 
Islands, Coronado, San Clemente, San Nicolas, and Santa Bar- 
bara. These agreed in size but differed slightly in shade of 
color, the Santa Barbara skins l>eing the darkest. 


Peromyscus oreas rubidus Osgood. (A mountain 
nymph; red.) 


"Upper parts brownish fawn with an evident median dorsal 
line; sides brownish fawn; ears lightly edged with whitish; under 
parts white; tail sharply bicolor." 

Length about 193 mm. (7.62 inches) ; tail vertebrae 96 
(3.80) ; hind foot 21.5 (.85). 

Type locality, Mendocino City, Mendocino County, Califor- 

"Coast region of northern California and southern Oregon, 
south at least to Cazadero, California." 

Peromyscus boylii Baird. (For Dr. C. C. Boyle.) 


Size medium; tail longer than the head and body; ears of 
moderate size; above varying from bistre mixed with blackish 
to mouse gray, the bistre specimens having the sides of head and 
sides of body strongly tinged with wood brown, the gray ones 
with very little reddisJi on the sides; tail bicolor, dusky above 
whitish below. Immature; slate gray above; pale ashy below. 

Length about 195 mm. (7-7o inches) ; tail vertebrae 105 
(4.15); hind foot 22 (.86) ; ear from^ crown 19 (.75). 

Type locality, Middle Fork of American River, El Dorado 
County, California. 

Boyle Mice are found in many parts of California, principally 
in the mountains, seldom occurring in the valleys. They are not 
often plentiful, and are occasionally found in houses and barns. 
They appear to be a brush loving species. 

Peromyscus truei Shufijldt. (For F. W. True of the 
National Museum.) 


Similar in colors to boylii and calif ornicus, but' averaging 

MURID.E 107 

browner; body stout; tail distinctly bicolor; ears and hind feet 

Length about 195 mm. (7.70 inches) ; tail vertebrae 105 
(4.15) ; hind foot 23 (.90) ; ear from crown 23 (.90). 

Type locality, Fort Wingate, New Mexico. 

Big-eared Mice, including the subspecies, are widely dis- 
tributed over the southwestern United States. In California they 
are found principally in the foothills and mountains of the coast 
region. They seem to be local in distribution and are probably 
most plentiful in the west central part of the State. Probably 
the Californiam form will ultimately be known as subspecies 
gilberti. I have nO' material from the type locality and cannot 
be sure therefore that such is the real status of the Californian 

I have most frequently found the Big-eared Mice in thickets 
of brush in open forest. The litters of young are small, usually 
but two or three in number. 

Subgenus Haplomylomys Osgood. (Simple — molar — 

mouse. ) 

Skull with cranium relatively large; first and second upper 

molars with but twO' reentrant angles on the outer side, the small 

secondary tubercles being absent; lower molars correspondingly 

simple; tail longer than head and body, thinly haired. 

Peromyscus calif ornicus Gambkl. (Of California.), 


Size very large; ears very large; tail long, short haired, 
distinctly bicolor in adults ; soles naked ; above yellowish brown 
thickly mixed with black, especially on the back and hips which 
are often nearly black; sides tinged with ochraceous passing to 
ochraceous buff on the lower part of the sides and there strongly 
contrasting with the grayish white lower parts; breast more or 
less tinged with ochraceous. often forming a spot; feet white; 


tail blackish above, dull white below, sometimes tipped with 
white. Young: plumbeous above, blackish at a later stage, with 
but little ochraceous tinge on the sides; below ashy or grayish 
white; tail scarcely lighter beneath. 

Length about 250 mm. (9-85 inches) ; tail vertebrae 140 
(5.50) ; hind foot 26 (1.03) ; ear from crown 23 (.90). 

Type locality. Monterey. California. 

The California Mouse is found in the chemisal and in un- 
derbrush in open forests, in the valleys, foothills and lower moun- 
tains of the coast region of California from some distance north 
of San Francisco south to about Santa Barbara where it blends 
into the next subspecies. It appears to reach the lower part of 
the Sierra Nevada in small numbers. 

For some time after its discovery naturalists supposed that 
ihi': species lived in the nests of the Brush Rats and were in some 
manner parasitic on them, but it is now known to occur in brush 
in general and to have habits similar to those of other wa?d 

Peromyscus calif or nicus insignis Rhoads. (Distin- 
guished by a mark. ) 


Very similar to calif ornicus; slightly smaller in avei-ige; 
lighter colored, back with less black, sides less ochraceous. 

Length about 233 mm. (9.85 inches) ; tail vertebrcT 130 
(5.10) ; hind foot 25 (i) ; ear from crown 22 (.86). 

l*ype locality, Dulzura, San Diego County, California. 

The Chemisal ]Mouse occurs in northwestern Lower Calif- 
ornia and in southern California from the sea coast to the lower 
edge of the pines. They do not frequent open valleys, but are 
more or less common in the cliemisal and in the brush among 
the oaks. They frequently inhabit knotholes and hollows in 
leaning trees, being fair climbers. They are fond of running on 
logs. I do not find them more common about Brush Rat nests 

MURID.E 109 

than elsewhere. They appear to breed at all times of year. The 
litters are small, oftenest consistinsr of three xx^ungf. 

Peromyscus eremicus Baird. ^ Hermit.^ 


Pale colored : tail long-, ver)- slender, scant haired ; soles 
naked; ears largfe: above broccoli bro\\m, grayer on the head, 
mixed with black hairs on the back : sides ocliraceous bufif. strong- 
est on the lower part of the sides ; belly white, distinctly outlined 
against the buff sides ; feet white ; tail dusky above, pale gray be- 
low, but not distinctly bicolored. Young: darker, with little 
or no buff on the sides. 

Length about 195 mm. (7.70 inches); tail venebr:^ 107 
(4.20): hind foot Ji (.83): ear from crown 17 i.67). 

Type locality, old Fort Yuma, California. 

Hermit Mice are generally distributed through the eastern 
parts of the Colorado and Mojave Deserts, the valleys and deserts 
of western Arizona, southern Utah, southern Nevada. Sonora 
and northeastern Lower California. They are perhaps most com- 
mon in rock}- ground in the hills and barren mountains of this 
r^on, occurring up to 4.000 feet altitude: but they are also 
occasionally common miles out on the plains in the rare patcJies 
of grass and weeds and in the vegetation about springs or tlie 
sinks of the infrequent springs. Their food is mostly seeds, but 
beetles and other insects are also eaten. The young number three 
or four in a litter. 

Peromyscus eremicus Stephens! Mearns i^For F. 



\"er\- similar to cronicus: averaging smaller with proportion- 
ally longer tail ; paler : belly white. 

T\-pe locality, canyon below Mountain Spring near the Mexi- 
can boundarv. San Diesfo Countv. California. 


Rather common in the foothills along the western border of 
the Colorado Desert. 

Peromyscus eremicus herroni Rhoads. (For R. B. 
Herron. ) 


Similar to eremicus; darker ; sides less buffy, the color of 
the back shading' further down the sides ; belly grayish white. 

Type locality, south side of San Bernardino Valley, Califor- 

Herron Mice are intermediate between the Hermit Mice and 
Dulzura Mice in color and in habitat. They live in the drier 
warm interior valleys, and their borders in the southern part of 
California, from northern San Diego County northward. They 
are common in few places. 

Peromyscus eremicus fraterculus Miller. (Little 


Darker than eremicus or lierroni; above dark grayish wood 
brown or yellowish bistre rather thickly intermixed with black, 
shading on the sides to brownish ochraceous buff; belly cream 
buff in typical specimens but often pale grayish buff or grayish 
white; a buff pectoral spot is frequently present. 

Type locality, Dulzura, San Diego County, California. 

Rather common in brush along the coast and mesas and 
western slopes of the coast mountains from northwestern Lower 
California northwest to Ventura County, California. The north- 
ernmost specimens intergrade with Herron Mice and the eastern 
ones with Palm Desert Mice. 

Genus Sigmodon Say and Ord. (Sigma — tooth.) 
Upper incisors broad; rostrum broad and short ; zygomatic 
arches very wide posteriorly ; border of orbits beaded ; coronoid 
process of lower jaw of moderate size; a process of the maxillary 

MURID^ 111 

projecting in front of the anteorbital foramen nearly cutting it in 
two; tail slender, scaly, thinly haired, shorter than head and 
body ; pelage long, coarse, hispid ; form stout. 

Sigmodon hispidus eremicus Mkarns. ( Bristly ; hermit) 


Above grayish buff coarsely grizzled with black, paler on 
the sides; below dull white, the plumbeous bases of the hairs 
showing through the white tips; feet grayish white; tail blackish 
above, grayish below. 

Length about 280 mm. (11 inches); tail vertebrre 130 
(5.10) ; hind foot 34 (1.35) ; ear from crown 17 (.67). 

Type locality, northwestern Sonora, Mexico, 30 miles south 
of boundary monument 204, near the Colorado River. 

Western Cotton Rats are found in the bottom, lands of the 
Colorado River from its mouth north to near Ehrenberg, Arizona 
or further. But little is known about their abundance, but they are 
probably common in places, and are likely to prove troublesome 
as settlements increase and food and cover become more plenti- 
ful. They seem to like thick cover such as cane patches and thick 
weeds, and are likely to invade grain and alfalfa fields. 

They are prolific, as I caught females opposite Ehrenberg 
in August containing six foetuses each. None of the females 
that I caught near Yuma in March contained any. Their habits 
seem to be similar td those of meadow mice in some respects. I 
found sorghum stalks cut in coarse pieces six to ten inches long. 

Genus Reithrodontomys GigIvIOLi. (Channel — tooth — 
mouse. ) 
Upper incisors deeply grooved in front, appearing collec- 
tively as if there were four instead of two; lower incisors small,^ 
normal ; front upper molar with four roots, one being very small ; 
coronoid process of lower jaw small, oblique; angular process in- 
flected at lower edo-e; anteorbital foramen wide and rounded 


above, contracted to a slit below; tail usually longer than head 
and body, slender, moderately haired. 

Reithrodontomys longicaudus Baird. (Long — tail.) 


Adult; above reddish bistre thickly mixed with black hairs, 
these usually forming a broad blackish dorsal band ; sides with 
fewer black hairs and more or less tinged with cinnamon ; below 
grayish white, sometimes tinged with buff; tail indistinctly bi- 
color, dusky above, whitish below. Ininiaturc: mouse gray above, 
pale plumbeous below. 

(I consider pallidus Rhoads not separable from longicaudus. 
If pallidus is recognized as a subspecies at least two more sub- 
species must be named, but I dO' not think these slight local 
differences sufficiently tangible to the worth recognizing). 

Length about 143 mm. (5.63 inches) ; tail vertebrcT 76 (3) ; 
hind foot 17 (-67); ear from crown 13 (.51). 

Type locality, Petaluma, California. 

Long-tailed Harvest Mice are found from Lake and Tehama 
Counties south into northern Lower California; and from the 
seacoast east into the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. They are found in grassy localities. The thicker and 
older the grass the more abundant the Mice are likely tO' be. In a 
few localities they are quite common, but they may be wanting 
over large areas. They do not appear to go high in the moun- 
tains, seldom as high as 4,000 feet altitude. 

The food seerns to be entirely vegetable, mostly the seeds, 
leaves and stems of various plants. The mammse are six in num- 
ber, two pairs inguineal and one pair pectoral. The young are 
two to four and are born at all times of the year, probably two 
or three litters annually. 

MUKID^ 113 

Reithrodontomys megalotis deserti Allen. (Large 
ear; of the desert.) 


Similar to longicaiidus ; grayer, with fewer black haiirs 
mixed through the pelage of the back ; ears broader and averaging 

Length about 140 mm. (5.50 inches); tail vertebrae 73 
(2.87) ; hind foot 17 (.67). 

Type locality, Oasis Valley, southwestern Nevada. 

Desert Harvest Mice occur in patches of grass and weeds 
around springs and the infrequent small streams of southern Ne- 
vada and the adjoining part of California, west to the foot of 
the Sierra Nevada, and south to northeastern Lower California. 
Their habits are similar to those of the Long-tailed Harvest 
Mice, but they reach a somewhat higher altitude. 

Reithrodontomys klamathensis Merriam. (Of Klam- 
ath Valley.) 


"Upper parts pale grayish brown, washed with buffy on 
sides; under parts white; tail bicolor, dusky above, whitish be- 
low ; ears and hind feet large." 

Length 144 mm. (5.70 inches) ; tail vertebrae 66 (2.60) ; 
hind foot 18.5 (.73). 

Type locality, Shasta Valley, California. 

Said to be rather common from the base of Mount Shasta 
north and northeast. I have not seen this species. 

Subfamily Neotominae. 

Skull long and narrow; rostrum long; nasals projecting 
beyond premaxillaries; enlargement at root of lower incisor near 
base of condylar process greatest on outer surface ; tip of angu- 
lar process of lower jaw below plane of summits of molars ; notch 
between tip of angular process and condyle very shallow ; molars 


rooted or semirooted, prismatic; palate ending about the middle 
of last molars. 

Genus Neotoma Say and Ord. (New — to cut.) 
Upper molars with three roots, lower with two; last molar 
smallest; coronoid process slender, usually higher than condyle; 
anteorbital foramen wide above, much contracted below, the 
maxillar plate bounding its posterior side not spurred; frontal 
not distinctly beaded at border of orbit ; audital bullae small ; eyes 
prominent; ears large, rounded; thinly haired; whiskers very 
long; size large. 

Subgenus Neotoma Gray. 

Skull strong, rugged ; rostrum elongated ; tail broad, squir- 
rel-like; hind feet large. 

Neotoma cinerea Ord. (Ash gray.) 


Above mixed yellowish brown and black, sides with more 
buff and less black ; below white, the hairs> ashy at base except on 
the breast; feet white; ankles dusky; tail rather darker on the 
upper side than the back, the yellow tints lacking, below white 
except near the base where it is brown. The hairs of the tail are 
from a quarter of an inch to a full inch in length, varying in 
length with age, season and individual. Young; above slate gray 
thickly mixed with black hairs; below ashy white; tail ashy or 
slate gray above, white below, hairs short but longer than in 
young of the subgenus Neotoma. 

Length about 380 mm. (15 inches); tail vertebrae 180 
(7); hind foot 45 (1.75)- 

Type locality, Great Falls, Montana. 

Northern Rocky Mountains and west and southwest to the 
Cascade Mountains and Sierra Nevada. Common in Modoc and 


Lassen Counties and occasional in the Sierras south to Mount 
Whitney. Occasional on Mount Shasta and probably occur in 
small numbers in the mountains west to the Pacific. 

Ash-colored Rats appear to live mostly among rocks, often 
in lava cliffs. The nests are not nearly as large as those of 
fuscipes and some others. In trapping for them I succeeded 
best with meat baits. The food is varied but is mostly vegetable, 
including juniper berries and twigs. In winter they invade 
barns and houses, and carry off anything eatable and many un- 
eatable things that take their fancy. A peculiarity not frequent 
in this genus is the strong musky odor, which remains with skins 
in the cabinet many years. Judging from the scanty material 
at hand the young are born from the first of May to the end of 

Subgenus Neotoma. 
Skull comparatively smooth and thin ; rostrum of moderate 
length; tail scant haired, rat-like; hind feet of moderate size. 

Neotoma fuscipes Baird. (Dusky — foot.) 


Large; tail long; ears large; above bistre or sepia darkened 
by black tips of the hairs, base of hairs slaty ; sides varying from 
grayish tawny olive to grayish brown, shading into the color 
of the back, distinctly outlined against the grayish white or buffy 
white belly and throat, the hairs of the lower parts plumbeous 
at base except on throat, breast and anal region ; fore feet and 
toes of hind feet white, the upper surface of the hind feet dusky 
or spotted with dusky; ankles blackish; tail blackish scarcely 
lighter beneath ; hairs of tail short but hiding the skin. Young; 
gray with very little tawny or reddish tinge. 

Length about 407 mm. (16 inches); tail vertebrfe 205 
(8.10) ; hind foot 40 (1.60) ; ear from crown 35 (1.40). 

Type locality. Petaluma and Santa Clara, California. 


Pacific coast reg-ion of central California from Monterey 
County north to Lake County. Dusky-footed Brush-Rats in- 
Jiabit the cheniisal and the underbrush in open forests and gTOves, 
larely being found in thick forests. This form does not appear 
to occur high in the mountains, seldom up to 3,000 feet altitude. 
The food is principally vegetable but it is quite varjed. They 
have the usual generic ])ropensity for carrying off small articles. 

The breeding season is March to June, perhaps later. The 
number of young in a litter is two to four. The home is usually in 
a "nest" or "house" of sticks, twigs, bones, or anythingf portable; 
these piles of rubbish being two to four feet high, roughly cone 
shaped, and are usually placed in a thicket of brush, sometimes 
ag-ainst a tree. 

Occasionally the Brush-Rats take up their residence in barns 
or other buildings where they do the most harm by carrying off 
small articles, stored vegetables, dried fruit, grain or anything 
they can carry off, even if utterly useless to them except to swell 
their rubbisJi pile. They seldom gnaw anything-, however. They 
leave the premises iniimcdiately on the arrival of the introduced 
species of rat, which is a greater nuisance. 

Neotoma fuscipes monochroura Riioads. (One-color — 



Similar to fitsciprs; darker above; hairs of belly white to 
roots; skull ilatter; molar tooth row slKMicr. 

Type locality, Cirant Pass, Josephine County, Oregon. 

Pacific coast region from Mendocino County, California 
nortli to mouth of the Columbia River, east to base of Mount 

Neotoma fuscipes marcotis Thomas. (Large— ear.) 


Similar to fuscifycs; grayer, with less fulvous on the sides; 

MUUID.T*: llV 

tail bicolor, blackish ahave, ^ravish below; upper surface of 
hiiul feet more or less clouded with dusky; avera.^-in,^- suialler; 
tail shorter proportionally; palate usurdly shorter than incisive 

Length al)out 3S0 mm. (15 inches); tail vertebr.-e 190 
(7.50); hind foot 37 (1.45); ear from crown j() (1.15). 

Type localit)-, San Diego, Calfornia. 

Southwestern California and northwestern Lower California, 
from the seacoast u]) to 7.000 feet altitude in the mountains. 
'The Southern l>rush-Rat is ftnuid in chemisal and other brush. 
The nests are large and may be seen frequently in suitable places. 
Occasionally smaller nests are placed in trees which lean. These 
tree nests are probably used in warm weather, and are commonly 
near other nests on tlie ground. The habits in general are the 
same as those of the species elsewhere. 

Neotoma fuscipes simplex. Truiv. (Simple.) 


Similar to iiuuTolis; smaller and grayer; hairs of lower 
parts white to roots; hind feet white; tail bicolor. 

Type locality, old Port Tejon. California. 

Foothills and mountains bordering the southern part of the 
San Joaquin Valley and the extreme western part of the Mojave 

Neotoma fuscipes streatori Mi^rriam. (For C. P. 


Similar to fuscipes in size and color; ankles darker; hind 
foot from ankle pure white; tail bicolor, blackish above, whitish 
below ; skull somewhat different from that of fuscipes; length of 
palate less than that of incisive foramina, which reach back some- 
what beyond the front of the first molars; zygomatic arches less 
spreading- posteriorly. 


Length about 380 mm. (15 inches); tail vertebrae 183 
(7.20) ; hind foot 37 (i.45-) 

Type locaHty, Carbondale, Amador County, California. 

Western slope of the Sierra Nevada and northeastern Cali- 

Neotoma fuscipes dispar Me:rriam.. (Belov^ par, de- 


Entire upper parts ochraceous buff, palest on the head; back 
moderately lined with black tipped hairs; feet and under parts 
white; the white of the belly encroached upon the buffy ochraceous 
of the sides; tail bicolor, above brownish gray, below soiled 
white. The skull is similar to that of streatori. 

Type locality, Lone Pine. Inyo County, California. 

Eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada from Owen Valley 
southward toi the Mojave Desert. This subspecies seems to be 
rare. They are similar to dcsertoruiii in color but may be known 
by the dark ankles and long tail. 

Neotoma desertorum Merriam. (Of the desert.) 


Above brownish buff darkened by a mixture of black hairs, 
grayer on the head, clearer buff on the sides, which are usually 
strongly contrasted against the white lower parts; feet white; 
tail bicolor, dusky above whitish below. There is some varia- 
tion in color, examples from some localities being paler or more 
buffy above, and the lower parts may be tinged with buff, espec- 
ially across the breast. The pelage is very soft and the tail is 
considerably sliorter than the length of head and body. 

Length about 290 mm. (11.40 inches) ; tail vertebrae 135 
(5.30); hind foot 30 (1.20). 

Type locality, Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California. 

Mojave Desert, southern Nevada and southwestern Utah. 

MURID^ 119 

Common in many parts of this region, more especially in rocky 
localities. The food is almost anything eatable, but from the 
nature of the region they live in, this is mostly hmited to the 
leaves, twigs, bark and seeds of desert plants, including cactuses. 
The nests are commonly placed in crevices among rocks, or under 
cactuses or yuccas; these very frequently contain thorny twigs 
and joints of cactuses, and are sometimes built exclusively of 
such formidable materials, perhaps for protection against coyotes. 

The young are three to five in number. My notes on foet- 
uses observed include only March and April as breeding months, 
but the season is probably longer than these indicate. The Des- 
ert Brush-Rats have the usual thieving habits of the genus, as 
many prospectors can testify, bright objects being especially at- 
tractive. I find it nearly useless to put out any "cyclone" traps 
near their nests, the tin bottoms proving too attractive. 

The Desert Brush-Rats were formerly a considerable item 
of food for the Indians, but they use them less now, partly be- 
cause other food has become available, but principally because of 
the ridicule of the whites. The flesh is sweet, white and nutritious, 
and there is no good reason why it should not be as palatable as 
that of a squirrel. The Neotonias are very different from real 

Neotoma desertorum sola Merriam. (Alone.) 


Similar to desertorum but larger. 

Length about 325 mm. ( 12.80 inches) ; tai vertebrae 150 
(5.90); hind foot 34 (I.35)- 

Type locality, San Emigdio, Kern County, California. 
Distribution, head of San Joaquin Valley, California. 

Neotoma intermedia Rhoads. (In the middle.) 


Similar to desertorum but darker with less buff on the sides; 
body scarcely larger but tail longer, nearly or quite as long as 


head and body ; pelage soft but less so than in desertorum; above 
light biiffy brown; sides lighter; below grayish white or buft'y 
white; feet white; tail blackish above, whitish below; skull con- 
siderably larger than that of desertorum, heavier and more angu- 
lar; interorbital constriction wider proportionally; incisive foram- 
ina terminating slightly posterior to plane of anterior edge of first 
molars. Immature; darker, with but little buff tinge. 

Length about 305 mm. (12 inches); tail vertebrae 152 
(6) ; hind foot t^i ( 1.25) ; ear from crown 28 ( 

Type locality, Dulzura, San Diego County, California. 

Valleys and slopes of the coast region of southern California, 
north nearly to Monterey. Apparently not found much above 
3.000 feet altitude. They prefer rocky localities and usually 
build their nests among rocks. 

Neotoma intermedia gilva Rhoads. (Yellowish.) 


Very similar to desertorum in color but with the long tad 


Type locality, the San Gorgonio Pass, California. 

Distribution, San Gorgonio Pass and the Colorado Desert. 

The following notes on a mother and young are extracts 
from a letter to me from Mr. A. H. Alverson of San Bernardino. 
The locality given is the Desert end of the San Gorgonio Pass. 
"She was taken within a mile of Whitewater, in the low foothills. 
The nest was under a bunch of Cereus engelmani, but she was 
out and about two feet away from the entrance, which led to her 
discovery — the cause of her being out at that time of day I do 
not know, it being about 10 A. M. When she returned I noticed 
that she had young attached to her mammae. I soon liad the 
plant overturned and digging about a foot deep came upon her. 
One of the young — there were thred^ — became detached and set 
up a lively squeaking. It soon got a small stick in its mouth and 

MURID.^G 121 

held on with considerable strength, but being placed with the 
mother soon found its proper hold, which they all seemed to 
maintain until the eyes were open or nearly so; then I noticed 
that when the mother desired to move to another part of the 
cage — she is very neat — she would turn round and round and 
seem to twist them loose in a pile, where they would lie quietly 
until they felt her return, then tliey would at once attach to the 
teats, which as you know are placed very far back. 

"I found them about May loth, and they may have been 
about a week old. About a week ago (about May 20th), their 
eyes began to open, and now they are wide open. They eat 
with the mother, who' takes almost anything from roast beef or 
bacon, to seeds, fruit, or bread, and is very fond of milk. Wa- 
ter was first given her, which she lapped like a cat, long and 
often. I have them in a thin wooden box, with a glass front, 
for observation. She does not seem inclined tO' gnaw, is quiet 
and not afraid, comes tO' the glass when opened and takes food 
from my hand, does not try to dart out, nor bite. Sbmetimes, 
however, when without sufficient food, she becomes uneasy and 
gnaws at the wooden box for a short time, but when food is 
placed in the box she desists. 

"The young now have fully opened eyes, eat everything the 
mother does, are very playful, running about most of the time, 
but when too venturesome the mother takes them in her mouth 
and lifts them bodily back to the nest in the corner, which con- 
sists of well shredded cotton cloth — ^done by herself. Sometimes, 
she lifts them by the neck, but mostly by the middle of the 
side. After playing and eating the mother and young make their 
toilet, the mother doing mostly for all, but the young try to learn;, 
then the young attach to the mammae and all sleep. 

"They seem tO' be quite' nocturnal, decidedly more active at 
night, and are out in the day only to eat a little. I should think 
the young are now about four weeks old. They are nearly half 
the size of the mother and are growing rapidly. The mother 
and young appear to be the same color. They feel a lower temp- 


erature, are then less lively and the hair is slightly raised, espec- 
ially on the head." 

Neotoma abigula venusta True. (White — throat; 


Above mixed dusky and ochraceoiis buff; darkest on the 
crown and back, lig-hter and more huffy on the sides; below^ 
w^hite; feet white; tail bicolor, blackish above, dull white below; 
skull strong and angular; rostrum short, wide and deep, depress- 
ed ; nasals wide and broadened anteriorly, narrowed to a wedge 
shape posteriorly ; frontal shortened posteriorly and parietals cor- 
respondingly lengthened; incisive foramina short. Young; paler 
gray than usual in this genus. 

Length about 370 mm. (14.50 inches); tail vertebrae 175 
(6.90); hind foot 35 (1.40); ear from crown 30 (1.18). 

Type locality, Carrizo Creek, California. (In foothills bor- 
dering the Colorado Desert.) 

The Mesquit Brush-Rats are most common in shrubby 
masses of mesquit scattered through tlie Colorado Desert and in 
the Colorado Valley. They also occur some distance up the 
gulches and canyons of the adjoining foothills. Their principal 
food is the mesquit "beans" and twigs. They are less given to 
nest bidding than most Brush-Rats, living more in burrows under 
mesquit trees. The breeding season is similar to that of the 
genus in general. 

Subfamily Microtinae. 

Skull short and broad ; rostrum short ; nasals short, not pro- 
jecting beyond premaxillaries ; enlargement at root of lower in- 
cisor near base of condylar process of jaw greatest on inner sur- 
face; angular process bent back and up until its tip reaches above 
the plane of the summits of lower molars; notch between tip of 

MURID^ 123 

angular process and condyle deep; molars prismatic, usually root- 
less ; size usually small or medium, large in one genus. 

Genus Phenacomys Merriam. (Cheat — mouse.) 
Skull strong and angular ; molars of young animals rootless, 
those of adults rooted, strong, with sharp outer angles ; cusps of 
lower molar largest on tongue side of teeth ; hasal part of lower 
incisor passing l>eneath roots of lower molars; feet normal; tail 
round, one third to one half the length of head and body; size 

Phenacomys orophilus Merriam. (Mountain — loving.) 


Above grayish brown, tinged with yellow in summer, thickly 
sprinkled with black hairs; belly dirty white; feet whitish; tail 
bicolor, mixed brown and white above, whitish below. 

Length about 145 mm. (5.70 inches); tail vertebrae 35 
(1.38); hind foot 18 (.70). 

Type locality, Salmon River Mountains, Idalio. 

Higher parts of the mountains of British Columbia and 
western United States south to Mount Shasta, where Walter K. 
Fisher caught three "in the heather meadows along the upper 
part of Squaw Creek." 

Phenacomys albipes Merriam. (White — foot.) 


Above grizzled bistre with brownish wash on head, shoulders 
and sides ; sides of nose dark grayish plumbeous with buffy wash ; 
feet white ; ankles dusky ; tail bicolor, dusky above, whitish below. 

Length of type 168 mm. (6.60 inches) ; tail vertebrae 62 
(2.45); hind foot 19 (.75). 

Type locality, redwoods near Areata, California. 


Genus Evotomys CouEs. (Good — ear — mouse.) 
Skull thin and smooth; molars of young- animals rootless, 
those of adults rooted, rather weak, with rounded outer angles; 
inner cusps of lower molars about equal to outer; basal part of 
lower incisor passing on tongue side of roots of first and second 
molars and on outer side of third; feet normal; tail round, one 
third to one-half as long as head and body; size small. 

Evotomys californicus Merriam. 


A broad indistinct band from eyes to rump sepia mixed with 
black and gray; sides grizzled grayish brown, shading into the 
whitish under parts, which are tinged with buffy and darkened 
by the plumbeous under fur showing through ; tail bicolor, dusky 
above, light brown or whitish below ; feet dull white. 

Length about 150 mm. (6 inches) ; tail vertebrae 46 
(1.80) ; hind foot 19 (.75); ear from crown 8 (.30). Oregon 
examples appear to be larger. 

Type locality, Eureka, California. 

This species inhabits the coast region of northern California 
and western Oregon. But few specimens have been seen yet 
and their habits are not very well known. I have taken several 
individuals in redwood forests in Mendocino County, and they 
probably occur further south. Mine were trapped on dry hill- 
sides in thick forest, in traps set alongside old logs or at the 
roots of trees. 

The habits of the California Red-backed Mice are probably 
like those of the rest of the genus, which live in cool moist forests 
and brush lands, and delight in deep shade and the cover of logs, 
leaves and tangled weeds. Nests are built under logs, in under- 
ground burrows, or under cover of old leaves. Though mainly 
nocturnal somic species are sometimes seen in the daytime. All 
sorts of seeds and green vegetation are eaten, and probably some 
worms and insects. 

MURID^ 125 

Evotomys obscurus Mkrriam. (Dusky.) 


Above olive gi"ay with an ill-clefined dorsal area of cinnamon 
rufous obscured by black hairs; lower part of sides and ' face 
clear gray; tail bicolor, dusky above, whitish beneath. 

Length about 148 mm. (3.80 inches) ; tail vertebrae 46 
(1.80) ; hind foot 17 (.67). 

Type locality, Prospect, Upper Rogue River Valley, Ore- 

West slope of the northern Sierra Nevada and southern 
Cascade Mountains. 

Evotomys mazama Me;rriam. 


Dorsal stripe from in front of ears to base of tail cinnamon 
rufous or hazel, shading gradually into bufTy gray on sides and 
face; belly washed with buffy white; tail sharply bicolor, black- 
ish above, whitisli below. 

Length about 157 mm. (6.20 inches) ; tail vertebrae 51 
(2) ; hind foot 19 (.75). 

Type locality. Crater Lake, Oregon. 

Higher parts of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon and 
Mount Shasta. California, between 5,000 and 8,000 feet altitude. 

Genus Microtus Schrank. (Small — ear — mouse.) 
Skull strong and angular ; molars rootless through life, 
strong, with sharp outer angles ; outer and inner cusps of lower 
molars of about the same size ; basal part of lower incisor pass- 
ing on tongue side of the bases of first and second molars and 
on outer side of third; feet normal; tail round, usually less than 
half as long as head and body; form stout; size medium or 


Subgenus Microtus. 
Pelage long and rather coarse; soles with six tubercles; 
pattern of enamel folds of third lower molar without closed 
triangles ; third upper molar with three closed triangles and seven 
or eight salient angles. 

Microtus montanus Pkale. (Of the mountain.) 


Nasals small, short, not projecting as far forward as the 
premaxillaries do ; incisive foramina constricted posteriorly ; pelage 
soft ; above sepia mixed with black ; belovi- slate gray washed witli 
white; tail scarcely one third as long as head and body, black- 
ish above, lighter below ; feet dull brown. 

Length about 165 mm. (6.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 50 
(2); hind foot 21 (.82); ear from crown 10 (.40). 

T'ype locality, Sacramento River near Mount Shasta. 

Peale Meadow-Mice inhabit meadows and marshes of the 
foothills and lower mountain sides of northeastern California, 
eastern Oiregon, northern Nevada and Utah. They do not seem 
to be common. 

Microtus dutcheri Bailey. (For B. H. Butcher.) 


Similar to montanus in color ; lips and usually tip of nose 
white; tail short; ears small, nearly concealed; nasals small and 
short; above sepia mixed with brown and black; below buffy 
brown (adult) or grayish (immature); tail bicolor, blackish 
above, whitish below. 

Length about 163 mm. (6.40 inches) ; tail vertebrae 37 
(1.45) ; hind foot 21 (.82). 

Type locality, Big Cottonwood Meadows, 10,000 alt., near 
Mount Whitney, California. 

Butcher Meadow-Mice inhabit the wet valleys of the Sierra 
Nevada, from the head of Owen River southward, between 7,000 

MURID.^ 127 

and ii,ooo feet altitude. They are common in many of these 

Microtus calif ornicus Pealk. (Of California.) 


J}^ inter pelage, long- and coarse; above wood brown or bistre 
darkened by intermixture of long- black hairs on the back, basal 
two thirds of the pelage slaty black; sides grayer; below tipped 
with white the plumbeous under fur showing through ; tail dark 
brown above, grayish below; feet light brown. Suniiner pelage; 
grayer; tail less distinctly bicolor. 

Length about 170 mm. (6.70 inches) ; tail vertebr?e 54 
(2.10) ; hind foot 22.5 (.88) ; ear from crown 14 (.55). 

Type locality, San Francisco Bay, California. 

California Meadow-Mice occur from northern Lower Cali- 
fornia through southern and central California, west of the Colo- 
rado and Mojave Deserts, north along the coast to southwestern 
Oregon, and east into the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada. 
They are found in grassy localities, both dry and wet. 

The food is stems and leaves of grasses and other plants, 
their roots and seeds, the bark of shrubs and trees when other 
food is not available, and probably some insects. They are some- 
times destructive to grass and grain crops, but they are rarely as 
abundant in California as they are in colder climates. Many are 
caught by hawks, owls, skunks and other carnivorous animals. 
They are abroad more or less during the day, and the marsh 
hawk is perhaps their principal diurnal foe, while the barn owl 
destroys many of them in the night. California Meadow-Mice, 
like most of their genus, are in the habit of following regular 
paths. These runways ear easily found in thick grass by parting it 
and if these are numerous, the mice are abundant. A close inspec- 
tion will show the stumps of grass and often little bunches of 
grass cut in short lengths can be fonnd. A "cyclone" trap set in the 
runwav so that the mouse will pass through it. or a small steel 


trap bedded so that tlie pan is level with the runway will usually 
prove successful. Where they are very abundant a narrow trench 
dug- across the runway, a foot or so deep with straight sides, and 
visited night and morning will help thin them out. They are 
excellent swimmers so it is not easy to drown them. Their 
natural enemies are the most effectual means of keeping them in 
check. Protect 

Three to eight young form a litter and several litters are born 
annually. I have taken these Meadow-Mice containing young 
nearly every month in the year. The young are born blind and 
almost hairless. The nests are placed under logs, stumps, in 
burrows, and sometimes in thick grass on the surface. 

One clear September morning I was camped by the side of 
a brook in the mountains of San Diego County. The little stream 
in some winter flood had cut a channel in the alluvial soil five 
or six feet deep with nearly perpendicular banks and a dozen feet 
wide. For a short distance below camp the bottom of the chan- 
nel was moist and overgrown with watercress and a few round 
tulles, through which the little stream meandered. In this vege- 
tation some Meadow-Mice were feeding. I laid on the edge of the 
bank and watched them half an hour with the field glass, through 
which they appeared nearly within reach of my hand. 

First some dry leaves were moved on a little slope at the 
bottom of the opposite bank and the head and back of No. i ap- 
peared. It was feeding on some small plants, but did not come 
out openly. Presently No. 2 ran out of the tulles on the water- 
cress and began eating it. It moved in a nervous, jerky way, 
but did not appear shy. Soon No. 3 came but it was shyer and 
did not stay long, biting of¥ a small tulle about a foot and a half 
long and dragging it into a thicker patch of tulles. It ran quick- 
ly as if accustomed to pulling such loads. 

I did not see any of them sit up to eat, as many small mam- 
mals do, nor did they use their fore feet to hold their food, using 
only the mouth, apparently turning the leaves about with their 
tongue. They did not take the larger sprays of watercress. 

MURID^ 129 

They did not appear to chew the leaves much, but munched them 
down rapidly. 

Their ears appeared rather prominent, considering the length 
of the surrounding pelage. The eyes were very prominent, like 
black beads, and had a staring expression. By nine o'clock they 

Microtus californicus vallicola Bailey. (Of the valley.) 


Very similar to calif uniiciis; averaging larger and grayer. 
Type locality, Lone Pine, Inyo County, California. 
Marshy and grassy places in Owen Valley and the Mojave 
Desert west of Death Valley. 

Microtus californicus constr ictus Bailey. 
(Drawn together.) 


Averaging smaller and grayer than californkus; skull nar- 
rower ; audital bullae narrower ; above buffy gray ; below whitish ; 
tail scarcely bicolor, dull grayish. 

Type locality, Mendocino County, California. 

Common on grassy hillsides and in pastures in tlie region 
along the coast near Cape Mendocino. 

Microtus edax Le Conte. (Voracious.) 


Skull long, angular, heavily ridged; pelage blacker than in 
californicus ; sides more grayish ; feet large and stout. 

Length about 215 mm. (8.45 inches;) tail vertebrae 70 
2.75) ; hind foot 25 (0- 

Type locality, near San Francisco, California. 

Tulle swamps of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, 


Microtus scirpensis Bailky. (Of the tulles, Scirpus.) 


Similar to edax in size, proportions and skull; pelage grayer. 

Known only, from a little tulle patch at a warm spring, near 
the Amargosa River, Inyo County, California, below the Nevada- 
California boundary. 

Microtus mordax Merriam. (Biting.) 


Pelage very coarse; color light; above pale bistre grizzled 
with gray and black; below whitish, the plumbeous underfur 
showing through; tail indistinctly bicolor, brownish above, below 
light gray. 

Length about i8o mm. (/-lo inches) ; tail vertebrae 64 
(2.50) ; hind foot 22 (.87) ; ear from crown 14 (.55). 

Type locality, Sawtooth Lake, Idaho. 

From the Rocky Mountains through the ranges of the Great 
Basin to the Sierra Nevada, Mount Shasta and Trinity Moun- 
tains, south to the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains. 
In California they are found only in high mountains, from 5,000 
feet alt., in the northern part of the State and 7,000 feet in the 
southern part, up nearly to timber line. 

Microtus angusticeps Bailky. ( Short— head. ) 


Above dark bistre mixed with black, darkest on face; be- 
low washed with creamy white; feet plumbeous gray; tail dis- 
tinctly bicolor, blackish above, soiled white below ; pelage coarse ; 
skull small, narrow; audital bullre small; molars small, with 
narrow, sharp angles. 

, Length about 170 mm. (6.70 inches); tail vertebrae 55 
(2.15) ; hind foot 22 (.87). 

Type locality. Crescent City, California. 

Bailey Meadow-Mice occur in the damp pastures in the 

MURID^ 131 

Sitka spruce belt along the coast of northwestern CaHfornia and 
southwestern Oresfon. 

Subgenus Lagurus. 
Pelage long and rather coarse; soles with five tubercles; 
pattern of third lower molar with two or three closed triangles ; 
third upper molar with two or three closed triangles and five or 
six salient angles; palate flattened; audital bullae large and pro- 
jecting backward. 

Microtus curtatus Cope. (Shortened.) 


Above pale buffy gray ; soiled white below ; tail pale gray, 
slightly darker above; very short; skull wide and flat, with short 
rostrum; audital bullae inflated. 

Length about 140 mm. (5.50 inches); tail vertebrae 27 
(1.05) ; hind foot 17.5 (.70). 

Type locality, Pigeon Spring, Mount Magruder, Nevada. 

White and Inyo Mountains, California and mountains of 
western Nevada, principally in sagebrush in dry, barren locali- 

Subgenus Chilotus. 
Pelage comparatively short and dense ; soles with five tuber- 
cles; pattern of surface of lower molar without closed triangles; 
third upper molar with two or three closed triangles and six sal- 
ient angles; skull low and flat with long slender rostrum. 

Microtus oregoni Bach man. (Of Oregon.) 


Above mixed bistre and blackish ; below dusky washed with 
dull buff; feet dusky; tail blackish, slightly lighter below; ears 
blackish, longer than the surrounding pelage. 


Length about 140 mm. { 5.50 inches) : tail vertebra? 42 
(1.65): hind foot 17 {.Sj). 

Type locality, AstCKna, Oreg-on. 

Oregon Meadow-Mice frequent dry open ground under cov^r 
of grass, or of logs in open forest from Humboldt Bay to Pug^ 

Genus Fiber Cu\txr- (Beaver.) 

Size, largest of the family: skull stroog. angu1a.r. verv" nar- 
row between the orbits : molars rooted : basal part of lower incisor 
passing on tongue side of the first and second molars and on the 
outer side of third; parietaJs and interparietal very small; hind 
feet large, partly webbed, capable of being- turned obliquely in 
swimming: tail long, widened perpendicularly and fringed with 
stiff hairs on the ei^es. the sides being nearly bare: underfur 

Fiber zibethecns pallidus Mearxs. i Civet like: t>allic!.> 


General color above light glossy chestnut : sides msset : lower 
pans grayer; underfur light plumbeous. 

Length about 445 mm. ( 17.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 195 
(7.70) ; hind foot 6S {2. 67) ; ear from crown 16.5 ('.65V 

IN-pe locality. Fort Verde, Arizona. 

Pale Muskrats live alon^ the Colorado River and :is tribu- 
taries, but are not plentiful. They live in the banks of the main 
river and also in the banks of ponds and old channels containing 
still water. Muskrats have been reported from Carson Riva- id 
Nevada, and they may cross the State line into the few suitable 
places in the upper part of the valley. I am^ quite sure that I 
have seen a reference to their occurrence in the Sacramento Val- 
ley, bat I am imable to find rt or recall the particulars. 

I fomid Pak Muskrats in a small lake above Needles. 00 the 
Arizona, side, but they wo-e very few in nmnber. On the Califor- 


nian side of the Cokxado River, a few miles belrw Ehrenb-erg. 
Aiizooa I found a cokxa^ inhafaitii^ a "sJk?a^ ". I cnpipei for 
tbem ninsnm*st>fu %, bat sooceeded in dioattin^ tiiree bj mocmlligfat 
and <»e after simrise as they were s»w i ii Bni pi g ^ amcM^ the tnlks. 
Tbey wesie mndi smaller Idban the Mnskrats diat I used to trap in 
die Mississ^pi ValleT. Two weigfaed twentj oonces each. The 
for was thim zni shzrt. zs rnr?^ !>e cx::)ectei:! in: t?i3t '^s.Arm di- 

I liave seen nc' sc'^ilscs sjai csr: '.e2.n1 €i sc-me lei ime west. 
These nnonnds of dead n^etati on are conmion in the sSot^hs and 
ponds of the nofffaeasfena States. The food of Moskrats rerrr- 
allj- is the stems and roots of aquatic plants^ Fres!?-^- :r- - 
seb and fish are also eaten. OocasioaaDNr ^n^eta£:.rf 
from gardens near slieauii* that thqr ixcqpent. A bj : 
hr Sdaott near Ymna contained screw beans. 


Family Geomyidae (The Pocket-Gophers.) 

Body stout, thickset; head wide and blunt; eyes and ears 
small ; mouth peculiar in having no lips, the large incisors pro- 
jecting through the ordinary skin, which is haired behind them, 
the real mouth opening just in front of the premolars; dieek 
pouches large and opening externally, these pouches being purse- 
shaped infoldings of the loose skin of the neck, lined with short 
hairs, reaching back nearly to the shoulders and held in place by 
small muscles; legs very short and strong; feet large, with five 
toes each ; claws of fore feet very large ; tail about half as long 
as the head and body, scantily haired, the tip endowed with tactile 
nerves; skuU large; lower jaw massive, strongly curved; incisors 
very long and stout ; squamosal much expanded ; mastoids re- 
stricted to the occiput. 

This family contains nine genera and more than one hundred 
nominal species and subspecies; a considerable number of these 
will probably be dropped when the genus is critically studied as a 
whole. The distribution is temperate North America, exclusive 
of the Middle and New England States, Mexico and Central 
America. Most of the genera and many of the species are Mexi- 
can. But one genus is known to occur in the United States 
west of the Rocky Mountains. 

The food is mostly vegetable, a large part consisting of 
roots and tubers. Succulent plants are drawn into the burrows 
and eaten. It is probable that such worms and insects as are 
incidentally found are also eaten. That part of the food obtained 
beneath the surface is found by the laborious process of digging 
burrows through the soil. Openings to the surface are made 
every few feet for the purpose of disposing of the soil excavated. 
If food plants chance to stand quite near to these openings they 
are cut and drawn into the burrow. If seen at a little distance 
from the burrow the animal prefers tunneling to them, rather 
than venture a few feet on the surface, so reluctant is the animal 
to expose itself by leaving its burrow. They are cautious but 


not cowardly. They seem to fear nothing- and will attack any- 
thing- that molests them. 

Being- subterranean in habit, working in the dark, they are 
active at all hours, but are least so in the middle of the day. In 
soft earth the digging is done with the fore feet, but in hard 
soil the incisors are used tO' loosen it. As the earth is loosened 
it is scratched back to the hind feet which pass it on until enough 
for a load is ready, when the animal turns around, brings the 
wrists together under the chin, the fore feet extended out- 
ward, and then, propelled only by the hind feet, the dirt is pushed 
ahead of the animal to the outer opening- of the burrow, when 
the dirt is thrown out by a quick flirt. They run backward 
nearly as rapidly and easily as forward, the sensitive tip of the 
tail being- used as a g-uide. 

The pelage of the adult is commonly somewhat different 
from that of the young, and in some species there is also seasonal 
changes. They breed pretty much throughout the year or 
through the warm months in the colder part of their habitat, 
but it is not known whether the females breed more than once 
a year. The young are born in an undeveloped condition. Two 
to six constitute a litter. 

Genus Thomomys Maximilian. (Heap — mouse.) 
Front surface of incisor without a longitudinal groove, or 
but a small one very near the inner edge; upper and lower molars 
with two enamel plates, one anterior, one posterior ; external ears 
evident though small ; four pairs of mamn-ue in most species. 

Dental formula, I. i— i ; C. o— o; P. t— i ; M, 3—3X2=20. 

Thomomys fulvus nigricans Rhoads. (Fulvous; 


Variable in color ; above usually yellowish bistre mixed with 
black dorsally from crown to hips ; sides lighter ; below grayish 


white tinged with buff; the slaty bases of the hairs showing 
through more or less according to the amount of wear ; feet and 
tail pale buffy gray. A proportion are much darker, clove brown 
or dark sepia, and usually larger than the average. Others are 
redder, tawny, cinnamon or russet, and smaller than the average. 
The skull is small, light and comparatively smooth ; rostrum broad 
and rather short; nasals long and narrow, projecting as far 
forward as the incisors ; interparietal rectangular or pentagonal ; 
temporal ridges small and wide apart except in aged animals; 
zygomata widest anteriorly in fully adult animals ; groove near 
inner edge of upper incisor small but usually distinct. 

Length about 200 mm. (7.87 inches); tail vertebrae 66 
(2.60) ; hind foot 27 (1.06) ; ear from crown 6 (.24). Weight 
three to five ounces. 

Type locality, Witch Creek, San Diego County, Califorina. 

Abundant in the mountains and foothills of southern Calif- 
ornia. Less common in the mesas and vallevs. 

Thomomys monticolus Allen. (Mountain — inhabiting.) 


Pelage long and soft; ears long; above fawn color or mars 
brown with a silvery gloss; sides and lower parts buff, the 
plumbeous bases of the hairs showing through ; feet and tail pale 
buff; skull similar to that of fiilvus nigricans, but with nasals 
shorter and wider anteriorly ; zygomata widest posteriorly ; in- 
terparietal broadly petagonal. 

Length about 195 mm. (7.70 inches) ; tail vertebrae 66 
( 2.70) ; hind foot 26 ( i .03 ) . 
Type locality. Mount Tallac, Eldorado County, California. 

Common in the northern Sierra Nevada and throughout the 
northeastern part of California, from about 4,000 feet altitude 
nearly to timberline. 


Thomomys monticolus pinetorum Mkrriam. (Of the 
pines. ) 


Similar to monticolus but smaller, skull shorter with broader 
zygomata ; color paler ; above pale fulvous ; nose dusky. 

Type locality, Sisson, Siskiyou County, California. 

Common around the base of Mount Shasta, grading grad- 
ually into monticolus on the higher parts of the mountain. 

Thomomys alpinus Me:rriam. (Alpine.) 


Similar to fulvus. Light pelage; above sepia or drab brown 
suffused with fulvous ; below plumbeous washed with ochraceous 
buff. Dark Pelage; plumbeous tipped with russet brown. Skull 
small, rounded; nasals rather short; zygomata wide. 

Length about 220 mm. (8.65 inches) ; tail vertebras 63 
(2.50); hind foot 30 (1.20). 

Type locality, Cottonwood Meadows, Mount Whitney, Cali- 

Common in the high southern Sierra Nevada. 

Thomomys perpallidus Me:rriam. (Very pale.) 


Very pale; varying (principally with locality) from yellow- 
ish drab to ochraceous buff, cream' buff or grayish white; below 
dull white, the hairs sometimes white to the roots but more often 
pale plumbeous basally; mouth parts more or less brown; skull 
rather large, smooth; rostrum rather wide; nasals long, depressed, 
rather narrow, squarish posteriorly ; frontal flat, often slightly 
concave; interparietal about as long as wade, the front outline 

Length about 233 mm. (9.15 inches); tail vertebrse 85 
(3-35) ; hind foot 33 (1.30) ; ear from crown 6 (.24). 


Type locality, Palm Spring in the northwestern comer of 
the Colorado Desert, California. 

The Pallid Pocket-Gopher is found in the arid Colorado 
and Mojave Deserts. It is common in a few localities, but from 
the barren nature of this region it is necessarily rare in many 
parts of these Deserts. 

Thomomys perpallidus perpes Merriam. 


Above varying from yellowish drab to grayish ochraceous 
bufif; face ashy; below grayish white; throat white; mouth parts 
ashy or plumbeous ; feet and tail grayish white ; skull somewhat 

smaller than that of perpallidus; rostrum smaller; interparietal 

Length about 212 mm. (8.25 inches) ; tail vertebrae 66 
C2.67) ; hind foot 29 (1.15). 

Type locality, Lone Pine, Inyo County, California. 

Owen Valley and the western part of the Mojave Desert. 



Thomomys bottae Edoux and Gervais. 


Above sepia mixed with black; sides paler; below slaty tip- 
ped with cinnamon or ochraceous buflf; mouth and nose black- 
ish except around the incisors where it is white; lining of pockets 
often white, but their edges blackish; feet dull white; tail dusk}^ 
above basally, the remainder whitish. Young; paler and tinged 
with fulvous. Skull massive, angular : rostrum short and nar- 

California Pocket Gopher. One-third life size 

row; nasals short; incisors projecting 
forward, their front surfaces paler 
than usual in this genus; zygomata 
broad, widest posteriorly; interparie- 
tel small; triangular, narrowed and 
nearly overgrown by the temporal 
ridges of old age: occiput truncated 

Length about 240 mm. (9.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 75 
( 3) ; hind foot 32 ( i .25 ) . 

Type localit}-, near Montere\-, California. 

Abundant in the coast region of central California. 

The various species of Pocket-Gophers found in California 
(except in the deserts) are so much alike externally and in hab- 
its that the following account of their habits will apply to all. 

Pocket-Gophers are thoroughly distributed throughout the 


State wherever vegetation grows, from the seacoast to as high 
in the mountains as sufficient soil to work in occurs, except in 
land regularly subject to overflow. They are naturally most 
abundant in rich loose soils. 

The food is principally the roots and succulent stems of 
plants, such as garden vegetables generally, potatoes, alfalfa, etc., 
as well as very many species of wild plants. The roots of fruit 
trees are often eaten, though in large trees but a portion of the 
the roots of any particular tree is eaten and the ill effects are not 
as noticeable as with young trees. 

The burrows or runs are commonly less than a foot below 
the surface, but vary with soil and season; as the object in dig- 
ging the run is tO' find food it is naturally dug at the depth where 
roots are most abundant. These runs are practically endless as 
they are being extended daily, except perhaps in the dry season, 
when comparatively little new work is done on account of the 
hardness of the soil. In very few localities in this State are the 
Gophers hindered by frozen soil, but in such places they work 
deeper, or occasionally on the surface under the snow, these sur- 
face runs being often filled with earth later, becoming very not- 
iceable after the snow has melted. Openings to the surface arc 
made at varying intervals for the purpose of getting rid of the 
soil excavated in making the runs, the dirt being thrown out in 
mounds containing a quart to a peck of earth. When the run 
has been excavated an inconvenient distance beyond the last open- 
ing that is closed and a new one made. These openings made 
for the purpose of carrying out the loosened earth are started 
at the side of the main run, gradually turning upward, and 
come to the surface one or two feet at one side of the main 
run. When abandoned these side runs are often packed full of 

The Gophers pass back and forth several times a day over 
the newer part of the main run, probably spending their hours 
of repose some distance from the new end of the burrow. In 
some seasons they make a nest of dry grass, but in the warmer 


part of the year they apparently use none, but He down wherever 
they happen to be. They are more or less active at all hours, 
but much less earth is thrown out during- the hours of bright sun- 

No doubt the female makes a warm nest for her voung, 
but I have never happened to find such a home, and it is prob- 
ably deeper in the ground than the main run and ordinary sleep- 
ing- nests. I have taken females suckling- young at all times 
of the year. It is not known whether tliey have more than 
one litter annually or not, but it is probable that they do. Tv^o 
to six young constitute a litter. I find in my note book a note 
of having taken a female containing six foetuses, on March 

It is seldom that more than one Gopher inhabits a run. At 
times a pair may be found inhabiting a run, but not often. The 
young shift for themselves before they are half grown. These 
young are very difficult to trap because of their small size. 
I have taken them from runs that would hardly admit my 
thumb. In such cases several may be found in a quite small 
area. No doubt the young commence work from the nest and 
gradually drift apart. 

Many people suppose that the earth thrown out is carried 
in the cheek pouches by the Pocket Gophers, but such is not 
the case, the pouches being used only for carrying food. They 
seem to prefer to carry the food some distance back in the run 
to eat it in quiet. Small bits of food are pocketed as found 
and work is continued until sufficient is gotten to be w^orth 
while stopping to eat or store away. Considerable quantities 
of food are stored for future use, though not to as great an 
extent here as in colder climates. If food is seei^ or smelled 
on the surface at a little distance from the opening of the run 
the Gopher prefers running a tunnel to it rather than tO' ven- 
ture far on the surface. The little fellows are good engineers, 
for I have many times seen pumpkins and melons eaten to a 


shell with nO' sign of the run beneath until the shell is picked 
up or rolled' over, and no mound within several feet. 

The strong- incisor teeth are apparently used in hard soil in 
loosening the earth, but most of the digging is done with the 
fore feet. When sufficient soil is loosened and thrown behind 
it the Gopher turns around, brings the wrists together beneath 
the chin with the palms in frout and the claws outward be- 
hind the pile of loosened earth and pushes the pile before it, 
using the hind feet only in propulsion. The animal can push 
a much larger amount before it than it could carry in its pockets. 
On reaching the surface a flip of the fore feet throws the earth 
a little distance, the action appearing as if the earth was thrown 
out oi the pockets with the fore feet. 

Sometimes the Pocket-Gophers run backward instead of 
turning around in the run, especially if the run happens to 
be in hard earth and narrow. Dr. Merriam kept a live Gopher 
in captivity to study its habits, and found that it could run 
backward easily, and nearly as rapidly as forward. The nearly 
naked tail is used as a feeler, and is quite sensitive as an organ of 
touch. The hearing appears to be fairly good, but the sight 
is poor. Smell is probably the principal sense in locating food. 

Pocket-Gophers are sharp tempered animals and very cour- 
ageous. They do- not hesitate to attack anything tliat inter- 
feres with them, and the bite of a trapped Gopher is sufficiently 
severe to be dreaded. From the circumstance of their living 
alone one may surmise that they are surly and quarrelsome. 

Pocket-Gophers are a serious pest to the farmer and fruit 
grower. Having had considerable experience in trapping them 
I may be able to give some useful hints to those who' may wish 
to try to get rid of them. Poison is not as useful in the case 
of Gophers as it is with some other pests, as it is likely to be 
pushed out of the run instead of being eaten. Poisoned grain 
can be used, or a little crushed strychnine in a raisin or a bit 
of apple or potato. If any of these be used place it in the main 
run after clearing out all lumps of dirt and close the run thor- 


oug'hly. It will thus be more apt to be eaten. A ''smoker" 
has been advocated and sold for the purpose of suffocating 
Gophers. This implement works well with ground squirrels 
but is not often effective with Gophers on account of the great 
length of the runs and the difficulty of forcing the smoke far 
enough. Bi-sulphide of carbon is moderately effective with 
Gophers. To use it pour two tablespoonfuls on a, bunch of rags, 
waste or cotton and place it in the main run where fresh mounds 
show the recent presence of the animal. Close the opening thor- 
oughly to retain the fumes. Remember that the fumes are ex- 
plosive. The most effective of all methods where it is practic- 
able is drowning by flooding with water when thoroughly done. 
For many people the main reliance must be on traps. 

Trapping is most effective in the rainy season. The soil 
is then in the best condition to work and the Gophers are more 
active and less suspicious. By persistent trapping a place may 
be cleared of Gophers; afterward one must continually watch 
around the borders of the place to catch the immigrants as they 
begin to work in. Neighbors joining in the work can make 
it most effective. Two or three kinds of traps are needed for 
different conditions in trapping. Some persons prefer one style, 
others another, there is considerable choice and several efficient 
styles. I prefer the "C V" trap supplemented with the common 
steel trap, Newhouse pattern. No. O size. The small size of 
"C V" is most useful as the large size is too large for most 
runs. If cats have the run of the place the traps will need 
staking or they may be carried away; a strong cord can be used 
on the "C V" traps. The "C V" traps as usually made have 
the triggers too far from the entrance. If they are of the 
pattern having sheet iron triggers set the trap and push the 
trigger toward the entrance, bending it considerably, so that the 
trigger will be pushed before the Gopher gets so far through 
the entrance. The other implements necessary are a shovel, a 
bit of heavy hoop iron bent in a fish-hook shape for widening 
the opening and drawing out the earth, some bits of board for 


closing the openings, and, if you have many traps out, stakes to 
mark the places where the traps are set. 

The rounds should be made twice a day, early in the morn- 
ing and at night, as the Gophers are then actively at work. Look 
for fresh mounds. If an open hole is found widen it sufficient- 
ly to insert a "C V" its full length. Leave that hole open as 
the Gopher will be back in a few minutes to close it. If a fresh 
mound is found with the exit closed use the shovel carefully. 
If the run is not readily found it may perhaps be found by feeling 
with the end of the hoop iron or the finger, as the earth in the 
side run should be softer than its surroundings. Try to find the 
side run without breaking into the main run. If you find it, set 
a "C V" in it if there is room out side of the main run, and nearly 
close the run with a piece of board, leaving a little light to 
tempt the Gopher tO' close the hole. If there is not room enough 
in the side run to use a "C V" set a steel trap in the main run 
with the pan and jaws level with the floor of the run. See that 
no lumps of dirt are left in the run to give the Gopher warning. 
Close the side run thoroughly in this case as you are trying tO' 
get the Gopher as he makes the rounds of his run as usual. 
If you chance to open the main run at a "C V" in each branch 
and close the openings tight behind them. The Gophers will 
fill a considerable proportion of the traps with earth and fail to 
spring them. Reset the traps and close the hole. When traps 
are set in the main run the Gophers are more likely to fill them 
and make a new run a few inches behind the old run. Now and 
then a Gopher will prove to be cunning and difficult to catch. After 
trying such an animal a few times change to somei other form 
of trap. It is seldom that a Gopher is too smart to be caught, 
but I have been baffled a few times ; commonly they are careless 
and easily caught. 

A good cat that will hunt Gophers is valuable, but the most 
efficient helper that a farmer can have is a pair of the much 
persecuted barn owls. These birds live principally on Gophers, 
and during the breeding season a pair will catch a dozen each 


nig-ht. Weasels are very fond of Gophers and are able to follow 
the runs of adults. Bull snakes or gopher snakes feed principally 
on gophers. They have no venom and should never be de- 

Thomomys bottae pallescens Rhoads. (Pale.) 


Paler and more tawny than bottse ; an indistinct dusky dor- 
sal stripe; sides usually with an indistinct ochraceous buff stripe 
separating the color of the upper parts from that of the belly; 
averaging larger than bottse; skull similar; rostrum broader; in- 
cisors heavier and their front surfaces deeper yellow. 

Type locality, San Bernardino Valley, California. 

The Southern Pocket-Gopher is abundant in southern Cali- 
fornia along the coast and in the valleys and is more or less 
common in the mountains. 

One April morning I had an opportunity to watch a South- 
ern Pocket-Gopher at work. It was wary but not shy. It saw 
and watched me several seconds at a time. It paid a little at- 
tention to vocal sounds that I made but not much. It seemed 
to try to scent me. The light breeze blew toward it, distance 
ten feet. When first noticed I think its pockets were empty. 
I saw it gather some plants, including young wild oats. The 
transfers of plants from mouth to pockets were made very quick- 
ly, but I could not see just how it was done as its back w'as 
toward me, though I could see the pockets swell. It went 
down and brought more earth after a few seconds disappearance, 
repeating this several times, occasionally picking more "greens." 
That is, it did not immediately go ofif and eat or cache its food, 
but worked on with the food in its pockets, occasionally adding 
to its amount. In coming out of the run to gather the plants 
it did not walk at its full height, but crouched, dragging its 
belly on the ground, the hips and shoulders showing prominent- 
ly above the vertebral outline. In pushing out the earth before 


it the nose was kept raised over it, not buried in the earth. 
The retreat was ahnost instantaneous after the earth was flirted 

The following Pocket Gophers I have not seen. I give 
a summary of the original descriptions. 

Thomomys laticeps Baird. 


Above yellowish brown, blackish dorsally ; below tinged with 
reddish; tail about half as long as head and body; feet large; 
skull very broad; rostrum short. 

Length 178 mm. (7.65 inches) ; tail vertebrae 64 (2.50) ; 
hind foot 27 ( 1.06). 

Type locality, near Humboldt Bay, California. 

Thomomys leucodon navus Merriam. 


Above fulvous brown ; below buff ochraceous ; skull small but 
very strong and ivory-like in texture; zygomata broadest pos- 
teriorly; nasals cuneate, usually notched behind; incisors project- 
ing forward, their faees yellow. 

Length 196 mm. (7.75 inches) ; tail vertebrae 65 (2.55); 
hind foot 27 (1.06). 

Type locality, Red Bluff, California. 

Thomomys angularis Merriam. 


Above fulvous grizzled with black ; below plumbeous strong- 
ly washed with buffy ochraceous ; feet and tail whitish ; skull large 
and massive ; braincase broad ; nasals emarginate posteriorly ; in- 
terorbital region rounded. 

Length 255 mm. (10 inches) ; tail vertebrae 75 (3) ; hind 
foot 32 (1.25). 

Type locality, Los Banos, Merced County, California. 


Thomomys angularis pascalis Me;rriam. 


Similar to angularis but smaller; above more buffy yellow; 
below very much paler and often marbled with patches of white; 
skull smaller and smoother. 

Length 2IO mm. (8.25 inches) ; tail vertebrae 70 (2.75); 
hind foot 30 (1.18). 

Type locality, Fresno, California. 

Thomomys operarius Merriam. 


Above buffy yellowish or buff gray; below plumbeous 
strongly washed with white; skull short, broad and massive; 
rostrum short and broad ; interorbital region broad ; temporal 
ridges well marked. 

Length 217 mm. (8.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 67 (2.65) ; 
hind foot 29 (1.15). 

Type locality, Keeler, Inyo County, California. 

Thomomys cabazonae Me:rriam. 


Above varying from buffy ochraceous to dull drab brown; 
below whitish or pale salmon; skull small, angular; zygomata 
broadest anteriorly; interparietal rectangular; nasals long. 

Length 220 mm. (8.25 inches); tail vertebrae 78 (3.06); 
hind foot 30 ( i . 1 5 ) . 

Type locality, Cabezon, San Gorgonio Pass, Riverside 
County, California. 

Thomomys fuscus fisheri Mkrriam. 


Similar to fuscus but very much paler, grayish brown in- 
stead of dull fulvous brown; skull similar to that of fuscus but 
shorter; zygomata more squarely spreading; premaxillae shorter 
and broader posteriorly ; bullae less swollen ; incisors narrower. 

Length 192 mm. (7.60 inches); tail vertebrae 58 (2.30); 
hind foot 25 (i). 

Type locality, Beckwith, Plumas County, California. 


Family Heteromyidse. Pocket-Rats and Pocket-Mice. 

Cheek pockets large and opening externally, similar to 
those of Geojuyidse; fore legs of moderate length; hind legs more 
or less lengthened; tail usually as long as or longer than head 
and body ; skull thin and smooth ; rostrum long and tapering ; 
nasals long, projecting beyond the incisors and semi-tubular an- 
teriorly; frontals wide; no inteorbital foramen but a perforation 
on the sides of the maxillary instead; occipital region formed 
mostly of the mastoids; temporal region inflated, sometimes enor- 
mously; zygomatic arches very slender, depressed; lower jaw 
small and weak ; coronoid process very small ; angular process 
twisted obliquely. 

Dental formula, I, i — i ; C, o — o; P, i — i ; M, 9 — 3X2^20. 

This is a small family of seven genera, divided in two sub- 
families. The family is American, Mexico being apparently the 
center of distribution, none of the family being found east of 
the Mississippi River. It has been very imperfectly known until 
recently and has many interesting peculiarities. A singular 
characteristic of Pocket-Rats and Pocket-Mice is their ability 
to go without water and if necessary without eating moist food. 
Most species inhabit arid regions or deserts, though a few species 
are found in regions of moderate rainfall, provided the climate 
is comparatively warm. They do not endure cold well, very few 
being able to live in localities where the ground freezes too hard 
to plow. 

The food is principally seeds, but leaves and stems of 
plants are occasionally eaten. Seeds are commonly stored in 
chambers of burrows or sometimes in surface caches. In some 
of the Californian valleys harm is done by members of this 
family through carrying off and hiding grain, though it is seldom 
done to a noticeable extent. Yet the total loss to grain growers 
must annually amount to a considerable sum, because of the 
abundance and industry of these little animals. I am not aware 
of any other harm being done by them and there is some compen- 


salioii in the ([uantity of weed seeds destroyed Tlie-i mouths 
are small ; the larg-est food I have known them tO' eat is acorns. 
The family is digitigrade ; nocturnal; terrestrial and sub- 
terranean, living in l)urrows but gathering" their food from 
the surface. There is little if any seasonal change of pelage. 
The sexes are alike, but the young sometimes differ from the 

Siil)faniily Dipodomyinse 

Skull triangular in general outline; molars rootless; tem- 
poral region, enormously inflated; interparietal small, narrowed 
from the sides, sometimes obliterated; hind legs lengthened; size 
comparatively large. 

Genus Perodipus Fitzinger. (Pouch — two-footed.) 
Upper incisors grooved in front; temporal region greatly 
inflated; supraoccipetal, interparietal and parietals greatly reduced 
in area; zygomatic arch expanded to a large thin plate in front 
of the orbit; hind feet with five toes, the inner toe minute 
and situated higher than usual;. soles heavily haired; tail longer 
than head and body, four striped ; eyes large; ears large, rounded, 
the front border inflexecl ; pelage soft, without spines. 

The pattern of coloration of all the species of Perodipus and 
Dipodomys is the same. There is a dark patch at the base 
of the whiskers, a white spot over the eye, another below or 
behind the ear, a white stripe across the thighs to the base of 
the tail, a dark stripe on the upper side of the tail, usually another 
on the under side leaving the sides of the tail white, fore feet 
and all the lower parts from mouth to tail white to the roots of 
the hairs. 

The beginner will find the species of Perodipus very puzzl- 
ing, and will probably be unable to assign his specimens satis- 
factorily. The division of this genus has been carried to an 
unnecessary refinement. I have omitted several nominal species 
or subspecies rather than add to the difficulty. Dipodomys is 
not cjuite so difficult, as size and color are more diversified. 


Perodipus agilis Gambel. (Nimble.) 


Above yellowish bistre mixed with black, the basal half or 
three- fourths of the hairs slate gray; sides ochraceous buff; 
tail crested, the hairs toward the end being lengthened, principal- 
ly on the upper side; upper tail stripe as dark as the back, the 
lower stripe but little lighter and continuous to the end, but tip 
usually with white preponderating; soles of hind feet blackish; 
ankles dull black posteriorly ; ears large ; skull narrow ; supra- 
occipetal very narrow ; interparietal narrow ; nasals narrow, the 
outer edges of the posterior half parallel; maxillary arches com- 
partively narrow. Young; darker, more slaty ; hairs of terminal 
part of tail not lengthened. 

Length about 288 mm. (11.33 inches) ; tail vertebrae 180 
(7.10) hind foot 42 (1.65); ear from crown 14 (.55). 

Type locality, Los Angeles, California. 

Gambel Pocket-Rats are common in the coast region of 
southern California and on the sides of the mountains tO' 3,000 
feet altitude or higher. They are not often found in brush, 
or in rocky ground, preferng open valleys having a good growth 
of annual plants, the seeds and leaves of these plants forming 
the principal part of their food. Grain is sometimes stored in 
their burrows, but grain land, especially if summer-fallowed, af- 
fords too little subsistence in the dry part of the year, and is 
usually deserted for places where seed producing plants remain 
on the ground all the year. Occasionally the borders of grain 
lands are invaded, but the depredations of Pocket-Rats are rare- 
ly serious, and these are partly balanced by the large amount 
of weed seeds eaten. 

The following notes on an opened burrow of this species 
are given to illustrate some of their habits, which are similar 
to those of Pocket-Rats in general. I had noticed the entrance 
to a burrow at the side of a path a few yards from the kitchen 
door of my house; the burrow had been used some months, still 
the house cat (a very good mouser) had not caught the oc- 


ctipant. One day in January I set a box trap near the burrow 
and the next morning found a Gambel Pocket-Rat in it. This 
animaJ I kept aHve in a box. The second evening foHovving, 
I found my dog playing with a young Pocket-Rat near the mouth 
of the burrow. The next day 1 dug- open the burrow to see 
what its internal arrangement was. The burrow was oval in 
section, the perpendicular diameter greatest, being a little more 
than two inches. The entrance sloped gently downward, and the 
main burrow was about eight inches below the surface for about 
eight feet, then about a foot and a half below for six feet, where 
it terminated in another entrance which I had not previously 
noticed, as it was under a small perennial plant. This last en- 
trance was nearly perpendicular for six or seven inches. There 
were half a dozen branches to the burrow, varying from a few 
inches to three feet in length, each terminating in a chamber of 
greater diameter than the burrow. 

In one chamber was the nest, a mass of nearly a quart of 
the hulls of grass seeds. The other chambers were used as gran- 
aries. These contained acorns, seeds of poverty grass, and of 
chrysanthemums and other flowers from a bed in front of the 
house. Most of the granaries were closed with earth. The open 
one was but part full and probably was the one from which food 
was then being used. The various granaries contained respec- 
tively 149, 27, 24, 131, 139 and 26 acorns. The weight of the 
acorns and seed was forty two ounces; that of the adult female 
was two and a quarter ounces. 

In the burrow, a foot or more from the nest was another 
quite young Pocket-Rat. It seemed to very cold and hungry 
and made a grating squeaking sound, which it kept up some 
time after being put with its mother. I could not see that it 
suckled, and think it did not, though it crept under its mother 
and persisted in staying there. It ate shortly after being put 
with its mother. 

The acorns in the granaries were brought from a tree stand- 
ing more than a hundred feet from the burrow. On trial an 



acorn was fcund to slip easily into a cheek pouch, the tip of the 
acorn projecting outside. The partly eaten acorns were com- 
menced from the base, probably because that part of the shell 
covered by the cup was thinner and more easily bitten through. 
There was no pile of earth at either entrance and the upper 
entrance, under the plant, was closed with earth. The absence 
of a pile of earth at the entrance was not unusual, but more 
often the pile of earth is present. The entrances of burrows are 
most frequently closed in the daytime. This burrow was longer 

Gambel Pocket Rat. Nearly one-half life size. 

than usual, and probably contained a greater amount of food 
than is usual. 

The gait is a series of leaps; if hurried these are very rapid 
and three or four feet in length. As they can turn very abruptly, 
it is very difficult for a dog to catch one. In leaping from a 
position of rest they can go off as if a spring in them had been 
suddenly released. They cannot continue a rapid run far ; the 
longest that I remember seeing in the daytime was about fifty 
yards, when the animal entered its burrow. I have several 
times seen Pocket-Rats abroad in the daytime, but this is not 
a common habit. 


The only vocal sounds that I have heard from adults are 
squeaks of pani when caught in a trap or otherwise hurt. The 
greater number of young are born in the spring, but reproduc- 
tion continues to some extent through the summer and autumn. 
Three to five young at a birth appear to be the usual number. 

Pocket-Rats make interesting pets. They do not resent be- 
ing handled, though not really liking it. They do not often try 
to escape when held in the hands. They require considerable 
provocation and rough usage before attempting to bite. As they 
can open the mouth but a short distance and the upper incisors 
are bent backwards they are unable to bite deeply, scarcely more 
than through the skin. They keep in good health in captivity 
on grain alone. They do not bear cold well. 

Perodipus ingens Me:rriam. 


Size large ; above buffy ochraceous ; tail with upper and lower 
stripes black and a white pencil ; ears small ; skull very large and 

Length about 350 mm. (13.75 inches) ; tail vertebrae 19a 
(7.50) ; hind foot 52 (2.05). 

Type locality. Painted Rock, San Luis Obispo County, Cali- 

Known only from the Carrizo Plain. 

Perodipus venustus Merriam. (Beautiful.) 


Similar to agiliSj but very much darker; top of head, back, 
and thigh patches dusky, finely grizzled with ochraceous; hairs 
of rump forming a black patch just in front of basal white ring 
of tail. 

Length about 315 mm. (12.40 inches) ; tail vertebrae 190 
(7.50); hind foot 45 (I-77)- 

Type locality, Santa Cruz, California. 

Santa Cruz and Santa Lucia Mountains. 


Perodipus goldmani Mkrriam. (For L. J. Goldman.) 


Darker than agilis and lighter than venustm,; bases of hairs 
of upper parts slaty black; ears smaller than agilis; dark tail 
stripes becoming lighter colored toward tip; skull differing from 
that of agilis, wider, particularly across the maxillary arches; 
nasals narrowed posteriorly and slightly constricted in the mid- 
dle, but considerably wider in the anterior third; supraoccipetal 
very narrow; interparietal small and very narrow. 

Length about 313 mm. (12.30 inches) ; tail vertebrse 185 
(7.30); hind foot 45 (i.;?)- 

Type locality, Salinas, Monterey County, California. 

Salinas Valley and other valleys of that general region. 

Perodipus panamintus Merriam. (Of the Panamint 

Mountains. ) 


Similar to agilis; lighter colored with much less black in- 
termixed; ears small; the lower tail stripe becomes obsolete on 
the terminal third; soles gray; skull similar to that of goldmani 
but anterior third of nasals narrower; supraoccipetal wader; in- 
terparietal wider, its width half to two-thirds its length. 

Length about 300 mm. (11.80 inches) ; tail vertebrae 180 
(7.10); hind foot 45 (1.77). 

Type locality, Panamint Mountains, California. 

Panamint Pocket-Rats are found throughout the Mojave 
Desert region, though they are common in but few places. 

Perodipus streatori Merrtam. (For C. P. Streator.) 


Similar to agilis but larger ; ears smaller ; top of tail w^hite ; 
skull larger and heavier; fronto-parietal suture strongly convex 
forward in the middle. 

Length about 295 mm. (11.60 inches) ; tail vertebrse 180 
(7.10) ; hind foot 43 (1.70). 


Type locality, Carbondale, Mariposa County, California. 
Western foothills of the Sierra Nevada. 

Perodipus microps iMerriam. (Minttte— like.) 


Small; ears small; above pale Ixiffy ochraceous ; skull small, 
narrow, with narrow 1)raincase. 

Length about 270 mm. (10.60 inches) ; tail vertebrcC 158 
(6.20); hind foot 41 (1.62). 

Type locality. Lone Pine, Inyo County, California. 

Northern part of the Mojave Desert. 

Genus Dipodomys Gray. (Two-footed — mouse.) 
Hind foot witli but four toes, otherwise similar to Perodipus, 
but varying more in color and size. See under Perodipus for 
color pattern. 

Dipodomys calif ornicus Merriam. 


Very similar to Perodipus goldmani in color anct size; skull 
similar but narrower interorbitally, nasals narrower; supraoc- 
cipetal wider; mastoids and audital bulLie much smaller. 

Length about 300 mm. (11.80 inches) ; tail vertebrae 185 
(7.80) ; hind foot 43 (1.70). 

California Pocket-Rats probably occur in all the northern 
coast Counties. I have taken them in Lake and Mendocino 
Counties. In the Pacific Railroad Reports, Dr. Suckley says 
that a "Kangaroo Rat" is common on the Salmon River; this is 
doubtless the present species. They inhabit brush and forests 
as well as open land, though probably not living in dense forests. 
I trapped one among redwoods near an open glade. I did not 
observe anything peculiar in their habits in other respects. They 
did not seem to be common. One trapped in an old vacant house 
near the end of April, contained three foetuses. 


Dipodomys californicus pallidulus Bangs. 


Similar to californicus but paler: above wood brown, shad- 
ing to cinnamon on the sides ; tail aboA'e sepia, beneath white. 

Length 290 mm. ( 1 1.40 inches) ; tail vertebrae 181 (7.15) ; 
hind foot 42 (1.65). 

Type locality, Sites, Colusa County. California. 

Dipodomys deserti Stephens. (Of the desert.) 


Large and pale; above grayish buff, the hairs ashy gray 
at base; shoulders and upper part of sides lighter, the .hairs white 
at base; white spot behind the ear large, sometimes reaching the 
shoulder; soles of hind feet dirty white; upper side of tail white 
at base, then buffy or brownish to past the middle, then drab 
gray to the white tip, under side white; other marking as usual; 
skull large; inflation of mastoids extreme; supraoccipetal nar- 
rowed almost to a line on the upper surface ; interparietal usually 
obliterated in adults. 

Length about 340 mm. (13.40 inches) ; tail vertebrae 205 
(6.10) ; hind foot 53 (2.10) ; ear from crown 15 (.60). 

Type locality, Mojave River, near Hesperia. California. 

Desert Pocket-Rats occur in southern California, southern 
Nevada, western Arizona, northwestern Sonora and northeastern 
Lower California. The northwestern extreme of their range is 
Owen Valley, Inyo County, where I have trapped thein near 
Alvord. None have been taken on the coast side of the moun- 

This species occurs in small colonies, less commonly in pairs, 
rarely singly. The habitation is often a labyrinth of intercom- 
municating burrows from a few inches to two feet beneath the 
surface, commonly under a low mound formed of sand and dust 
drifted about a shrub, but sometimes in a level space. Frequent- 
ly the interior is honeycombed with burrows until little more than 


a surface shell remains and one breaks through on stepping- there. 
A horse soon learns to avoid these burrows, walking being suf- 
ficiently tiresome in this sandy region without falling into rat- 
nests. Not all the burrows are excavated to this extent however, 
many being simple burrows a few feet in length with two en- 
trances, or with a branch or two. 

In places where much camping is done, such as by springs 
on the road from one mining camp to another, the Pocket-Rats 
are in the habit of coming about camp at night to pick up grain 
scattered by the horses and other food, becoming comparatively 
tame, as no one harms them. I never knew a dog to catch one. 
as they get under way ver\- quickly, and vanish in the nearest 
burrow ; in such places they have many burrows, perhaps for just 
such emergencies. 

I have kept Desert Pocket-Rats in captivity several times, 
at one time having two for several months. Some of tlie habits 
of these as observed in captivity are worth recording. The first 
I kept was caught at the type locality in November. At that 
season food had become scarce and they were hungry and easily 
trapped. The box trap was set a few yards from camp; hearing 
the door fall I immediately took the animal out and put it in 
a cage and put some grain in the cage. It was amusing to see 
the eagerness with which it began filling its pockets. It stuffed 
them so full that it must have been almost painful. It would 
not stop to eat. but hunted about for some exit; not finding one 
it ejected the contents of its pockets in a corner out of the 
firelight and went back for more. This time it ate a little grain, 
but soon gathered the remainder and deposited it with the first. 
After eating a little more it refilled its pockets and hunted about 
for a better place to make a cache, seeming to think its first 
choice insecure. 

On arriving home I put a little dry earth in the cage. This 
pleased the Pocket-Rats and they enjoyed a good dust bnth, 
rolling in the earth and pushing along on their bellies. They 
looked much better for their dust bath, the roughened pelage 
becoming smooth and glossv. 


None of my captive Pocket-Rats would drink water. For 
food they preferred grain, but also ate such vegetables as sweet 
potatoes and the leaves of beets and cabbages. They consumed 
little more than a heaping tablespoonful of wheat or barley in 
twenty-four hours. The two pockets together held a heaping 
tablespoonful of grain and therefore would carry nearly a full 
day's ration. 

The pockets are filled by the fore feet used as hands. The 
filling is done so rapidly that when a hard grain, like wheat, is 
used a continuous rattling sound is made. The ejection of the 
grain is aided by a forward squeezing motion of the fore feet, 
each foot making twO' or three quick forward passes scarcely 
occupying a second of time. 

The position at rest was a curious one. At first the animal 
stood on all four feet, with the entire sole of the hind foot 
resting on the ground, some of the weight coming on the fore 
feet. Presently the hind feet would hitch forward until the 
center of gravity came over the hind feet, thus taking all the 
weight, then often the fore part of the body would be raised 
slightly and the fore feet drawn up against the body. If dis- 
posed to sleep the bright eyes would slowly close, the fore feet 
droop until touching" the ground, the nose come slowly down and 
backward until resting between the toes of the hind feet, and the 
now sleeping animal was nearly as round as a ball. This ap- 
pears to be the common sleeping posture. If there be room the 
tail will be extended backward in a nearly straight line, but in 
cramped quarters it will be curved to one side or even alongside 
of the body, but in either case the basal part will be extended 
back far enough to give some support. 

Dipodomys merriami simiolus Rhoads. (For Dr. C. 
Hart Merriam; a little mimic.) 


Very similar in color to descrti, but much smaller; tip of tail 


dark and a light brown stripe on under side of tail; soles of 
hind feet often partly bare. 

Length about 240 mm. (9.50 inches); tail vertebrre 150 
(5.90) ; hind foot 37 (1.45) ; ear from crown 10 (.40). 

Type locality, Palm Spring (Agua Caliente), western end of 
the Colorado Desert, California. 

Mimic Pocket-Rats are common in many parts of the Colo- 
rado and Mojave Deserts. A few occur on the northeastern 
slope of the mountains bordering- tlie Colorado Desert, and in one 
place across the divide on the upper part of the Temecula River. 
These last are intermediate between siiiiiolus and parznis, and 
perhaps should be classed with the latter subspecies. Those taken 
along the western border of the Colorado Desert are rather larger 
than the average elsewhere. They inhabit sandy land having a 
brief growth of annuals, the seeds of these being stored for use 
during the remainder of the year. In a few places where plants 
are plentiful these animals are common. They are crepuscular 
and nocturnal, not shy, often coming around the camp fire. They 
have several times run over me as I lay sleeping on the ground, 
and one even ran across my feet as I sat quietly by the camp 
fire alone. Their tracks in the morning show that they have 
gleaned thoroughly about camp the previous night for crumbs of 
bread, grain or other food. The young are born mostly in April 
and May, and are oftenest four in number. 

Dipodomys merriami parvus Rhoads. (Little.) 


Alx)ve broccoli brown, slightly tipped with black, the greater 
part of the hairs slate gray; sides light wood brown or clay 
color; soles of hind feet and leg above the heel blackish; upper and 
lower tail stripes distinct, blackish to end; side stripes white to 
mixed tip. Slightly smaller than simiolus. 

Type locality, south side of San Bernardino Valley, Califor- 

This subspecies appears to be rare. The few known speci- 


mens have been taken in Re'che Canon, a few miles south of San 
Bernardino. Their habits appear to be Hke those of the species 
in general. 

Dipodomys merriami nitratus Mkrriam. 


Similar to simiolus; averaging smaller ; hind feet longer ; 
dusky markings obsolete; hairs of back not tipped with black. 
Type locality, Keeler, Inyo County, California. 
Habitat, Owen Vallev. 

Dipodomys merriami nitratoides Me:rriam. (Re- 
sembling nitratus. ) 


"Similar to nitratus in size and and color but with strongly 
marked facial crescents meeting over bridge of nose ; ears smal- 

Type locality, Tipton, Tulare County. California. 

Dipodomys merriami exilis Mkrriam. (Smallest.) 


Upper parts nearly uniform clay-color, darkened with sepia 
from abundant admixture of black tipped hairs, and darkest on 
the head ; sides tinged with ochraceous buff ; black crescents at 
base of whiskers sharply defined and meeting on the bridge of the 
nose; upper and lower tail stripes sooty blackish, meeting along 
terminal third, thus interrupting the white side stripes. 

Length about 227 mm. (9 inches) ; tail vertebrcT 13G 
(5.35); hind foot 35 (1.38). 

Type locality, Fresno, California. 

Genus Microdipodops Mkrriam. (Small — two footed — 
I General appearance similar to that of a large thickset 


PcroguatJius with a large head and long- hind feet; skull similar 
to Dipodoiuys, with the inflation of the temporal region carried to 
tlie farthest extreme known among mammals ; zygomatic process 
similar to that of Perognathus, not widely expanded in front 
of orbit as in Pcrodipus and Dcpodouiys; occipetal notch between 
the enormously inflated mastoids proportionally deeper than in 
any other genus of the family; supraoccipetal, interparietal and 
parietals greatly reduced; hind feet long; soles densely haired; 
five toes on each hind foot, the inner toe similar to that of 
Perognathus in size and location; tail indistinctly bicolor, some- 
what longer than head and body; mammre six, one ])air pectoral 
and two pairs inguineal. 

Microdipodops calif ornicus jMerriam. 


Above grizzled yellowish olive; sides from nose to thighs 
cream buff, forming an indistinct stripe ; below dull white to roots 
of hairs ; no white stripe across the thigh ; a dark crescent at 
base of whiskers; an indistinct white spot above the eye; feet 
grayish white; tail bicolor, dull buff below, buffy gray above, 
darkening toward the tip; whiskers mostly blackish, the longest 
reaching the shoulders. 

Length about i6o mm. (6.30' inches) ; tail vertebrae 92 
(3.60) ; hind foot 25 (i). 

Type locality. Sierra Valley, Plumas County, California. 

The above description (except measurements) is drawn up 
from a male that I caught in northwestern Nevada, five miles east 
of the California boundary. This may vary a little from the 
Plumas County animals. The only locality in California where 
I know of Dwarf Pocket-lxats having been taken is Sierra Val- 
ley, Plumas County. Animals of this genus have been taken in 
various localities in Nevada and in eastern Oregon. The two 
that I caught were taken in sandy land among sage brush, with 
grain baited mouse traps. I know nothing further of their 


Subfamily Heteromyinae 

Molars rooted; temporal region moderately inflated; inter- 
parietal large; hind legs not greatly lengthened; size small. 

Genus Perognathus Maximilian. (Pouch — jaw.) 
Upper incisors narrow, grooved in front ; zygomatic process 
not greatly expanded in front of the orbit; tail about as long 
as head and body; hind feet with five toes, the inner toe small, 
situated but little above the other toes ; soles nearly naked ; pelage 
sometimes spiny on the rump and sides. 

Subgenus Perognathus. 

Mastoids comparatively large, projecting beyond the plane 
of the occiput ; pelage soft, without spines or bristles. 

Perognathus. panamintus Merriam. (Of the Panamint 


Above grayish buff, often wth a pearl}- appearance caused 
by the pale buff ground color being overlaid by dark-tipped hairs ; 
lateral line pale buff, not sharply defined; subauricular spot small 
and inconspicuous ; fore legs buffy or white ; under parts white ; 
tail, above dusky, darkest toward tip, below buff or whitish; 
pelage long, full and silky. 

Length alx)ut 143 mm. (5.63 inches) ; tail vertebrae 78 
(3.07); hind foot 20 (.78). 

Type locality, Perognathus Flat, (alt. 3,200), Panamint 
Mountains, California. 

Panamint Mountains, California, eastward to St. George, 

In April, 1891, Mr. Bailey and I found Panamint Pocket- 
Mice abundant in the type locality, which is a small sandy plain 
in the northern part of the Panamint Mountains, having a moder- 
ate growth of small shrubs and some grass. 


Perognathus panamintus bangsi Mearns. (For 
Oiitram Bangs.) 


Similar to panamintus but paler; above pale vinaceous buff 
lightly mixed with black ; lateral line blending- with color of 
sides; under parts white; tail buffy white, slightly darker on 
upper side. 

Length about 138 mm. (5-45 inches); tail vertebrae 80 
(3.15); hind foot 19 (.75). 

Type locality, Palm Spring, Riverside County, California. 

Mohave Desert, Ow^en Valley and south to the foothills bor- 
dering the Colorado Desert on its southwestern side. Seldom 

Perognathus panamintus arenicola Stephens. (Sand- 
inhabiting. ) 


Similar to bangsi but paler and whiter; above cream buff, 
slightly mixed w'ith blackish; no lateral line; mastoids greatly 
swollen and projecting much back of the occiput; interparietal 
small, its transverse diameter about equal the length. 

Tv'pe locality, San Felipe Narrows, border of the Colorado 
Desert, California. 

Sand Pocket-Mice inhabit the sandy gulches at the edge 
of the foothills bordering the Colorado Desert, sometimes being 
found a short distance out in the Desert. They appear to be 
rare. One morning about sunrise I found a little rattlesnake, of 
the species known as "sidewinder," with a dead Sand Pocket- 
Mouse in its mouth. The snake had crushed it and had just be- 
gun to swallow it, but disgorged on being struck with the butt 
of my gun. 

Perognathus brevinasus Osgood. (Short — nose.) 


Above deep buff or grayish buff mixed with black, a band 


(usually narrow) on the sides with but little intermixture of 
black; a small or obscure whitish spot at the base of the ear; a 
more or less distinct crescentic blackish line at the base of the 
whiskers; tail buffy, darker above. Young; drab buff above. 

Length about 120 mm. (4.70 inches) ; tail vertebrae 62 
(3.15) ; hind foot 18 (.70). 

Type locality, San Bernardino, California. 

Interior valleys of southern California. Occasionally com- 
mon locally after wet seasons, but usually rare. I have never 
seen them abundant but once, this was after the wet spring of 
1884, when they became plentiful at San Bernardino for two 
or three years, almost disappearing later. 

The young are usually four in number, and are lx)rn in 
May, June and July. One female in the gray immature pelage 
taken June 4th, contained but two foetuses. It is my impression 
that this species does not often dig burrows, but hides under 
weeds and dead leaves. 

Perognathus pacificus Mearns. (Of the Pacific.) 


Very small; above ochraceous buff thickly mixed with black; 
a narrow lateral stripe of buff which widens on the sides of the 
head; distinct narrow black crescents at the base of the whiskers; 
a small white spot at the base of the ear and another indistinct 
larger buff one behind the ear; feet and lower parts white; tail 
buff below, darker above ; skull small and narrow ; mastoids less 
inflated than usual in the small species; transverse breadth of 
interparietal greater than the longitudinal. 

Length about 109 mm. (4.30 inches) ; tail vertebrae 54 
(2.12); hind foot 15.5 (.60); ear from crown 5 (.20). 

Type locality, mouth of the Tijuana River, near the last 
boundary monument. 

This exceedingly small Pocket-Mouse is one of the rarest of 
mammals yet, though some one may find them plentiful unex- 


pectedly. Dr. Mearns and his assistant Mr. liolzner f;l>tainefl 
three at the type locality in the extreme southwestern corner 
of San Diego County, while with the Boundary Survey in 1894. 
I had the good fortune to get the fourth, an adult female, in the 
northwestern corner of the same County, in Sept., 1903. These 
I believe to be the only sj^ecimens yet taken. I caught mine on 
a dry mesa a short distance back from the seashore. 

Perognathus parvus mollipilosus Coues. (Little; soft 

— liair. ) 


.Mxjve r>chraceous buff thickly mixed with black; lateral 
line prominent; below white varying to tawny ochraceous on the 
belly; antitragus of ear prominently lobed; rostrum rather slend- 
er; mastoids but moderately developed; interparietal wide. 

Length about 168 mm. (6.60 inches j ; tail vertebrae 88 
(3.45J ; hind foot 22 (.H6). 

Type locality, old Fort Crook, Shasta County, California. 

Mount Shasta and northeastern California. Coues Pocket- 
Mice have l^>een taken on Mount Shasta at 7,800 altitude, which 
is unusually high for any Pocket-Mouse. 

Perognathus parvus olivaceous Mj:rriam. 
( vShaded with olive color.) 


Ah)Ove ochracefjus buff thinly mixed with black; lateral 
line buff; lower parts white, sometimes with plumbeous bases to 
the hairs; tail brownish above, white below^ mastoids usually well 

Length about 178 mm. (7 inches; ; tail vertebrae 96 (3.75) ; 
hind foot 23 (.90) ; ear from crown 7.5 ( .30). 

Type locality, Kelton, Utah. 

Great Basin Pocket-Mice range over most of the Great Bas- 
in, from northern Utah and southern Idaho west to the eastern 



part of IModoc County, California, and Mono Lake. I have one 
that I caught at Mono Lake in a sandy flat. While this is a wide- 
spread subspecies it does not seem to be very common anywhere. 
It seems to be an inhabitant of valle}-s and plains. 

Perognathus parvus magruderensis Osgood. (Of 
Mount ^lagruder. ) 


Ver\- similar to olivaceous; larger; skull larger and heavier; 
interparietal relatively narrower. 

Length about 192 mm. (7.60 inches) : tail vertebrae 102 
(4) ; hind foot 24 (.95). 

Type locality, Mount Magruder, Nevada, at 8.000 feet al- 
titude ; higher parts of the mountain ranges of Lhe desert region 
of eastern California and Nevada, grading into olivaceous at 
their bases. 

Perognathus alticola Rhoads. (A dweller on the 


Above ochraceous buff thickly mixed with black; sides 
scarcely lighter than back; lateral buff line narrow and indistinct; 
black crescent at base of whiskers obsolete; ears and tail white; 
skull ven,' similar to that of olivaceous. 

Length about 165 mm. (6.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 84 
(3.30); hind foot 22 (.87). 

Type locality. Squirrel Inn. San Bernardino Mts.. Califor- 

The half dozen known examples of the ^^'hite-eared Pocket- 
]Mouse have been taken in a small area in the mountains north of 
the town of San Bernardino, in open pine forest at 5.000 feet 
altitude or a little higher. They are not common or more would 
have been found with the amount of trapping that has been done 


in the hope of getting more. The}- are easily recognized by 
the ears and tail being white with but very little dusky mark- 

Perognathus fonnosus Merriam. f Comely.; 


Size large; tail much longer than head and body; ears large; 
the antitragus prominently lobed; above grizzled sepia; below 
white ; tail buff mixed with dusky above, buff below ; cranium but 
slightly arched ; mastoids well developed ; interparietal large and 
wide; interorbital space wide. 

Length about 190 mm. (7.50 inches;; tail vertebrse 106 
(4.15J ; hind foot 24 C.95J. 

Type locality, St. George, Utah. 

Southwestern Utah, west to Owen Lake, California. 

Perognathus longimembris Coues. fLong membered.) 


Above buff mixed with more or less black; below white; lat- 
eral line indistinct; tail buff, darker above, lighter below; skull 
large; mastoids of moderate size; interorbital region narrow. 
Young; darker and more olivaceous. 

Length of male about 145 mm. (5.70 inches; ; tail vertebrae 
74 (2.90; ; hind foot 19 i.JS). Female smaller. 

Type locality, old Fort Tejon, Kern County, California. 

Southern part of the San Joaquin Valley. 

Subgenus Chsetodipus. 

Mastoids relatively small and not projecting beyond the 
plane of the occiput ; pelage of adult harsh, often with spines or 
bristles on the rump. 


Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse. (Pencil like.) 


Above pale clay color or vinaceous buff, sparsely intermixed 
with blackish hairs; below white; lateral line obsolete; hairs of 
terminal third of tail lengthened, forming a distinct "pencil" at 
tip; tail similar to back above, darkening toward tip, white below ; 
soles naked ; no spines on the rump, but sometimes small bristles 
are present ; skull comparatively narrow ; mastoids small ; inter- 
parietal rather large, the angles rounded, transverse breadth near- 
ly twice the longitudinal ; interorbital region wide. 

Length about 200 mm. (8 inches) ; tail vertebrae 109 
(4.70) ; hind foot 25 ( i). 

Type locality, near San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 

This Pocket-Mouse is rare in the region where it was first 
found, that being in the edge of its habitat. It is more common 
along the Colorado River, but is not typical in the lower part of 
that region, gradually blending intO' the next subspecies. 

Perognathus penicillatus angustirostris Osgood. (Nar- 
row — rostrum. ) 


Similar to penicillatus; averaging smaller; rostrum longer 
and more slender; color similar. 

Type locality. Carrizo Creek, southwestern border of the 
Colorado Desert. 

This Pocket-Mouse is common throughout the Colorado 
Desert, the southeastern part of the Mojave Desert, the southwest- 
ern corner of Arizona, northwestern Sonora and northeastern 
Lower California. The relative abundance is determined by the 
abundance or scarcity of plants and therefore oi food. In con- 
siderable barren areas they are practically lacking, and in a few 
favorable localities they are abundant. I remember catching 
twenty-seven one night in a thick piatch of weeds. Their food 
is mostly the small seeds of plants; mesquit beans are eaten to 


some extent. Their harxest is irrej^ular and short, and the main 
dependance must l)e on stored seeds the greater part of the year. 
Much loss through starvation must occur after unfavorable sea- 
sons. The breeding season is spring, April to June. The usual 
number young is four and five, but I have taken several females 
containing seven foetuses. In favorable seasons two litters of 
young appear to be raised. 

Perognathus Stephens! ATkrriam. 


Similar to peniciUatus but very much smaller; skull short; 
rostrum broader. 

Type locality, the northwestern arm of Death Valley, Cali- 

Known only from two examples which I caught in that part 
of Death Valley, known locally as Mesquit Valley. It is prob- 
ably a dwarf subspecies of pejiicillafiis. 

Perognathus fallax Mkrriam. (Deceptive.) 


Above brownish buff mixed with black ; lateral line buff, us- 
ually well defined; white spot at base of ear small and faint; an 
indistinct dusky crescent at base of whiskers; feet and lower 
parts buffy white; tail pencillate and terminal third crested, up- 
per side brownish becoming dusky terminally, white below ; skull 
well arched; mastoids of moderate size; rostrum rather slender; 
interparietal large, wide; outer sides of nasals parallel to ends 
posteriorly; ears small, round; pelage coarse and mixed with 
long coarse spines on the rump and hips, those of the rump 
black and on the hips white. 

Length about 185 mm. (7.30 inches); tail vertebrae no 
(4.33); hind foot 25 (i); ear from crown 7.5 (.30). 

Type locality, Reche Canon, San Bernardino Valley, Cali- 


Short-eared Pocket-Mice are common in southwestern CaH- 
fornia from the coast up to the lower edge of the pine belt. They 
occur some distance into Lower California and north to Los 
Ang-eles County. As they are nocturnal and seldom enter build- 
ings, few people become acquainted with them, or know that 
these interesting animals are common about them. They prin- 
cipally inhabit weed patches and prefer sandy land. They rarely 
enter thick brush. Their tracks are often seen in dusty roads 
in the morning, and may be distinguished by the impressions 
of the long heels; frequently the mark of the tail may also be 
seen in the dust. 

They live in burrows and under weeds and accumulations 
of dead leaves. The food is mostly seeds, with some leaves, buds 
and plant stems. Seeds are stored for food, commonly in small 
independent surface caches, not readily noticed. I have not 
heard them make any vocal sound, except rarely a squeak of 
pain. The number of young is usually five. These are born in 
April and May. 

These Pocket-Mice make interesting pets. In November, 
1889, I found one alive and unhurt in one of my traps and kept 
it a captive to study its habits. It was not wild but allowed me 
to handle it freely from the start. It would walk up my sleeve, 
around my neck and down the other arm, and for a year or more 
did not try to jump to the floor, but later it seemed to have lost 
the power to judge distances, and would jump down after a 
little walking about, even if the fall was great enough to injure 

It never tried to bite me and would quietly bear handling 
and carrying about. I put it in a box with an inch or so of sand 
in the bottom ; this it would scratch about vigorously in the night, 
but I rarely heard it moving in the daytime, although the interior 
of the box must have been fairly dark all the time. It did not 
try to gnaw the box, as true mice would have done, and did not 
try to lift the lid, which was kept closed by its own w^eight only. 
At first I tried feeding it grain, seeds and green food. It would 


eat no green plants or roots that I gave it and would not touch 
water. During the last three years of its life I gave it only dry 
barle}' or dr}- wheat and no water. It seemed to prefer the 
wheat. It is a mystery to me how such an animal can live for 
years and thrive on dry grain without water or moisture in any 
form, but this one certainly did. Three or four times a year I 
emptied the box and put in clean dry sand and set it in the 
corner of the hall, where it was perfectly dry, and put nothing 
more in the box but dry grain and a little cotton, of which the 
Pocket-Mouse made a globular nest. 

If taken out of the box after dark and turned loose on the 
floor the Pocket-Mouse moved actively about a few minutes, 
usually by short, deliberate jumps; but if frightened it leaped 
two feet or more. After it had satisfied its curiosity it crept 
into a dark place behind some piece of furniture. If turned out 
on the floor in the daytime it hunted a dark place if allowed to, 
and was easily caught, but after dark I had to corner it to catch 
it. When captured this Pocket-Mouse appeared to be fully 
adult. It died in the summer of 1894, during my absence from 
home. It therefore, was at least five years old at the time of its 
death and probably older. 

Perognathus fallax pallidus AIearns. (Pale.) 


Similar to fallax in size and proportions but paler, the in- 
termixed dark hairs being fewer and brown instead of black. 

Type locality, Mountain Spring, San Diego County, Cali- 

The habitat of Pallid Pocket-Mice is the dry, cactus grown 
slopes of the mountains bordering the western side of the Colo- 
rado Desert, in San Diego County and northern Lower Califor- 
nia. They do not seem to be common anywhere. They live 
among the rocks in the gulches and on the hillsides. They are 
associated with the Spiny Pocket-Mice in the lower part of the 


mountain slopes, but are easily distinguished from the latter 
species in the flesh. The animals found in the type locality of 
fallax are considerably paler than the usual run of fallax, and 
are really intermediate between normal fallax and paUidus. 

Perognathus californicus Me:rriam. 


Above yellowish bistre thickly mixed with black; spines of 
rump and hips prominent; lateral stripe pale fulvous, distinct; 
below yellowish white; tail long, crested-penicillate, sooty black 
above, white beneath ; skull considerably arched ; mastoids small ; 
occiput bulging posteriorly ; rostrum heavy ; outer sides of nasals 
narrowed posteriorly; ears long, comparatively pointed. 

Length about 193 mm. (7.60 inches); tail vertebrae 103 
(4); hind foot 24 (.95). 

Type locality, Berkeley, California. 

Vicinity of San Francisco Bay, south to San Benito County. 

Perognathus californicus dispar Osgood. (Unequal.) 


Similar to calif ornicus but grayer and paler; grayer than 
normal fallax ; skull heavier than typical californicus and in some 
cases with larger mastoids, thus approaching femoralis. 

Length about 215 mm. (8.45 inches); tail vertebrae 120 
(4.70) ; hind foot 27 (1.05) ; ear from crow^n 11 (.43). 

Type locality, Carpenteria, Santa Barbara County, Califor- 

Coast valleys of California from Los Angeles to San Benito 
County, and the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada north to 
Placer County. I have seen examples from the pine belt of the 
San Bernardino Mountains that were very large, with skulls 
that varied in the direction of femoralis. 

Perognathus femoralis Allen. (Of the thigh.) 


Similar to californicus; darker and rather larger; skull sim- 
ilar to that of californicus. 


Length about 220 mm. (8.65 inches) ; tail vertebrae 125 
(4.90) ; hind foot 27 (1.05) ; ear from crown 11 (.43). 

Type locaHty, Dnlzura, San Diego Comity, CaHfornia. 

The Dark Pocket-Mouse has a somewhat hmited range, as 
far as is now known. This is the foothills and mountains of 
San Diego County and the adjoining part of northern Lower Cali- 
fornia. I believe it will ultimately prove to be a subspecies of 
calif ondciis. In the lower part of its range P^tognathus fallax 
also occurs, and they may be trapped in the same spot. As they 
are very much alike the novice is likely to consider them both 
of the same species, but a little examination of the ears \\;ill show 
a difference ; fallax has a short round ear wdiile femoralis has a 
longer and pointed ear. 

Perognathus spinatus Mi^rriam. (Bearing spines.) 


Above grayish buff mixed with dark brown; below^ white; 
lateral line obsolete ; tail drab gray above, white below ; spines 
large and extending forward on the sides, sometimes to the 
shoulders, the rump spines partly brown, the others white; sku[l 
rather flat; rostrum broad; mastoids small. 

Length about 182 mm. (8.10 inches); tail vertebrae no 
(4.33) ; hind foot 21.5 (.85) ; ear from crown 6 (.24). 

Type locality, 25 miles below Needles, California. 

Spiny Pocket-Alice frequent the arid hills around the Colo- 
rado Desert and in the southeastern part of the Mojave Desert, 
east to the Colorado River, which they do not appear to cross. 
They are replaced on the east bank of the Colorado by the less 
spiny intcnnediiis. Spiny Pocket-Mice are most plentiful along 
the western side of the Colorado Desert and southward into Low^- 
er California, but they are not plentiful anywhere. They do not 
seem to care for the open Desert or for wide valleys, but like the 
bottoms of rocky slopes where they can come into narrow sandy 
gulches. I have several times seen them running about among 
the rocks at tw ilight in summer, and they may be more crepuscu- 
lar than other species. 


Family Zapodidae. Jumping Mice. 

Skull of moderate size and thickness; occipetal region de- 
pressed ; audita! bullae transverse, rather small ; anteorbital fora- 
men very large, oval, supplemented on the lower inner side by a 
small foramen, which transmits the second division of the fifth 
nerve; zygomatic arch depressed, the molar part slender, except 
anteriorly, where it widens and extends up on the maxillary 
to meet the lachrymal ; upper incisors compressed, deeply grooved 
in front, orange colored ; upper premolars present in one genus, 
absent in another; lower molars absent; molars rooted; enamel 
folds of grinding surface of molars complex; coronoid process of 
lower jaw high, slender, curved ; angular process wide, twisted al- 
most horizontal ; cervical vertebrae not anchylosed ; fore legs about 
half as long as hind legs; inner toe of front foot rudimentary; 
hind foot with five metatarsal bones and five toes, the inner toe 
short but functional ; soles naked ; tail slender, tapering, much 
longer than head and body ; cheeks with internal pouches. 

This small family is composed of two or three genera and 
about twenty species and subspecies. These inhabit the wooded 
parts of British America, northeastern Asia, Alaska and the north- 
ern parts of the United States, reaching some of the higher south- 
western mountains. 

Progress when hurried is by long leaps, sometimes seven or 
eight feet, but these long leaps soon tire the animal and the leaps 
shorten to a yard or less and the animal hides in the nearest cover. 
The long tail is a great help in making these long le'aps and an 
aid in going in a straight line. Jumping-Mice do not make run- 
ways as many of the small animals are in the habit of dbling. The 
food is vegetable, mostly seeds. 

Hiberation occurs regularly in the greater part of the range 
of the family, but it is probably incomplete in the southern edge 
of their range. The animals become very fat, and the fall pelage 
is usually assumed before hibernation begins, which is when the 
first hard frosts occur. 

Most species inhabit grassy valleys bordered by open forests 

ZAPODID.^ 175 

or interspersed with groves or shrubs, and some prefer moist 
locaHties. They are most often noticed in mo-wing- the grass of 
meadows inhabited by tliem. They are crepuscular and noctur- 
nal, but are abroad occasionally in the daytime. 

Genus Zapus Coue:s. (Great — foot.) 
Nasals long, projecting some distance in advance of the in- 
cisors ; upper premolar present, very small ; enamel folds of molars 
crowded; frontal narrow interorbitally ; ears rather long; pelage 
coarse; four pairs of mamma;. 

Zapus trinotatus Rhoads. (Thrice — Marked.) 


Summer pelage ; a broad, well defined dorsal band from nose 
to tail black mixed with the color of the sides; head lighter; sides 
brownish ochraceous butT or yellowish clay color sparsely mixed 
with coarse black hairs, bordered below with a narrow buff line ; 
feet white; tail bicolor, dusky above, whitish beneath. Autumn 
pelage; dorsal band more tlecked with yellowish; sides dull yel- 
low. Immature; back with less black. 

Length about 240 mm. (9.45 inches) ; tail vertebrae 145 
(5.70) ; hind foot 33 (1.30) ; ear from^ crown 11 (.43). 

Type locality. Lulu Island, British Columbia. 
Coast region of British Columbia, western Washington, west- 
ern Oregon and northwestern California to Humboldt Bay. 

Zapus trinotatus alleni Elliott. (For J. A. Allen.) 


Similar to trinotatus; dorsal band less black; skull smaller 
with small audital bullae ; tip of tail sometimes white. The autum- 
nal pelage appears to be the same as that of summer. Size of 

Type locality, Pyramid Peak, Eldorado County, California. 


Mount Shasta and the Sierra Nevada. They frequent the 
mountain meadows and grassy locahties along streams. They do 
not seem to be common in many places and I did not find them 
easily trapped. I got but four, three of these being taken in traps 
set for meadow-mice, and the fourth in a steel trap set in shalloAv 
water in a small stream below a spring in a mountain beaver run- 
way. As the pan of the trap was close to or above the surface of 
the water it is probable that the Jumping-Mouse used it as a step- 
ping stone in crossing the stream, which passed through coarse 
grass which nearly met over it. These four animals were taken at 
various altitudes from 5,000 to 9,000^ feet. The breeding habits 
are probably similar to those of the eastern species, which some- 
times have two litters annually, of four to six each. 

Zapus orarius Osgood. 


Sides of body and head dark ochraceous, moderately mixed 
with black ; dorsal band not sharply defined and suffused with the 
color of the sides ; lower parts strongly suffused with ochraeous, 
the sides of the throat deeper ochraceous ; feet yellowish white ; 
tail grayish above and yellowish white below ; upper incisors slen- 
der and more projecting than usual ; rostrum short and consider- 
ably deflected; nasals very narrow anteriorly; interorbital con- 
striction narrow ; audital bulte small and rather near together. 

Length about 220 mm. (8.65 inches) ; tail vertebrae 127 (5) ; 
hind foot 30 (1.20). 

Type locality. Point Reyes, California. 

Only known from the coast region of Caifornia from Point 
Reyes to Humboldt Bay. Evidently rare in this region. 

Zapus pacificus Merriam. (Of the Pacific Coast.) 


Dorsal area not sharply defined, but so strongly sufifused with 
yellowish that the yellow predominates over the black ; sides buffy- 

ZAPODID^. 177 

yellow, moderately lined with black hairs; inner sides of legs only, 
slightly darkened; tail sharply bicolor, grayish above, white be- 
neath; fore and hind feet soiled white. 

Length of type 225 mm. (8.85 inches) ; tail vertebras 141 
(5.55) ; hind foot 31 (1.22). 

Type locality. Prospect, Rogue River Valley, Oregon. 

Southwestern Oregon, south to Mount Shasta, California. 


Family ErethizontidSB American Porcupines. 

Skull short, rug-ged, thick and strong; incisors large, prom- 
inent, not grooved in front ; molars rooted and with complicated 
enamel folds ; anteorbital foramen large, oval ; angular process of 
low^er jaw joining outside of root of lower incisor; coronoid pro- 
cess small and low ; tibia and fibula distinct ; tail prehensile in some 
genera, short and thick in others ; toes variable in number with 
genera; soles tuberculate; pelage containing spines; upper lip not 
cleft ; mammae four. 

The family contains about half a dozen genera and perhaps 
thirty species. But one genus and two^ species with several sub- 
species occur in North America. The food is vegetable, consist- 
ing chiefly of the fruits, twigs, leaves and bark of trees, shrubs 
and plants. Porcupines are plantigrade, principally nocturnal and 
more or less arboreal. 

Genus Erethizon Cuvier. (To irritate.) 

Four toes on front feet, five on hind feet, all armed with 
long, curved, compressed claws; tail rather short, very thick, not 
prehensile, covered above with stiff hairs and spines, and beneath 
with bristles; pelage below short and soft, above very long and 
mixed with sharp spines ; spines hollow through the greater part 
of their length, small at base where they are loosely inserted in the 
skin, points sharp and' over certain areas covered with minute flat 
scales pointing backward, thus acting as barbs. 

Dental formula, i, i — i ; C, o — o; P, i — i ; M, 3 — 3X2=20. 

Erethizon epixanthus Brandt. (Outside — yellow.) 


General effect yellowish gray, blackening on the rump, up- 
per side of tail, face and feet ; spines one tO' twO' inches long, very 
numerous, large creamy white with black tips ; hairs sparse, four 
to six inches long, yellowish on the sides and on upper part of 
head and neck, whitish at base on the back with yellowish tip and 
black subterminal zone; face, fore legs and under parts blackish, 
free from spines; ears small. 


Length al>out 760 mm. (30 inches) ; tail vertebrae 215 
(8.50); hind foot 108 (4.25). 

Type locaHty, northwestern North America. 
Western Porcupines are found from the Sierra Nevadas to 
Alaska. They are common in a few localities ,but are almost un- 
known in large areas within their range. They occur south to 
the San Bernardino Mountains, one having been killed there in 
1903, and they were occasionally seen there when these mountains 
were first known to white people. They seem tO' be lacking" in all 
the coast mountains of Caifornia. They frequent the coniferous 
forests of the mountains and the higher valleys. 

When wild fruits are in season these form the principal item 
of food of the Porcupines ; such as wild gooseberries, wild cur- 
rants, plums, etc. Cultivated fruits are also eaten, and I heard 
complaints of their damaging apple trees in the northeastern part 
of California by breaking off the smaller limbs in getting at the 
apples, and of the waste of apples, these having been dropped af- 
ter having been bitten. When fruits are not obtainable these 
animals subsist on leaves, twigs, or sometimes on the inner bark 
of coniferous trees. They are fond of salt, and I saw a churn and 
a cheese press that had been gnawed by Porcupines, apparently to 
get a taste of salt. Townsend saw a pine stump eighteen inches in 
diameter that had been gnawed away by Porcupines; salt had 
been placed on the stump for horses to lick. 

I found Western Porcupines common about Goose Lake, 
Modoc County, where they inhabited the crevices of lava cliffs. I 
saw one run from a thicket of wild gooseberries in the daytime 
and on shooting it found the stomach full of gooseberries. This 
one weighed nearly twenty five pounds. The gait is slow, one can 
easily outrun them. 


Sul3order Duplicidentata. 

Three pairs of upper incisors, one pair being lost soon after 
the aninials birth ; enamel covering the sides as well as the front 
of the incisors ; incisive foramina large and usually confluent ; 
bony palate very narrow from front to back. 

Family Ochotonidae. Pikas. 

Adult incisors two below and four above, the extra pair very 
small and hidden behind the others, which are deeply grooved in 
front; molars rootless; five toes on each front foot and four on 
hind foot ; no visible tail ; ears of moderate size, broad, rounded ; 
eyes small; hind legs not greatly longer than the fore legs; size 

This small family of one genus and fifteen or more living 
species inhabits alpine and boreal parts of Asia and North Amer- 
ica. The species are all small in size and similar in habits. Tlie 
food is grass and other herbage, the leaves and twigs of alpine 
shrubs, and probably some seeds. Food is stored in autumn for 
winter use, and it is probable that Pikas do not hibernate, although 
living where the snowfall is heavy. They are social ; digitigrade, 
partly subterranean and principally diurnal. Tlieie is some varia- 
tion in color, this being apparently due to environment and pro- 
tective. The sexes are alike and the young but little different. 

Genus Ochotona Link. (Mongol name for the Pika.) 
Occiput not depressed ; a process of the molar is prolonged 
almost to the ear; aduitory bull?e large: angular process of lower 
jaw small, pointed, recurved ; condylar process high, greatly flat- 
tened, wide antero-posteriorily ; coronoid process minute, with a 
supplementary tubercle just back of the last molar; soles densely 
haired except a prominent pad at the base of each toe; pelage 
thick, long, coarse. 

Dental formula, I, 2— i ; C, 0—0; P. 2—2 ; ]\I. 3—3X2=26. 



Ochotona schisticeps Mkrriam. (Slate colored — head. ) 


Form thickset ; no visible exteriTal tail the short caudal series 
of vertebrae being folded back and lying wholly within the skin ; 
ears prominent, broad, rounded, edged with white; whiskers \-erv 
long: color of pelage varial>le with locrdit}-. from brownish grav 
mixed with black above and grayish vinaceous cinnamon below, 
to buffy wdiite mixed with blackish on the back, the biasal half of 
all the hairs being slatv l>lack in both cases. 

Sierra Nevada Pika. About half Hfe size. 

Length about 1S5 mm. ( 7.25 inches) ; tail vertebrae 13 (.50) ; 
hind foot 29 ( 1.15) ; ear from crown 17 ( .67). 

Type locality, Donner, Nevada County, California. 

The habitat of the Sierra Nevada Pika is the higher moun- 
tains of California and northward. It has been found in various 
places in the Sierra Nevada, \\diite Mountains, Mount 'Lassen, 
Mount Shasta and in the Warner Ivlonntains. Probably it oc- 
curs in- various other high mountains of California. Many years 
ago Prof. Gabb reported it from northern Lower California, but 
no one has found it there since. 


I have taken Pikas in six localities in the Sierra Nevada and 
in the Warner Mountains. All these localities were similar and 
are typical of those the Sierra Nevada Pikas prefer. These are 
what are sometimes called ''rock slides."" On a steep slope where 
favorable rock occurs the frost and weather loosens blocks of 
rock, which roll down the mountain side, and the supply being- 
continued the slope becomes covered many feet deep with blocks 
of rock from a few inches to several feet in diameter, generally as- 
sorted to size in certain parts of the slope. The angle of the slope 
is as steep as the blocks will lie. These slides often cover many 
acres. Among the interestices of these slides the Pikas make 
their homes, foraging on the herbage growing around the slides. 
They live in small communities, but m}' impression is that none 
of the localities that I have seen were inhabited by more than two 
or three dozen individuals, and in some probably but two or three 
families lived. 

The food of Pikas is said to be "grass," but there is very 
little grass to be found in the neighborhood of any of the colonies 
that I have seen. Probably most of the plants growing within 
their reach are eaten. They are said to cut and cure grass for 
winter food ; this "hay" being stored among the rocks after dry- 
ing in the sunshine. The only instances of this kind that I have 
seen were on the Warner Mountains in July, when I found several 
piles of twigs, mostly of "Choke cherry" twigs. Some of these 
piles were of scarcely wilted twigs, while others were old, apparen- 
ly cut the previous season. These twig piles appeared so much 
like the nests of wood rats {Ncotoma) that I got the impression 
that they were really used for shelter and secondarily for food 
when other food ran short. I have not had the opportunity of 
observing the Pikas late in the season when they would naturally 
be curing "hay." 

The lowest altitude in which I have found Pikas is 6,700 feet 
and the highest about 10,000 feet. The Pikas run about on the 
rocks much as a rat would. I happened to see one on a bit of level 
ground at the foot of a slide; it hopped along much as a young 


rabbit would wben not alarmed or liurried. Tbe position taken 
at rest is that shown in onr engraving. I have seen none stand- 
ing upright. An adult that 1 weighed pulled the scale down to 
four ounces. Coues says of the Rocky Mountain Pikas that "re- 
production takes place in May and June, and about four young 
are produced in a grassy nest." A female Sierra Nevada Pika 
that I shot August 22nd. was suckling }'oung. The mammcne were 
six in number, two pairs pectoral, one pair inguineal. 

The voice of Pikas is said to be similar to the bleat of a 
young lamb; that of the Sierra Nevada Pika is somewhat differ- 
ent. It may be represented by "eeh" strongly aspirated and is re- 
peated. It is not loud but may be heard a, hundred yards or more. 
The animal is difficult to locate by the sound, partly because of 
a ventriloqual quality of the sound, but more because of the ani- 
mals resembknce to the rock on which it may be sitting. I have 
seen them through a field glass eighty or a hundred feet away 
when I could not distinguish them with the naked eye, yet a charge 
of fine shot fired at the top of the rock where I knew it sat would 
get the animal. The color is variable with locality, and protective, 
being similar to that of the rocks where they live. If the rocks 
are nearly white so is the animal, and if the rocks are dark the 
animal is also. The snowfall is heavy in the region inhabited 
by the Pikas, but the interstices of the rock slides would be free 
from snow^ and comparatively warm and it is probable that they 
are active all winter. 

These little mountain dwellers are curious creatures from 
many points of view. They appear to be the remnant of an an- 
cient family, distanced in the evolutionary race and crowded into 
a region difficult for other animals to utiHze. They are peculiar- 
ly home loving bodies, as is shown by their having acquired the 
color of particular areas of rock, among which they must have 
dwelt many generations. Their habits protect them from nearly 
all predatory animals except weasels. American Pikas are some- 
times called Little Chief Hares, Straved Rats and Conies. 


I'aiiiily Leporidse l lares and Ra1)l)its. 

Skull' Ioiil;- and narrow: two lower incisors; foiu' upper in- 
cisors, the niidfUe pair lar^e and deei)ly oTooved in front, the sec- 
ond pair small and liidden hebind the first pair (in very youtii^ 
]iares there is a uunute third pair which arc soon shed) ; molars 
rootless; rami of lower jaw wide and thin; facial surface of max- 
illa extensively perforated or reticulated; a iierforation between 
the eve sockets; collar hones present hut usually imperfect; size 

The Hare fannly contains hut two i^enera. about forty spec- 
ies and sexeral subspecies. It is best re])resented in Kovih .\merica. 
There are several Old World .si)ecies. but the fannly has no rei)re- 
sentative in Australia. 

The food is entirely vci^-etable. mostly tlie leaves, stems or 
brandies of a variet\- of ])lants and small shrubs, which arc bitten 
off and eaten on the spot. In some regions they damag-e young 
orcharils and vineyards, and occasionally they become sufficiently 
abundant to seriously harm grain crops. The family is of some 
economic importance as a source of {and supply, the animals be- 
ing of sufticient si/e to be worth hunting and the tlesh being pal- 

Hares are digitigrade, terrestrial, principally cre]niscular and 
nocturnal. In most species there is little change of color with 
age, sex or season, but some northern species umlergo a complete 
change of color twice a voar. being brownish in summer and white 
in winter. 

The mamuKC are numerous, usually the pairs, abdominal. 
The number of \'onng are variable with species and region, tiie 
bvuropean Rabbit having .several litters each year, each litter 
averaging half a dozen or more; while most .\merican Mares have 
but two or three litters annually, and these seldom number more 
than four or the. The young of the European Ral>bit are born 
bHnd and hairless in an underground nest, but the the American 
species of Hares are well haired at birth and can see and very 
soon care for themselves. 


The name l\al)l)il ])rcn)erly 1>el()ni;s only to a particular spec- 
ies of Hare, the iMiropean Kahbit {Lc/^iis ciiiiiciilus) , which is 
well known in this country as the domesticated "iMi^iish" Kahhit. 

(icnns Lepus Linnaeus. (Hare.) 

Hind lei^s Ioniser than the fore legs; eyes large; ears long, 
usually e(|ualing or exceeding" the head in length; inner side ot 
cheeks haired; tail short; soles heavily haired; no naked pads 
under the toes; pelag-e soft; skin thin; skull with distinct supra- 
orbital processes; malar extending posteriorly in a short i)rocess; 
occiput depressed; au(lit(M-y bulke large; incisors very short, not 
reaching- as far back as the premolars ; coronoid process of lower 
jaw a thin, low, more or less incurved plate, sometimes obsolete. 

Lepus campestris sierrse Mi^rriam. 

(Of the pkiins; of the moitntains.) 


///. suiiiiiicr; above grizzled gray, the hairs whittish for the 
basal two thirds, then blackish, then almost pure white and the 
tip agaim black ; eye ring, front edge and part of inner surface of 
ear pale grayish buff; a liroad stripe of the color of the head on 
the front side of the ear; back half of the convex side of the ear 
and nape white; tip of ear black; an indistinct white spot on fore 
head ; breast gray ; front side of fore legs and back side of hind 
legs pale bufTy gray; soles brown; remainder of liegs and belly 
white; tail large, bushy, white all around or with a narrow gray 
stripe on the upper side. In zvintcr; white, more or less tingecT 
with yellowish brown ; ears tipped with black. Simetimes the 
change to winter pelage is incomplete. 

Length about 135 mm. (25 inches) ; tail vertebrae 100 (4) ; 
hind foot 165 (6.50) ; ear from crown 150 (6) ; weight 6 to 10 


Type locality, Hope Valley, Alpine County, California, alt. 
7800 feet. 

Higher valleys of the Sierra Nevada south to Menache 
Meadows, in winter the eastern slope of the Sierras down to the 
upper edge of the sage brush. Dairymen summering in the Sier- 
ras told me that these Hares could not run fast. One man, w^ho 
remained througJi the winters told me that they turned white with 
the early snows and showed me fragments of skins that were 
white on the surface and brownish or grayish beneath the surface. 
The large feet with unusually long hair on the soles are responsi- 
ble for the peculiar name "Snowshoe Rabbits." They are also 
known as White tailed Jack-Rabbits. Tliey do not seem to be 
plentiful anywhere. 

Subgenus Macrotolagus. 

Interparietal obliterated in adults ; supraorbital process large, 
united to cranium posteriorly, in adults inclosing a large foramen ; 
rostrum long; size large. 

Lepus calif ornicus Gray. (Of California. 1 


Above grayish drab thickly mixed with black and tinged with 
fulvous ; sides and breast grayish vinaceous cinnamon ; belly bufl 
or very pale cinnamon, ears drab, whitish on the back side, edged 
with brownish white or buffy white, and tipped with black ; sides 
and under surface of tail grayish cinnamon, upper surface black, 
this stripe extending up on the rump; legs mostly light drab 
brown, more or less tinged with cinnamon. 

Length about 560 mm. (22 inches) ; tail vertebrae 90 (3.50) ; 
hind foot 120 (4.75) ; ear from crown 160 (6.30) ; weight from 
four to seven pounds. 

Type locality, probably the old San Antonio Mission, Mon- 
terey County, California. 

Northwestern Lower California north through California 


west of the Sierra Nevada, except the San Joaquin Valley, to 
southwestern Oregon. Common in the valleys and foothills of 
western California, occasionally ranging to the highest valleys of 
the coast mountains. They are not as gregarious as the Desert 
Hares, and are found less frequently in the open plains, prefering' 
the edges of the plains and the little valleys in the foothills. In 
habits, food and gait they are similar to the Desert Hares. The 
breeding season is winter and spring. One New Years Day I shot 
a female California Hare that woiild have given birth to two 
young in about a fortnight. The number in a litter is two to four, 
and probably two litters a year are the usual number. 

Lepus richardsoni Bach man. (For Sir John Richard- 


Similar to calif oniicus but smaller and much paler; above 
buffy gray. 

Type locality, probably the Salinas Valley, Monterey County, 

The Richardson Hare seems to be a pale species whose range 
is the Salinas Valley and the dry warm, region eastward, border- 
ing the San Joaquin Valley and extending north in the footliills 
of the Sierra Nevada to about Mariposa County. Its range over- 
laps that of the California Hare in the western part of the Salinas 

Lepus texianus deserticola Mkarns. (Desert — dweller.) 


Above grizzled brownish gray; ears grayish brown on the front 
surface, fringed with grayish white or buffy white, tipped with 
black, remainder gray; hair on ears very short, sides of body, 
front side of fore legs and back side of hind legs pale gray, more 
or Less tinged with buff or drab; belly wdiitish; upper surface of 



tail, extending- more or less on the rump, black, remainder of tail 
pale gray. 

Length about 510 mm. (20 inches) ; tail vertebr?e 90 (3.55) ; 
hind foot 117 (4.60); ear from crown 155 (6.10). 

Type locality, Colorado Desert. 

Desert Hares are more or less common in the Deserts ot 
southeastern California and northward along- the eastern slope 
of the Sierra Nevada to the northeastern corner of this State. 

Desert Hare. One-fourth life size. 

They are found in the open plains, the edges of the deserts and on 
the slopes at the foot of the mountains where small shrubs are 
scattered about, seldom in timbered places. Their food consists 
of nearly every kind of herbage obtainable, even cactuses being 
eaten, particularly in the drier parts of the year, when these are 
almost the only plants retaining- any moisture. These Hares sel- 
dom drink, but obtain sufficient moisture to supply their bodily 
needs from the green plants eaten. Their run is graceful and very 


rapid when at full speed. The gait when moving- slowly is a ser-- 
ies of hops anul is ungainily. 

The Desert Hares appear to be subject to epidemics, perhaps 
more so than other species. In the summer of 1894, in Lassen 
and Modoc Counties, I saw numbers of bodies scattered among 
the sage brush and along the road. Some of those that I ex- 
amined contained "warbles/' but these were insufficient to account 
for the death of the animals. It seemed to me that more died 
than remained alive. Such epidemics have been frequently no- 
ticed, but I have seen no account of their occurence in central and 
Southern California. 

All Hares are subject to the attacks of numerous parasites, 
such as tapeworms, ticks, bots and warbles. A brief mention of 
some of these may be useful. In skinning a Hare a large blister 
is sometimes found under the skin or in the flesh. This is some- 
times called a "water blister." In the fluid contained in this blis- 
ter are numerous larvae of a tapeworm, a species of Cxnurus. TC) 
enable these tapeworm larvae to complete the change to adult tape- 
worms it is necessary that they be transferred to the stomach ol 
some member of the Cauidx, as a dog or a coyote. This frequent- 
ly occurs in the natural course of events. If you don't wish your 
dog to suffer with tapeworm don't feed these blisters to it without 
previous cooking. The very minute eggs of the tapeworm pass 
from their canine host, and some adhering to vegetation are ac- 
cidentally eaten by Hares, to continue this curious process of pass- 
ing through two different animals to enable one parasite to com- 
plete its various life stages. The "warbles" spoken of above are 
the larv?e of a species of Cutcrebra, a fly which deposits its eggs 
in the skin of the Hare, in the same manner that another species 
does in the skin on the backs of cattle. Probably none of these 
various parasites w^ould render the flesh of a Hare harmful if the 
flsh is thoroughly cooked, but it is not appetizing to know of their 

The young average about four, and it is probable that three 
or more litters are born annuallv- Their fecundity must be great 


to enable the species to hold its own, with birds and beasts prey- 
ing on them, epidemics of disease decimating their ranks, and 
man, with dog and gmi, assisting to upset Natures balance. For- 
tunately for the Hare, man also destroys his hereditary enemy, 
the coyote, else he would become exterminated. 

Lepus texianus tularensis Mkrriam. (Of Tulare.) 


Very similar tO' dcscrticola; averaging paler and more yel- 
lowish ; back less grizzled with black. 

Type locality, Ahla, Tulare County, California. 

This is a pallid form' inhabiting the southern part of the San 
Joaquin Valley and the Carrizo Plain to the w^estward. It is 
very abundant in many parts of this range and is the predominant 
species captured in the large drives made in the San Joaquin Val- 
ley, in fa;ct almost tlie only one taken in some of the drives. These 
drives are large surrounds and the Hares are driven toward and 
into corrals of wire netting. Tbey are often very successful, sev- 
eral thousand being taken in a surround. 

There are a few Hares in some of the higher mountains of 
Southern California, in the more open parts of the pine forests. 
They do not differ from dcscrticola sufficiently to be worth separa- 
ting. They appear tO' be clearer gray and have shorter ears, judg- 
ing from my scanty material, obtained in the San Bernardino 

Subgenus SylvilagUS. 

Interparietal present in adults as a small distinct bone; rost- 
rum of medium length ; skull and teeth light ; suproarbital process 
small, either united to cranium posteriorly enclosing a small fora- 
men, or free; size medium or small. 

Lepus auduboni Baird. (For John J. Audubon.) 


Above clay color mixed with black, the tips of the hairs be- 


ing black; sides brownish gray somewhat grizzled with black; in- 
ner (concave) surface of ears mostly pale gray, front part of con- 
vex surface brownish gray, tip black and remainder of outer side 
light gray, nape tawny ochraceous or pale iron rust color; an inde- 
finite grayish white area around the eye; outside of legs light red- 
dish brown, their inner sides white; soles light sepia brown; throat 
and belly white; underside of neck like the sides; tail compara- 
tively long, its upper side similar to^ the back in color; on the hips 
the clay color of the back is replaced by dull white. 

Length about 380 mm. (15 inches), tail vertebrae 50 (2); 
hind foot 88 (3.45) ; ear from crown 90 (3.55) ; weight about 
two pounds. 

Type locality, San Francisco, also San Diego, California. 

The Audubon Wood Hare is found from noith western Low- 
er California north along the coast region of California to some 
distance north of San Francisco and east to the Sierra Nevada and 
San Bernardino Mountains. It is cominon in much of this area 
and sometimes abundant. In eastern Califonia this form> is re- 
placed by the subspecies amowee and in northern California by 
nut tall i. 

The Wood Hares are not often found in dense forests or in 
open plains. They prefer thickets of brush interspersed among 
trees, with some open ground about. They like to feed in the 
open ground, but hide in the brush when disturbed and in their 
hours of repose. 

The food is preferably succulent herbs, but in places or sea- 
sons when these are scarce they eat most species of small plants, 
twigs and sometimes bark. Occasionally they do some damage to 
young orchards by biting off the branches or tops of small trees, 
rarely by gnawing large trees. They are frequently destructive to 
vegetables in gardens and' grain crops. They can be prevented 
from damaging young trees by taking advantage of their dislike 
of the smell of blood and fresh flesh. The easiest way is to rub 
the body of the young trees with a piece of liver or freshly killed 


flesh, which they will avoid for weeks unless a heavy rain washes 
t]ie trees. 

The i^ait is a series of hops when moving ahont leisurely. 
and long- rapid leaps when moving at full speed. Ordinarily they 
utter no sound, but when caught they make a harsh plaintive crw 
The number of young in a litter is usually three to five; there are 
probably two or three litters annually, in spring and summer. 

All our western Wood Hares take refuge more or less in 
crevices among rocks, but t.hey do not often burrow in the ground. 
They rarely sit erect. They are timid creatures and depend on 
their excellent eyesight and hearing for warning and their speed 
or hiding in the brush for safety from pursuit. The Wood Hares 
are commonly known in the west as "Rabbits" and also as "Cot- 
tontails," which is a good general name for the group. 

Lepus auduboni arizcnae. Allex. (Of Arizona.) 


Paler tJian auduboni, the general effect gray rather than 
brown ; ears longer and with but littl'e black at tips. 

Length about 355 mm. (14 inches) ; tail vertebrae 50 (2); 
hind foot 83 (3.25) ; ear from crown 92 (3.60). 

Type locality, Beale Spring-, in northwestern Arizona. 

Western and southern Arizona, southern Nevada, California 
east of the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino ■Mountains and 
northwestern Lower California. Frequents the thickets of the 
valleys and less arid parts of this region. Seldom common. 

Lepus nuttalli Bach man. 


Smaller than auduboni; ears shorter ; color intermediate be- 
tween auduboni and ai'i:;oux: skull smaller; rostrum wider in pro- 
portion and much shorter. 

Length about 335 mm. (13.2O' inches); tail yertebrre 47 
(1.85) ; hind foot 85 (3.35) ; ear from crown 80 (3.15}. 


Type lucalit}-, near junction of Snake and C()luinl)ia Rivers. 

From northeastern Cahfornia, eastern Oreg-on and eastern 
\\'ashington east to the Rocky Mountains and the western part 
of the Great Plains. The Xuttah Wood Hare inhabits the sage 
brusJi reg"ion of northern Cahfornia in Lassen, Alodoc and Siski- 
you Counties. It does not seem to be common in many places. 

Lepus bachmani W'atkrhouse. (For John Bachman.) 


Above grayish brown mixed with blackish, the back tinged 
with Ijurnt umber; ears gray, darkest on outer surface, narrowly 
edged with whitish, rarely edged, but not tipped witli black; 
nape light burnt umber ; sides and throat brownisli gray mixed 
with whitish; belly and front sides of legs pale gray, the plumbe- 
ous bases of the hairs showing through more or less on the belly ; 
soles smoky brown; tail \-ery small, its upper surface, sides and tip 
grayish brown, lower surface white; skull similar in size to tliat 
of nuttaUi; condylar process of lower jaw shorter and more up- 
right, angular process wider; compared witli audiiboni the same 
differences in these processes hold; the skull is smaller and the 
rostrum shorter. 

Length about 330 mm. (13 inches) ; tail vertebrae 36 (1.40) ; 
hind foot 75 (2.90) ; ear from crown 67 (2.65). 

Type locality, San Francisco or Monterey, California. 

The Bachman Brush Hare is found in the coast region of 
California from Monterey north to Oregon. 

' Lepus cinerascens Allen. (Ashy.) 


Similar to bacliiiumi; paler, the burnt umber tint of the upper 
parts nearly or cjuite absent; body smaller; hind leet shorter; tail 
and ears longer; teeth smaller; palatal bridge narrower; malar 


more depressed ; condylar and angular processes of lower jaw nar- 

Length about 305 mm. ( 12 inches) ; tail vertebrse 36 ( 1.40) ; 
hind foot J 2 (2.85) ; ear from crown jo (2.75). 

Type locality, San Fernando, Los Angeles County, Cali- 

Southwestern California and northwestern Lower California. 
The Brush Hares inhabit thick brush, seldom venturing into open 
ground and rarely entering forests. The vast thickets of brush 
covering so much O'f the hillsides of California, and known locally 
as 'chapparal,' or more properly, 'chemisal,' forms their homes. 
They are very timid and are difficult to shoot because of their 
pertinacity in remaining in the shelter of the brush. In other re- 
spects their habits are similar to those of the Wood Hares. 

In my notes I find records of two females each containing 
three foetuses, March third and fourth respectivel'y, and one with 
five, April seventh. Probably two litters are the rule. This Hare 
is well known to local hunters under the names of Brush Rabbit 
and Blue Rabbit, the latter name being given because of their 
bluish appearance at a little distance as compared with the Audu- 
bon Wood Hare. 

Subgenus Brachylagus. 

Skuh short, deep; audital bullae large; rostrum small; ex- 
tremities of supraorbital processes free; ears, legs and tail short; 
size very small. 

Lepus idahoensis Merriam. (Of Idaho.) 


Winter pelage; above clear drab' gray slightly mixed with 
black hairs; ears pale buff inside, dull buffy ochraceous mixed 
with gray and bliack tipped hairs outside and bordered in front 
with a blackish line; nape and feet dull ochraceous buff; breast 
grayish buff; belly whitish along the middle line only. Summer 

FER^ 195 

and immature pelage; upper parts gray suffused with buff and 
intimately mixed with black. 

Length 290 mm. (11.40 inches); tail vertebrae 15 (.60); 
hind foot 71 (2.80) ; ear 68 (2.28). 

Type tocality, Pahsimeroi Valley, Idaho. 

The Idaho Hare is found from Idaho to northeastern Cali- 
fornia, a skin from Goose Lake being in the National Museum, 
and I saw a mounted specimen in Susanville which was probably 
of this species, but was unable to examine it closely. Dr. Mer- 
riam says that the Idaho Hare is strictly nocturnal and inhabits 
badger holes. It might therefore be common in a region and yet 
remain unknown. 


Order Ferae. (The Flesh-eating Mammals.) 
Digits never less than four to the foot, each bearing a claw ; 
first and second digits not opposable as thumb and finger ; teeth 
rooted, of three kinds, incisors, canines and molars; canine teeth 
prominent; condyles of lower jaw semiclindrical and placed trans- 
versely; clavicle incomplete or absent; radius and ulna distinct; 
scaphoid and lunar consolidated in one bone; stomach simple, 
pyriform; placenta deciduous and usually zonary ; mammae ab- 

This order is often called the Carnivora because of the flesh 
eating propensities of its members. A few species live partly on 
fruits or vegetable materials, but all eat some flesh and the major- 
ity feed on freshly killed flesh almost exclusively. Many species 
rank high in intelligence and some are capable of useful domesti- 

Suborder Pinnipedia. Seals. 

Limbs short, fin-like, being useful only for swimming; first 
toe of front foot and first and fifth of hind foot longest ; toes fully 
webbed; body prostrate; tail rudimentary; ears very small or 
lacking; eyes large and exposed, with flat cornea; no clavicles; 
skull constricted interorbitally ; orbital fossae vers' large ; rostrum 
short and broad ; milk teeth rudimentary and usually lost soon af- 
ter birth; incisors varying in number with genus; canines length- 

Seals are abundant along Arctic seashores, common along 
those of temperate regions, but are less common in the tropics, 
where they are unknown on many coasts. The food of seals con- 
sists principally of fish, some species also adding crustaceans and 
mollusks. The fish are caught by pursuit in the water. 

Seals are expert swimmers and spend the greater part of 
their time under water. They must come to the surface to breathe 
every few minutes, and they come ashore occasionally to rest oi 
bask in the sun. Most species never venture more than a few 


feet from the water, in which they quickly take refuge on T)e- 
coming alarmed. 

There are three families, two of these having species living 
on the California coast, the third. Odobenidx, containing only 
one genus with two species. Walrus, being restricted to Arctic 
seas. Altogether there are now about eighteen genera and thirty 
species recognized in this suborder. 

Family Phocidae. Earless Seals. 
Hind legs not capable of l^eing turned forward and not ser- 
viceable for use on land; front limbs smaller than hind limbs: 
neck short: no external ears; upper incisors pointed; no distinct 
posterbital process ; uelage without underfur. 

Subfamily PhOCinse 
Incisors 3 — 2 ; all claws well developed ; first and fifth toes 
of hind foot not much longer than the other three : interorbital 
region greatly constricted. 

Genus Phoca Linn. (Seal.j 
Molariform teeth, except the first, large, double rooted, 
three lobed. planted more or less obliquely; head short; males 
not much larger than the females ; size small for the suborder. 
Dental formula, I. 3—2 ; C. i— i ; P. 4—4; ^I- i— i'X2=34. 

Phoca richardii Gray. fFor Captain Richards, j 


Color variable; alxj\e sellowish gray, yellowish brown or 
blackish, blotched with, black, brown or bufify ; below buffy whitish 
or dull brown, more or less spotted with dark brown; skull thin 
and comparatively smooth; premaxillaries extending to the nasals 
and a short distance along them. The spots or blotches may be 
verv few and indistinct, or numerous and well marked, and are 


commonly smaller and better defined on the lower surface , they 
may be lighter or darker than the ground color. 

Seals appear to grow all their lives, but slowly after midille 
age. The length is three to five feet, rarely six. The females 
are a little smaller than the males, and the molariform teeth are 
somewhat smaller and less crowded. 

Type locality, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

Pacific Harbor Seals are common along the Pacific coast 
and islands of North America, from British America south prob- 
ably to northern California. 

Phoca richardii geronimensis Allen. 


Similar to richardii; averaging larger; teeth heavier. 

Type ■ocality, San Geronimo Island, Lower C'alifomia. 

The San Geronimo Harbor Seals are common in many places 
along the California coast, particularly in the bays. They are 
monogamous. The young are born in May, June and July; one 
pup is the rule. They are not migratory and are not as gregari- 
ous as most sea'ls are, being seldom found in large companies. 
They are comparatively silent, not making a loud roaring or bark- 
ing as sea lions do. 

Harbor Seals eat large quantities of fish, sometimes doing 
serious injury to inshore fisheries. In such places their killing 
should perhaps be encouraged, since the Harbor Seal is of but lit- 
tle use to civilized peoples, though to the northern Indians and In- 
nuits they are an important source of food supply. The skin is 
of littte value. The oil is not made use of here, though in some 
regions various small species are hunted for theii' oil. Scammon 
considers it the purest of all seal oils. Elliott says that the best 
seal flesh is that of the Harbor Seal. 

These Seals are fond of basking in the sun, especially at low- 
tide, when numbers may be seen lying on their favorite sand bars 
in the smaller bays that are not disturbed by shipping. 

Progress on land, when hurried, is by pulling themselves. 


forward by the fore feet used simultaneoirsly, the hind feet being 
dragged along inactive. In swimming the hind feet ("flippers") 
do most of the work. 

Subfamily Cystophorinae 

Incisors 2 — i ; first and fifth toes of hind foot longer than 
the other three and with rudimentary or no claws ; interorbital 
region but moderately constricted. 

Genus Mirounga Gray. (Australian native name.) 
Molariform teeth small, single rooted, not lobed ; skuh com- 
paratively narrow ; adult male with a nasal proboscis capable of 
voluntary elongation and dilation ; webs of hind feet extending be- 
yond the toes ; adult males very large, the females much smaller. 
Dental formula, I, 2 — i ; C, i — i ; P. 4 — 4; M, i — 1X2=30. 

Mirounga angustirostris Ctill. (Narrow — beak.) 


Light dull, yellowish brown, varied with gray, darker on the 
back; more yellowish ■ below ; hind flippers hairy, without nails, 
deeply notched; foreflippers armed with long nails. 

Length of adult males twelve to eighteen feet, the proboscis 
about fifteen inches in length ; adult females are seven to ten 
feet in length and are without a proboscis. 

Type locality, San Bartolome Bay, Lower California. 

California Elephant Seals were formerly found along nearly 
the whole western coast of Lower California and north along 
the California coast to Point Reyes. It is probable that the 
species is now exterminated in the waters of this State, but a few 
may still survive about some of the outer islands of the Santa 
Barbara group. A very few are known to be still living on the 
Lower California coast. 

California Elephant Seals seem to have frequented rocky 


beaches in preference to sandy beaches or rocky islets. They are 
said to be monogamous. Tlie young are born, in May and June. 
Captain Scammon, to whom we are indebted for nearly all our 
information about this species, says that the sound made by them 
when alarmed resembled the lowing of an ox, but was more 

California Elephant Seal. 

They were large and easily obtained, and produced a con- 
siderable amount of oil, two hundred gallons sometimes being- 
obtained from a single individual. Therefore they were much 
sought after in the period succeeding the discovery of gold im 
California, previous to the general use of coal oil. In this period 
vessels were freighted with their oil, and in consequence of this 
reckless slaughter the species w-as practically exterminated in a 
few years. The California Elephant Seals while formerly abun- 
dant locally, were few compared with the enormous numbers of 
the Southern Elephant Seals that were found on islands of the 
i\ntarctic Ocean when these were discovered. 

OTARlIDiE 201 

Family OtariidSD Sea Lions and Fur Seals. 

Hind legs capable of being turned forward and of some 
service for use on land; neck long; front limbs nearly as large as 
hind limbs; first and fifth toes of hind feet without claws; webs 
extending beyond toes ; small external ears ; a postorbital pro- 
cess; incisors of upper jaw notched on crown; crowns of pre- 
molars and molars usually simple; males exceeding females in 

Genus Zalophus GilIv. (Great — crest.) 
Molar not separated from premolars by a wide space ; molari- 
forni teeth small, simple in root and crown ; rostrum long and 
narrow ; occipital and saggital crests prominent ; very much so in 
old males; no underfur. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 2; C, i — i ; P, 4 — 4; M, i — 13X2=34. 

Zalophus californianus Lesson. 


Color varying from tawny yellow^ through yellowish brown 
to dull black, the greater number being brownish yellow^ 

Length of adult males from seven to ten feet, and of females 
five to- six feet; to end of outstretched flippers would be a foot 
more. I measured the large male spoken of later. His length 
to end of tail was 2490 mm. (98 inches) ; outstretched hind flip- 
pers 940 mm. (37 inches) from tip to tip. I estimated his weight 
at more than 500 pounds. I have seen larger seals of this species. 

California Sea Lions are found along the Californian and 
Mexican coast from some distance north of San Francisco south- 
east to the Tres Marias Islands off the coast of southern Mexico. 
In 1884 I saw Sea Lions along the Sonoran coast of the Gulf of 
California which were probably of this species. These Sea Lions 
are not now found generally distributed along the coast of Cali- 
fornia, but resort to favorite rocky beaches on the Islands and to 
little islets along the coast where they are not molested. 


Tliese Sea Lions migrate but little, if indeed their move- 
nients may be given that name. At one season there seems to be 
a dispersion from the breeding ground to the nearest well stocked 
feeding ground, and at the reverse season a gathering at the 
breeding ground. In some localities a good fishing ground is 
found in the immediate vicinity of their favorite islets, which 
they then occupy continuously. Like most of the larger seals this 
species is polygamous. The sexes manifest but httle attachment 
for one another. The young are said to be born from May to 
August, and at first aire averse to the wiater, but in about a month 
they enter the water and soon become expert swimmers. 

The food is fish, which are swallowed without mastication. As 
the Sea Lions are very expert and swift swimmers they are able 
to overtake most fish by direct pursuit. But little economic use 
is made of this Seal. At some seasons when they are fat some 
are killed for their oil, and their hides are used for making glue. 

The following extracts from my notebook may be of interest. 
"April first, 1893. This morning Mr. Fenn and I rowed to the 
'seal rocks' near the south end of Santa Catalina Island to get 
sketches of the Sea Lions. As we neared the rocks we saw sev- 
eral Sea Lions on them and heard their loud 'hong-hong.' 
Several were on the outer group of islets, but none were on the 
outermost rock, which was perhaps a hundred feet from the istet 
on which the greatest number were lying. The morning was cloudy 
and calm, with but little sea, and we cautiously pulled up behind 
the rock which rose five or six feet above the water. Mr. Fenn 
got out on a little shelf that was awash when the larger swells 
passed. In front the rock was low enough to see over and made 
a rest for the sketch book. I had to keep clear of the ro'ck to 
avoid smashing the boat and out of sight as much as possible, 
which was no easy job in the long swell. 

"In another direction was a large rock about two hundred 
yards away, 011 which a few Sea Lions crawled now and then, 
but did not stay long; these I could watch as they were in full 
view, though they did not appear to notice me at that distance. 


They seemed tO' have hard work to crawl on the rock, and when 
up did not stay long in one position, but uneasily rolled about or 
slid back in the water. I saw one huge fellow crawl to a flat edge 
overhanging deep water and suddenly throw his fore parts up in 
the air and leap, just as a man would in diving, using his hind 
flippers to make the spring. Usually they slid down into the wa- 
ter head first. 

"In the open space between the rocks and islets was a group ot 
a dozen or so, rolling about in the waves and seeming to enjoy life 
hugely. They swam either side up or on their sides, heads rolling 
from side to side, flippers sticking out of the w-ater here and 
there, a picture of perfect ease and contentment. Now and then 
they would tire of t'lie idle pastime and commence romping; div- 
ing and chasing one another about, or leaping out of the water 
porpoise fashion. Once I saw a rather small one spring straight 
out of the water clear of the surface. 

"At a distance a number of these Sea Lions crawling over the 
rocks, or slowly swaying their heads about as they often do, look 
like gigantic maggots, but at close quarters t'liey lose that appear- 
ance. In the water the younger animals have a pleasant dog-like 
air as the head and shoulders appear above the water. 

"The usual loud cry is a syllable sounding like 'hong' re- 
peated sonorously, and has some resemblance to the hoarse bark 
of a dog. These sounds are oftenest made when the animal is 
lying on the rocks, but sometimes a swimmer takes up the bark. 
This occured several times near me. In these cases at least the 
animal did not close its mouth after each repetition of the note, 
but steadily held the mouth wide open, the head being held well 
out of the water. The vocalization all came from the throat, witlT 
no apparent modulation through action of the mouth or lips. Be- 
sides this repetition of t'he 'hong' I heard another sound a few 
times, a curious bleat, not loud, but to me, with a comical tone 
that always provoked a laugh. It always came suddenly, which 
was perhaps why it sounded so funny. This sound may have been 
made by a female. 


"I wanted a skull of this species and when Mr. Fenn; was 
through sketching we changed places. I selected the largest ani- 
mal in sight, which fortunately laid on top of the islet in a flat 
place, and sent a rifle ball through the base of his skull, killing him 
so dead that he did not even struggle. I had feared that he woukl 
roll off and be lost. He was dark brown, except that a patch 
about three inches by four on the forehead and the region around 
the lips was a light yellowish gray. This light patch on the head 
seeniied to be usual on all the light colored animals. The hairs of 
this patch are longer than those of the remainder of the head, and 
when dry project forward, giving a crested effect, lacking on the 
smaller animals. 

"After satisfying our curiosity I cut off the head, which 
proved a tough job for my pocket knife, as the skin was nearly 
three quarters of an inch thick. We rolled the body off the rocks 
into deep water alongside, where it sunk as quickly as a stone and 
did not re-appear. While cutting the head off several medium 
sized animals came quite close to- the islet as if they wanted to 
climb on. 

"O'n our way back to camp we saw several small and medium 
sized Sea Lions and an old male playing in the surf. The male 
greeted us with barks and the whole group swam alongside us 
half a mile or more, as if to show us how agile they were, ^nd how 
easily they could run away from us if they liked. Probably their 
motive was curiosity." 

Genus Eumetopias Gill. (Typical — broad fore- 
head. ) 
Molar separated from premolars by a space about as broad as 
that occupied by a premolar; molar double rooted; premolars sin- 
gle rooted; crowns simple; rostrum short and wide; occipital and 
saggital crests not greatly developed, no underfur. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 2; C, i — i; P, 4 — 4; M, i — i'X2=34. 


Eumetopias jubata Schre:bi^r. (With a mane.) 


Externally very similar to Zaiophus calif orniamis; .supposed 
to average larger; colors similar and as variable. 

Type locality. North Pacific Ocean. 

Stellar Sea Lions range from Bering Straits east and south 
along the Pacific coast of North America to the Farallone Is- 
lands, California. I liave never seen this species, but specimenss 
of it from the Farallone Islands are in scientific coltections. None 
are known from further south however, and this species is prob- 
ably much less common there than the California Sea Lion. Ex- 
ternally the two species seem to be much alike, but probably an ex- 
pert would see differences on comparison. The gap in the molars 
in the tooth row of the Stellar Sea Lion is quickly seen by any one 
who has an opportunity for such examination. 

The habits of the two species are similar though the Stellar 
Sea Lion seems to migrate with more regularity. There is a dif- 
ference in their voices, however, the utterance of the Stellar Sea 
Lion being a steady roar while tliat of the California Sea Lion 
is broken into barks. 

Genus Callorhinus Gray. (Beautiful — nose.) 
Molariform teeth small, simple; rostrum very short and wide 
at base, convex in upper outline; saggital and occipital crests not 
greatly developed ; pelage with abundant underfur. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 2; C, i — i ; P, 4 — 4; M, i — i or 2 — 
1X2^34 or 36. 

Callorhinus alascanus Jordan and Clark. (Bear like.) 


Male; black, the region over the shoulders gray; face with 
brownish areas ; neck gray in front ; flippers and belly reddish 
brown; Female; above gray; below rufous. Young; glossy black 
with more or less yellowish brown below. 


Length of adult males about seven feet; female about four 

Type locality, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean. 

The only present known breeding grounds of the Northern 
Fur Seal are the Pribilov or Fur Seal Islands of western Alaska, 
where Fur Seals are more or less abundant from June until No- 
vember. The remainder of the year is spent in a great migration 
in the open sea, passing southward, eastward, northward and 
northwest to the breeding grounds again. Their great oval course 
brings them off the northern coast of California in early spring, 
though few are seen as far south as off the Farallones. When 
California was first settled by the whites Fur Seals were occasion- 
ally found on some of the islands and at a few localities on the 
mainland, but whether these were of this or the following species 
is not now known. 

Genus Arctocephalus Cuvie:r. (Bear — head.) 
Skull similar to that of Zaluphns but with smaller occipital 

and saggital crests; molariform teeth six above and five below:; 

pelage with abundant underfur. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 2; C, i — ^i ; P, 4 — 4; M, 2 — 1X2^36. 

Arctocephalus townsendi Merriam. (For Chas. H. 
Townsend. ) 


There are no skins of this species in any scientific collection 
and the species is definitely known only from the skull. There 
are four weatherworn skulls in the National Museum, only one 
being reasonably perfect. Dr. Merriam contrasts tliem with skulls 
of the Southern Fur Seal from the Galapagos Islands, finding the 
skull of tozumsendi to be smalter ; rostrum shorter ; nasals shorter, 

Type locality, Guadaloupe Island, Lower California. 

Tbe Guadaloupe Fur Seals are known to still occur in very 
small numbers at the Guadaloupe Islands. It is believed that they 
formerly occured on the Santa Barbara Islands, and there is a 
bare possibility that they may be found there again. 

FELID.E 207 

Suborder Fissipedia. Terrestrial Carnivores. 
Limbs long, mobile, adapted for walking; toes free, with 
long, sharp claws; first and fifth toes not longer than the others: 
external ears well developed ; incisors three above and three below, 
on each side of the middle ; a highly specialized premolar or molar 
('sectorial') cutting tooth behind the middle of each jaw. 

Family Felidae. ^Cats.) 

Digitigrade; front feet with five toes; hind feet with four 
toes; claws retractile; tail long or short; upper surface of tongue 
covered with sharp points, rasp^like; skull very short and broad; 
rostrum very short ; teeth 28 or 30. 

The family of Cats is very generally distributed over the 
world except in Australia. There are three living genera, and 
over fifty species are now known. The food is principally the 
flesh of animals caught by themselves. 

Cats are principally nocturnal in habit, terrestrial or some- 
what arboreal. The seasonal changes of pelage are not great, the 
sexes are alike in some species, more or less unlike in others, the 
young often differ in color from adults and are usually spotted. 

Genus Felis Linn. (Cat.) 
Tail from one fourth to one half the total length ; ears not 
tufted; legs of moderate length; upper sectorial tooth (last pre- 
molar) very large, with three cusps and an inner tubercle on a 
separate root ; upper molar very small and placed inside the back 
corner of the sectorial tooth; front upper premolar very small; 
incisors small ; brain case narrow ; temporal crests parallel and 
nearly united along the saggital suture; postorbital processes 

Dental fonmila, I, 3—3; C, i— i ; P, 3—2; M, 1—1X2=30. 


Felis hippolestes olympus Merriam. (Horse — robber, 
of the Olympic ]*kIoiintains.) 


Above varying from rufous brown to grayish tawny accord- 
ing to season, locahty and probably individually (dimorphism), 
darkest on the back and tail ; face dusky brown ; a pale spot over 
each eye; convex side of ears blackish except the back side, which 
is g'ray ; a blackish patch at base of whiskers; lips and chin white; 
neck dull fulvous, palest below ; breast and inside of thighs dirty 
white; end of tail blackish. Ne^ci'Iy born young; back and legs 
spotted and tail ringed with dark brown. 

Length about 2135 mm. (84 inches) ; tail vertebrae 700 
(28) ; hind foot 250 (10). 

Type locality, Olympic Mountains, Washington. 

The Pacific Coast Cougar ranges over the Pacific coast re- 
gion from British Columbia to northern California. Cougars 
are not often found in dense forests and seldom in open plains, 
but prefer hilly localities with some timber and brush for cover. 
In some few localities they are sufticiently common to be trouble- 
some to stock, but in the greater part of the west they are so rare 
that comparatively few people can say that tliey have seen a Cou- 
gar alive at large. I have knocked al^out in the wildest parts of 
the west much of the last thirty years and I have yet to see a live 
Cougar outside of a cage. I have seen their tracks in sand or 
dust a few times in out-of-the-way places and that is all. I once, 
heard a distant crv' that I suppose was made by a Cougar. It was 
in the night and was a loud wailing cry thai in the distance had 
an unpleasant human tone. 

The food of Cougars is flesh exclusively, which they prefer 
to kill themselves, rarely eating carrion unless forced by hunger. 
Being strong and ix)werful they prefer large game, such as deer, 
colts, hogs, grouse and turkeys. They are not ferocious and kill 
only for food. Instances of their attacking people have occurred, 
but these are ver\- rare and they have learned to avoid man. In 
South America there is a widespread belief among the Indians 

FELID^ 2iD9 

that the Cougar will protea man from other animals, such as the 
Jaguar. Cougars have frequently been tamed, and have become 
interesting pets when not teased. 

The flesh of Cougars is said to look and taste like veal. The 
number of young is commonly two. but sometimes three and four. 
The\- have bred in captivity- several times. The Cougar is known 
by a great variety of names, -\mong these are Panther, Painter. 
Red Tiger, Puma, Catamount, -\merican Lion. California Lion. 
Mountain Lion, etc. The Indian name Puma is perhaps the best 
one and Couear next. 

Felis aztecus browni Merriam. i For Herbert Brown. ) 


Paler and grayer than olym{>us; teeth and audital bullae smal- 
ler; size probably averaging a little less . A young Cougar that 
I saw in a cage was ta^^^^y drab gray above; lower side of head, 
breast and back part of belly whitish ; tail like back except dusk}- 
tip; a blackish spot at base of whiskers: nose to eyes brown; a 
short perpendicular black stripe over each eye. 

It \\-as about 45 indies long; tail 15 : hind foot 7; ear a little 
less than 2. It was probably about four months old. 

Type locality, near Yimia, Arizona. 

Brown Pimias range over northern Lower California, south- 
em California. Arizona and the Colorado Valley. They are scat- 
tered through the mountains and in the timber of the river bot- 
tom in the Colorado \'alley. 

Genus Ljnix Kerr. (Sharp sight.) 
Legs long and strong; tail very short; ears usually tufted; a 
ruff of long hairs on the neck ; but two pairs of upper premolars : 
teeth otherwise similar to those of Felis; brain case broad ; tem- 
poral crests widely separated; postorbital processes long, almost 
meeting ; pterygoids long and ven*- slender. 

Dental formula. I. t,— ^: C. i— i : P. 2—2: M. i— i V2=28. 


Lynx eremicus Mkarns. (Hermit.) 


Summer pelage (May to Sept.) ; above grayish tawny olive 
more or less mottled or spotted with brown or blackish, usually 
with a pair of narrow interrupted black stripes along the back; 
crown with indistinct narrow blackish stripes; an indefinite 
whitish eyering surrounding black eyelids; whiskers mosiry white, 
with several rows of small black spots or lines at their basis ; con- 
vex surface O'f ears black enclosing a triangular pale gray spot, 
which often covers half the ear; upper side of the tail similar 
to the back, with black tip and one to six black bars, the interven- 
ing spaces becoming whitish toward the tip; under side of tail 
white; outside of the legs more tawny than the back, indistinctly 
spotted with brown or blackish ; inner side of le'gs grayish or 
brownish white distinctly barred and spotted with black ; throat 
white sometimes spotted with blackish ; a wide buffy or tawny 
band across the breast, usually spotted with blackish ; belly white 
spotted with black. Winter pelage. (Sept. to May) ; tawny shades 
of upper parts replaced with drab gray. Young; at first tawny 
thickly spotted with brockish, the spots small ; later the color be- 
comes grayer and the spots larger and fewer. 

Length about 825 mm. (32.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 160 
(6.30) ; hind foot 170(6.70) ; ear from crown 80 (3. 15) ; the tuft 
of hairs nearly an inch longer. Weight 12 to 20 pounds. The 
female averages smaller than the male. 

Type locality, Colorado Desert, California. 
Desert Lynxes are common in most of the wooded and brushy 
parts of central and southern California from the seacoast to the 
Colorado River, and in northern Lower California. They vary 
greatly in amount of spotting, shade of color, size of ear tuft and 
barring of tail, dependent on age, season and wear of pelage. Be- 
fore me lie seventeen Lynx skins taken in one locality (35 miles 
northeast of San Diego), all prepared and measured by myself, 
therefore strictly comparable. These vary in color from a tawny 
olive above with scarcely an indication of spots, to drab gray 



thickly spotted and barred with black everywhere, with interme- 
diate examples fully connecting one extreme with the other. The 
tails of two have black tips with no bars, while others have two 
to six bars. In addition to these are two Coloiado Desert ex- 
amples which I am unable to separate subspecifically from the 
coast form. I have seen a number of others from the Desert also. 
Desert Lynxes prey on all the smaller animals and birds and 
frequently on poultry. They ordinarily prowl about at a walk. If 

Desert Lynx. 

pressed they can run rapidly a short distance, but if chased by 
dogs they soon run up a tree. They can leap a considerable dis- 


The only vocal sounds that I have heard from Lynxes are 
threatening growls if approached while fast in a trap, at which 
time they appear quite formidable. They 'spit' like a domestic 
cat The senses are all- acute. They do not appear to be very 
courageous. I can learn of but three instances of their having at- 
tacked people, all occuring in San Diego County. Two of these 


attacks were unprovoked and the third was practically in self de- 

Lynxes do the greater part of their hunting at night, yet they 
prowl around more or less in the daytime. Much of the poultry 
they get is caught in the middle of tlie day. I have trapped suc- 
cessfully for Lynxes by putting the bait in the back part of a 
crevice of rock, between roots of trees or in V-shaped openings 
of thick brush, placing the traps two or three feet in front of the 
bait. Loose rocks or brush are placed at the sides oi the traps to 
guide the cat over them. I usually put two traps in front of each 
bait, one in front of the other. An old hen is good bait, but any 
fresh flesh will answer. The bait should be renewed daily. This 
is a good method of trapping for all carinivores. 

The young appear to be born in March and April. About 
the end of May I saw two kittens playing about the crevices of a 
rocky cliff and trapped one, shooting the parent as she was lying 
on a rock above the cliff. The kitten was about a month old and 
very little injured so I kept it alive some time. It did not become 
reconciled to captivity and would jump against the wire netting 
with a spiteful growl and spit ever)^ time I came near. 

Lynx fasciatus pallescens Merriam. (Banded; pallid.) 


''Similar to fasciatus but slightly smaller and much paler; 
general color hoary gray, constrasted with the dark rich rufous of 
fasciatus. Larger than eremicus and with much larger teeth. 

Type locality, Trout Lake, Washington. 

I have not seen this Lynx. Dr. Merriam states that it is 
common around tlie base of Mount Shasta. 

The Canada Lynx is not found in California, though hunt- 
ers frequently report killing them. IMany people think that every 
Lynx with a tuft of hairs on the ears is a Canada Lynx. The 
animals of the genus Lynx are often called Wildcats. This name 
is best restricted to the long tailed Fclidx. 

CANID^ 213 

Family Canidae (Dog-s, Wolves, Foxes.) 
Dig-itigrade ; front feet with five toes, the inner toe small 
and placed some distance above the others; hind feet with four 
toes; claws not retractile; tail long, usually bushy; tongue nor- 
mal; rostrum very long; palate not extending much back of mol- 
ars ; teeth usually 42. 

This is a large family of nearly a dozen genera, probaI)iy 
seventy-five living and several extinct species. The family is very 
generally distributed over the world, including Australia. All are 
carnivorous, some species exclusively so, but many species eat 
other food such as fruits. 

Genus Canis Linn. (Dog.) 
Pupil of eye circular; tail moderately bushy; upi>er incisors 
with a distinct lobe each side of the main point ; incisors of mod- 
erate size; front cusp of upper sectorial tooth obsolete; first upper 
molar very large and the second one rather large, each with two 
prominent outer aisps and a lower tubercular shelf supported on 
an inner root; lower sectorial tooth (first molar) very large; 
last lower molar and first lower premolar very small; temporal 
crests united in one saggital crest ; postorbital processes small ; 
angular process of lower jaw long, curved, distinct. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 3; C, i — i ; P, 4 — 4; M, 2 — 3'X2=42. 

Canis ochropus Eschscholtz. (Ochre — foot.) 


Above buffy ochraceous mixed with black; below whitish 
more or less tinged with buff and with the long hairs of throat 
and breast more or less tipped with black; ears whitish on the 
inside and tawny or tawny ochraceous on convex surface; nose 
grayish cinnamon; legs dull tawny ochraceous, paler or whitish 
on the inside and grizzled with black tipped hairs on the outside 
next the body ; tail, above like the body, Ijelow dull tawny ochra- 
ceous whitish at base and darkening toward the tip which is 


black, a black spot on the upper side about midway of its length ; 
skull narroAv, the nose slender; teeth small for the genus, with 
wide spaces between the premolars. 

Lenqth about 1133 mm. (45 inches); tail vertebras 300 
( 12) ; hind foot 180 (7.10). Female smaller. 

Tvi>e locality. California, probably in the central part of the 

Valle}- Coyotes inhabit the rcg"ion between the Sierra Nevada 
and the Pacific Ocean. This race probably does not go high in 
the mountains, but fref|uents the foothills and valleys, where they 
are common. As Coyotes obtain a considerable part of their prey 
by running it down they hunt principally in open ground, where 
their game has less opportunity to evade them. Coyotes eat al- 
most anything in the way of flesli obtainable, including carrion 
though they prefer fresh meat. They eat beetles, grasshoppers 
and other insects, grapes and other fruit. They are often a seri- 
ous pest to sheep owners as mutton is a favorite article ot diet with 

On the other hand Coyotes are a material help to the vine- 
yardist by keq>ing hares in check, though they sometimes help 
themselves to a few grapes or rarely a chicken, in payment of their 
services. It will be remembered that a few years since the State 
Legislature passed a law giving a bounty for the destruction of 
Coyotes, with disastrous results to the State treasury and no last- 
ing benefits to the sheep and cattle industries. One of the results 
of this unwise law was the great increase of hares and the giving 
of bounties by several Counties for the destruction of hares. 

Coyotes are swift of foot and able to maintain a rapid run 
a considerable time. They show considerable skill and cunning in 
hunting tobether, but not to the extent that is sometimes credit- 
ed to them. They rarely liunt in large packs, seldom more than 
three or four in compau}-, and most frequently alone. 

Their voice is similar to that of a dog, for which reason they 
have been called Barking Wolves. Their usual series of notes is 
several short barks followed by a longer note that may be termed 

CANID^ 215 

a short howl, but no one famihar with the howl of the gray wolf 
would call the Coyotes song a howl. To nie the barking of a 
Coyote at a little distance is a pleasant sound, probably because of 
its association with the memory of many a camping trip in plain 
and desert. Coyotes never attack human beings, and one need be 
no more afraid oi them than of a hare or a fo'x. Baird says that 
Coyotes sometimes have as many as ten young in a litter and that 
they are born in April. I have no other data at hand, but my im- 
pression is that the number is generally much smaller and that 
they are born in March and May also. 

Canis estor Me:rriam. (Eater.) 


Similar to ochropus but paler; buffy gray above grizzled 
wdth black ; skull shorter and wider and teeth rather heavier. 

Length about 1060 mm. (42 inches) ; tail vertebrae 300 
(12) ; hind foot 180 (7.10) ; ear from crown 125 (5). Female 

Type locality, San Juan River, southeastern Utah. 

Desert Coyotes are common from the eastern slope of the 
Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains east to the south- 
ern Rocky Mountains, and in southern California. Their habits 
are similar to those of the preceding species. 

Canis lestes Mi^rriam. (Robber.) 


Similar to ochropus but larger and somewhat paler; ears 
smaller; tail broadly tipped with blacl<; skull larger and heavier 
with nose much broader; teeth larger. 

Length about 1170 mm. (46 inches); tail vertebrae 320 
(12.60) ; hind foot 200 (7-85)- Female smaller. 

Type locality, Toyabe Mountains, central' Nevada. 

Mountain Coyotes are found in the higher mountains of 
northern California, in the Sierra Nevada and in the mountains 


eastward to the Rocky Mountains. In the interior northward 
they are found to the plains of British America. In Cahfornia in 
summer this species seems to be Hmited to the mountains and high 
plains of the northeastern part of the State, coming- lower in win- 

Canis meamsi Merriam. (For Dr. E. A. Mearns.) 


Similar to ochropus but deeper colored, more tawny; skull 
and teeth similar to those of cstor; size of cstor. 

Type locality, Pima County, Arizona. 

Southern Arizona, northern Sonora, the mountains of north- 
ern Lower California and of southern California. 

This brightly colored coyote occurs in small numbers in the 
mountains of San Diego County. 

Little harm would be doiie if all the Californian Coyoies were 
grouped together under the name ochropus. There is consider- 
able individual and seasonal variation of color, and the skulls, 
which are the best guides, in most cases require careful compar- 
isons with good series to decide which species the individuals be- 
long to. Those not experts will find it difficult to determine the 
species of Coyotes. 

Canis mexicanus Linn. 


Size large; general color varying from very pale gray to 
blackish; commonly yellowish gray above, more or less grizzled 
with long black hairs, the amount of black being quite variable ; 
lower parts pale yellowish gray, sometimes with black tips to the 
hairs of the neck; ears brownish yellow or reddish; tip of tail 

Length about 1525 mm. (60 inches); tail vertebrae 380 
(15) ; hind foot 230 (9). 

Type locality, Mexico. 

CANID/R 217 

A very few Gray Wolves live in the high Sierras and in the 
mountains of northeastern California. I do not know of any 
California example in any museum or private collection. 

Genus Vulpes FiNSCH. (Fox.) 
Pupils of eye elliptical ; tail long and bushy ; upper incisors 
rather small, not distinctly lobed; teeth otherwise similar to those 
of Canis; temporal crests low, parallel, not widely separated; up- 
per postorbital process small, the corresponding process on the 
zygomatic arch obsolete; angular process of lower jaw short, nar- 
row, curved. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 3; C, i — i ; P, 4 — 4; M, 2 — 3X2=42. 

Vulpes macrotis Merriam. (Great — ear.) 


Small; ears large, color very pale, above pale grayish buff; 
chest and fore legs buff; remainder of lower parts buffy white; tip 
of tail and a small spot on upper side near base chestnut or sepia. 

Length about 760 mm. (30 inches) ; tail vertebrse 290 
(11.40); hind foot 120 (4.75); ear from crown 95' (3-75)- 
Wetght four pounds. 

Type locality. Riverside, California. 

Long-eared Foxes are a desert species. The type came from 
the western edge of their range. They are not very common in 
any part of their range. They are found in southwestern Arizona,, 
in the Colorado and Mohave Deserts and a few straggle through: 
the San Gorgonio Pass west and south. They live in open, nearly- 
level localities, quite the reverse of the habit of our other Foxes. 
They live in burrows, these often having several entrances. They 
are nocturnal and crepuscular, but are often abroad some time af- 
ter sunrise. They are not hard to trap. I do not remember hear- 
ing any bark or other vocal sound that I could attribute to them. 
Their food seems to be the small rodents living in the region that 
they inhabit. I have caught young of this species about the mid- 


die of April that were about a month old. There were three in 
Ihis litter and this is probably about the usual number. 

Vulpes muticus Mkrriam. (Unarmed.) 


Similar to iiiacrotis but larger; hind foot and tail longer; 
back browner; skull larger; rostrtmi much broader; teeth larger. 

Length about 950 mm. (37.50); tail vertebrae 350 (14); 
hind foot 125 (5). 

Type locality, Tracy, San Joaquin Valley, California. 

So far as I know this Fox is found only in the San Joaquin 

Vulpes necator Merriam. 


Red pelage; face dull fulvous, strongly grizzled with whit- 
ish; sides of nose dusky, grizzled with buffy; upper parts from 
back of head to base of tail dark dull dusty fulvous, becoming 
much paler on the sides where the whitish underfur shows through ; 
black of fore feet reaching up on the upper surface of fore leg to 
elbow; black of hind feet ending at or near tarsal joint, with only 
slight traces on the outer side of leg; tail at base fulvous, becom- 
ing buffy whitish and profusely mixed with long black hairs; 
base with the usual black spot; tip white. Black^cross pelage; 
back grizzled black and whitish or buffy; sides buffy; feet, legs 
aid belly black; tail mainly black with white tip. 

Length about 965 mm. (38 inches) ; tail vertebrae 370 
{14.50) ; hind foot 160 (6.30). 

Type locality, Whitney Meadows, Sierra Nevada, California. 

Known only from the high Sierra from 6,000 feet altitude 

Vulpes cascadensis ^Ierriam. 


Red pelage ; general color of head and upper parts straw yel- 

CANID^ 219 

low; face from nose to eyes dull yellowish fulivous; rest of top of 
head and base of ears pale straw yellow ; back j^olden yellowish 
fulvous; tail very pale; black of ears restricted, that of the feet 
confined to the upper surface and mixed with pale fulvous. Black- 
cross pelage; top of nose grizzled brownish; sides of nose antl 
imperfect ring around the eye dusky or blackish grizzled with 
whitish; top of head yellowish white, the black underfur showing 
througli; dorsal cross (back and shoulders) blackish, overlaid 
and nearly concealed by yellowish white or buffy; sides of neck, 
flanks, and post-scapular region golden yellow; upp<er two thirds 
of ear black ; fore feet black, grizzled above the elbow with yellow- 
ish; hind feet and legs grizzled dusky audi buffy, becomiing nearly 
black on top of the feet; chin, throat and band down middle of 
belly black or blackish; tail black mixed with buffy and tipped 
with white; skull as compared with that of necator has a wider 
rostrum, the audital bullx are larger and the teeth are smaller. 

Length about 1070 nmi. (42 inches) ; tail vertebnne 410 
(17) ; hind foot 173 (7). 

Type locality, Trout Lake, Cascade Mountains, Washington. 

The Cascade Mountain Fox is found in the Cascade Moun- 
tains of Washington and Oregon and in the northern Sierra Ne- 
vada. This species and the High Sierra Fox belong to the group 
which in one pelage is called the Silver Gray Fox and in another 
pelage the Cross Fox. The latter name is due to the fact that a 
dark stripe on the top of the neck and back is crossed by another 
on the shoulders. The Silver Gray Fox is black with the hairs, 
particularly on the hips, with long white tips, producing a silvered 
appearance. This stage of pelage is probably very rare in Cali- 
fornia, if it really occurs at all. Tbese different pelages are not 
seasonal but are to^ a considerable extent dimorphic, though there 
is also some seasonal differences. 

Genus Urocyon Baird. (Tail — dog.) 
Pupils of eye elliptical; tail long, bushy, with a concealed 
mane of stiff black hairs oil its upper side; teeth as in Vulpes; 



temporal crests distinct, widely separated, converging- posteriorly; 
upper postorbital process large and the corresponding process on 
the zygomatic arch nearly as large; lower jaw but slightly curved; 
the angular process long, wide, curved, and with a deep wide 
notch below: anteriorly. 

Dental formula, I, 3—3; C, i— i ; P, 4—4; M, 2— 3X2=42. 

Urocyon calif ornicus M earns. 


General effect above grizzled gray, underfur grayish buff, 
darkest on the head, lightest on the sides, thickly mixed with long 
hairs which are black in the basal two thirds covered by the under- 

California Gray Fox. 

fur, then white, then black to tip, the black tip being shorter and 
paler on the sides ; upper part of head similar to the back ; upper 
side of nose nearly to eyes mixed brown and gray; sometimes 
quite pale; a white area in front of whiskers, this usually including 
the point of the under lip; remainder of lower jaw black, this area 
joining the black area at the base of the whiskers; inner surface 
and edges of ears whitish ; convex surface of ears mixed dusky, 

CANID^ 221 

gray and tawny near the tip changing- to^ clear tawny, ochraceous 
or brownish buff toward the base of the ear, this color extending 
on the sides of the neck nearly to the shoulder, outer and back 
sides of legs tawny or ochraceous; remainder of under side of 
head and neck, inside of legs and more or less of breast and bellv 
white, front side of fore legs and feet and of hind feet mixed 
white and dusky ; tail with a stripe of long stiff black hairs on the 
upper side, a fulvous stripe on the underside, the remainder like 
the back. 

Length about 950 mm. (37 inches) ; tail vertebrae 380 ( 15) ; 
hind foot 13O' (5.10); ear from crown 82 (3.25). Weight 8 

Type locahty, San Jacinto Mountains. California. 

California Gray Foxes are found in nearly all the forested 
parts of central and southern California, but are not common 
in many places. I found them up to 9,000 feet altitude in the 
San Jacinto Mountains. Their food is small mammals, birds, in- 
sects and fruit. I have heard but few complaints of these Foxes 
destroying poultry. They are not very difficult to trap. Their 
bark is hoarse and not loud. The young are born in April, May 
and June. 

Urocyon calif omicus townsendi Merriam. (For C. H. 

Townsend. ) 


Similar to calif omicus; ears larger; tawny parts deeper 
colored; rostrum broader; teeth heavier. 

Type locality, Baird, Shasta County, California. 

Common around Mount Shasta and probably in most suit- 
able places in northern California. 

Urocyon littoralis Baird. (Of the seashore.) 


Very similar in color to calif omicus but size very much smal- 


Length about 725 mm. (28.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 250 
(10); hind foot no (4.33). Weight about four and a half 

Type locality, San Miguel Island, Santa Barbara group, 

Urocyon littoralis santacruzae Merriam. 


Similar to littoralis but colors brighter, skull smaller ; nasals 
narrower; rostrum narrower. 

Length about 710 mm. (27.90 inches) ; tail vertebrae 265 
(10.35); hind foot 108 (4-25) • 

Type locality, Santa Cruz Island, California. 

Urocyon clementse Me:rriam. 


Similar to littoralis but skull smaller; nasals more tapering 
posteriorly; rostrum more slender. 

Type locality, San Clemente Island, California. 

' Urocyon catalinae 


Similar to littoralis but tail longer ; nasals narrower and not 
constricted in the middle; rostrum longer. 

Length about 760 mm. (30 inches) ; tail vertebrae I285 
(11.25), hind foot 112 (4.40); ear from crown 63 (2.50). 

These various forms of Island Foxes are so much smaller 
than our mainland Foxes that anyone can distinguish between 
them at sight, but when it comes to discriminating the various 
island forms from one another it is a different matter, and most 
people will name them from the island they are foiund on without 
regard to technical characters. 

Island Foxes are or have been common on nearly all of the 

CANID.^ 223 

Santa Barbara Islands, and on some they were abundant. They 
seem to Idc subject to an epidemic of some kind. In 1886 I found 
them abundant on Santa CataHna Island. In 1893 I spent nearly 
a month at the same place and saw none and was told by residents 
that they were rare but appeared to be increasing. In 1886 I saw 
two and three together several times. They were not shy and 
moved about in the daytime to some extent. Several times I heard 
a bark in the night that sounded much like that of the gray fox 
of the mainland. Those foxes that I skinned had many cactus 
thorns in their skin and flesh. The flat leaved cactuses (Opuntia) 
are very abundant on the island and of necessity the Foxes get 
pricked in pursuing squirrels and birds in the cactus thickets, to 
which these resort for protection. The Foxes patrol the beaches 
to pick up any fish that may wash ashore. I saw no burrows and 
suppose that the Foxes spend the day in the dense thickets of 
brush on the hillsides. 


Family Procyonidae. (Raccoons, etc.) 

Plantis^-nulo or (lii^iti.uraile ; five toes on all the feet; tail long, 
bushy, usually annulatctl with rings of different colors; rostmm 
moderately long; molars tuberculate; teeth 36 to 40. 

This is a small family of five or six genera and alxnit a dozen 
species. One genus iJ:liints) of southern Asia is i)laced in a 
subfamily bv itself and may not belong to this family ; .all the other 
genera are limited to temi>erate and tropical America. 

They ai-o principall}- norturnal, arbiM-eal and terrestrial. 
Thev are but ])arily carnixorous, eating small birds, small mam- 
mals, fish, eggs, insects, fruits and seeds. 

Genus Bassariscus Couks. (Little Fox.) 

Digitigrade: si/c rather small; body rather slender; ears 
large, tail about as l<Mig as head and body, annulated. skull in 
many respects like that of Fitlpcs in shai>e of teeth, shortness of 
palate, flatness alx^\e {not strongly arched as in Procyon), 
audital bulKx and surroundings part more like Procyo)i. 

Dental formula. 1. 3 — 3; C, i — 1 ; P, 4 — 4; M. -' — 2; Xj=40. 

Bassariscus astutus raptor Ikmrd. (Sagacious; a robber) 


\\\H>d brown ilarkeneil above by black tips to the long hairs; 
Ixdow butYy white; basal half oi the fur slate gray; grayish white 
area around and behind the eye antl another l>elow the ears brown- 
ish white darker on the external base; tail black above with about 
seven narrow white rings, these white ring^s widening below and 
taking the form of large connected triangles; soles of hind feet 
thickly haired half way from the heels towards the claws. 

Length of male alxnit y6o mm. (30 inches); tail vertebrae 
375 (14.75); ^liii^l '^^*'t (>7 (J.65); ear from crown 38 (1.50). 
Weight two and one half iK)unds. Female smaller. 

California Ring- tailed Cats are not very common anywhere. 
In southern California thev are rare. I have heard of onlv two 

A t 

^ -.jf ^M^^^; 


instances of their being taken in the San Bernardino Mountains, 
and none further south. They frequent forests in the mountains. 
My only personal acquaintance with this species consists in trap- 
ping a pair on Eel River, Mendocino County. One of these we 
kept alive a few hours to observe its actions and make a drawing 
of it. This one permitted stroking and considerable handling, 
though it once nipped Mr. Fenns thumb severely when he handled 
it too freely. 

The tracks were cat-like, not full footed like those of a rac- 
coon. One that I got a brief look at before I put out the traps 
acted much like a fox. I heard a hoarse fox-like bark o^ne night 
that I attributed to one of these animals. This pair inhabited a 
mass of boulders on a liillside thickly overgrown with brush, 
making a fine shelter. In dying the male emitted a weasel-hke 
odor, not strong yet disagreeable. They are said to make nests 
in hollow trees. They are sometimes tamed by miners and become 
valued pets, as they keep the cabins free of mice. My female, 
caught May i6th. contained three small foetuses. They are said 
to rear four kittens more often. The miners often call this 
animal the Civet Cat, but that name properly belongs tO' a differ- 
ent animal. 

Genus Procyon Storr.. (Before; dog.) 
Plantigrade; size rather large; body stout; ears rather small; 
tail about half as long as head and body, annulated; skull strongly 
arched; sectorial teeth modified, scarcely more than tuberculate; 
palate extending back about half way from last molar to audital 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 3 ; C, i — i ; P, 4 — 4; M, 2 — 2, X2=40. 

Procyon psora Gray. (Itch.) 


Above yellowish gray more or less heavily darkened by long 
black tips to the coarse hairs ; underfur seal brown or hair brown ; 


a broad black band across the face, the eyes being within its upper 
border, bordered behind with grayish white which shades into 
the blackish of the crown and yellowish gray of the sides of the 
neck ; region of the mouth and sides of the nose dull white with a 
narrow prolongation from the corners of the mouth cutting off 
the black facial band from a blackish patch beneath the neck; 
convex base of the ears and a large ill-defined spot behind them 
black; remainder of the ears dull white; underfur of lower parts 
drab gray grizzled with an intermixture of long white hairs; 
tail brownish buff with five to seven black or dusky rings 
narrower than the pale interspaces, and all but two or three of the 
last black rings interrupted below ; tip of tail black ; fore feet pale 
drab; toes and inner edge of hind feet pale smoke gray; remain-- 
der of hind feet sepia or dusky. 

Length about 840 mm. (33 inches) ; tail vertebrae 295 
(11.60) ; hind feet 125 (4.90) ; ear from crown 57 (2.25). 
Type locality. Sacramento. Cafifornia. 

Raccoons are found in the timbered regions of the lower 
mountains and valleys of California and around some of the ba^'S 
along the seacoast where no timber is near. They prefer to 
hunt along streams and are common in the timbered bottoms of 
many rivers and creeks. 

The food is quite varied, including mice, small birds, eggs, 
insects, frogs, fish, molluscs, green corn, fruit, etc. They are 
good swimmers but do not dive. They are fond of fish, but cart 
get only such as they can snatch at the waters edge, or find dead 
along the shores. If they find a henroost which they can enter, 
or where they can reach poultry through the laths, they are 
likely to do considerable harm. They frequently visit vineyards, 
eating the ripe grapes. The harm they do is but partly offset by 
the considerable amount of mice that they destroy. 

They travel about a considerable distance from home, some- 
times having a beat several miles in length, which they take sev- 
eral nights to cover. I trapped one pair that got around to my 
vinevard about once a week, and in the interim visited one local- 


ity a mile in one direction, and another three miles in an opposite 
direction, a part of the route being along two small streams^ 
and a part of the remainder along a road in a forest of scattered 
oaks growing among thick brush. Raccoons frequently hunt in 
pairs or families in the autumn, but more often alone the re- 
mainder of the year. 

The ordinary gait of a Raccoon is a slow trot, and they can- 
not run fast. They^ are clever hunters, and do most of their 
hunting on the ground, but they pass the day in hollow trees or 
in crevices among rocks. They are expert climbers. They are 
not difficult to trap ; a bait of fresh meat usually proves too much 
for them. The young are probably born in April and May ; they 
are said to be three to six in number. 'Coons do not hibernate 
in California, the region which they inhabit not being cold 
enough to make hibernation necessarv^ I do not think they occur 
above 5,000 feet altitude. 

Procyon psora pacifica Mkrriam. 


Similar to psora, but darker, the ground color being darker 
and the black tipped hairs very thick; black rings of tail not 
broken on the under side; last premolar, first molar and audital 
bullae larger. 

Type locality, Cascade Mountains, Washington. 

Dr. Merriam says that Pacific Raccoons are common around 
the base of Mount Shasta. This is probably about the southern 
limit of this form. 

Procyon pallidus Merriam. (Pallid.) 


Very pale; pattern of colors as in psora; buff tints of psora 
replaced by grayish white; alx)ve pale gray darkened by short 
black tips to the coarse hairs; below grayish white, the drab un- 


derfur being; nearly obscured ; tail long and slender, with narrow 
blackish rings; hind feet pale gray. 

Length about 850 mm. (33.50 inclies) ; tail vertebrae 310 
( 12.20) ; hind foot 130 (5.10) ; ear from crown 60 (2.35). 

Type locality, New River, Colorado Desert, California. 

Desert Raccoons are common in the bottom, lands of the 
lower Colorado River, frequenting the borders of the sloughs 
and ponds along the overllow channels so common for miles from 
the river below Yuma. I have trapped severaL at the mesquit 
bordered lagunas in "New River" channel in the heart of the 
Colorado Desert, 50 miles from the main channel of the Colorado 
River, They follow these overflow channels, living principally 
on the fish left by the overflows, helped out with birds, small 
mammals, frogs and a few insects. After the ponds dry up they 
probably work back to the main channel. 

URSID/E 229 

Family Ursidae (Bears.) 

Plantig'nule ; size large or very larg-e; body stout; iive toes 
on all the feet; tail riulimentary ; rostrum short; molars tuber- 
culate; teeth 4J. 

This family consists of four or five g^enera and some fifteen 
or more species, widely distributed through the northern hemi- 
sphere, with one South American species Thev are terrestrial 
and most species are diurnal or nocturnal, according- to circum- 
stances. The food of most species is principally of a vegetable 

Genus Ursus Linn. (Bear.) 
First three premolars in each jaw small, single rooted, often 
deciduous; sectorial teeth greatly modified, practically tubercu- 
late; audital bullcT small. 

Ursus horribilis Ord. { H orril)le. ) 


Very large; claws of fore feet very long, twice the length 
of the claws of the hind feet, nearly straight ; skull and teeth 
large and massive; liair coarse; color variable, usually the tips of 
the hairs are yellowish or whitish in contrast with the dark basal 
part; general color yellowish brown, grayish or brownish yellow, 
with an indistinct dorsal stripe and often a dim stripe on the side; 
feet and legs often blackish ; hairs of neck long, forming a short 
mane; hind legs longer than fore legs. 

The length of old males is about seven feet, sometimes 
more, as Lewis and Clark record one measuring nine feet from 
nose to end of tail. The ears are about three inches long, and 
the tail only about two inches. The claws of the fore feet are 
very long, five or six inches in adult males Females are smaller 
than males. 

T\'pe locality. Montana. 

Grizzly Bears w^ere formerly common in California, but are 


now rare, with the probability of their becoming extinct in the 
near future. As I have never seen a hve Grizzly at large I can 
say nothing of their habits from personal observation. When 
California was first settled Grizzly Bears appear to have fre- 
quented the edges of valleys and open places in forests ; but the 
few that are left now hide in brushy canons of rough, inaccessi- 
ble parts of low mountains. They do not climb trees. 

The food of Grizzly Bears is principally of vegetable nature, 
including roots, wild fruits, seeds, nuts, grubs and the larger 
insects. To this they add more or less flesh. When Grizzlies 
were more common they killed some domestic animals, such as 
colts, cattle, hogs and sheep. They are abroad as much in the 
daytime as in the night, appearing to- hunt for food whenever 
they are hungry, regardless of the time of day. 

Grizzly Bears are very tenacious of life, and are said to be 
able to run a long distance after being shot through the heart. 
The cubs are said to be usually two at a birth, sometimes three. 
They are very small when first born. Grizzlies breed readily in 

It is pretty well settled now that the so-called Cinnamon Bear 
is a color phase of the Grizzly. 

Ursus americanus Pallas (Black Bear.) 


Smaller; claws of fore feet curved, not much longer than 
those of the hind feet; color brownish or blackish, the tips of the 
hairs not conspicuously lighter; pelage comparatively soft and fine. 

No reliable measurements of this species are at hand. 

Black Bears are still found in the northern part of Califor- 
nia, but are rare or extinct in the southern part of the State. Their 
food is similar to that of the Grizzly, with a less proportion of 
flesh. The young are commonly two, occasionally four in num- 
ber^ These are born in the middle of the winter, in a very un- 

ijRHn).i-; 231 

(levclo|jC(l stale, and do not run about until l!)ey arc al).niil ten 
weeks old. 

Iila<-k licars are ^ood climlM-rs and swim well. Tlicy are 
not nearly as ferocious as the ('.\-\/:/.\y I'ears, hut under all ordi 
nary circumstances will run away from man. As llieir scent, 
hearing- and si^lit are acute, it is dillicuh to j^-et near tlieni ex- 
cei>t l>y accident. 


Family Mustelidae. (Weasels, etc.) 
Plantigrade or digitigrade ; anal scent glands usually present 
and often highly developed : five toes on all the feet ; tail long ; 
rostrum short ; sectorial teeth usually but little modified ; molars 
usually not tuberculate : teeth ^2 to 38. 

The Miisfclidx is a large and important family, containing 
many species of commercial importance, and other species notable 
for their disagreeable odor, or for other characteristics. The 
family is found in nearly all parts of the world except Australia. 
There are fifteen or more genera, divided in three subfamilies, 
and nearly a hundred species. They are almost exclusively car- 
nivorous, feeding on birds, mammals or fish caught by them- 
selves. Some species are digitigrade. but more are plantigrade. 
Most species are terrestrial, some are aquatic, and a few are 
partly arboreal. IMost species are nocturnal. Some species have 
very marked seasonal changes of pelage, while many wear the 
same colors all the vear. 

Subfamily LutrinSB. (Otters.) 
Feet webbed ; body long : skull very short and wide : teeth 
blunt, the molars tuberculate. 

Genus Latax Gloger. (A sea otter.) 
Fore feet small; hind feet large, fully webbed, flipper-like 
but haired on both surfaces; teeth comparatively smooth, mas- 

Dental fomuila. I. 3 — 2. C, i — i ; P. 3 — 3; AI, i — 2. X2-=^2. 

Latax lutris nereis ]vIkkriam. ( A daughter of Xereus, 
a Grecian sea god.) 


Dark liver brown, with a frosted appearance, the "frosting" 
being caused bv a scantv intermixture of long coarse hairs in 


tlie fine dense fur; head brownish white; neck gravish brown; 
ears very smaU and situated low on the side of the head ; skin 
very loose on the body. In summer the long pale hairs are more 
numerous, producing- a grizzled appearance. 

Length about 1200 mm. (48 inches) ; tail vertebrae 280 
(11) ; hind foot 150 (6) by 100 (4) in breadth. 

Type locality, San Miguel Island, Santa Barbara group. Cal- 

Sea Otters were formerly more or less common along the 
whole Pacific Coast from Lower California to Alaska and around 
to Japan. They are now rare everywhere. A very few are still 
living about the islands off the coasts of Lower and southern 
California. The fur of the Sea Otter is the most valuable of 
any single skin known, the price of the finest skins running up 
into the hundreds of dollars. 

Sea Otters frequent kelp beds among rocky islets, where- 
they feed on mussels, clams, sea urchins and other mollusks, fish 
and kelp. They are excessively shy, and their senses are very 
acute; hence they are very difficult to obtain. The single young 
are brought forth at any season, the intervals apparently being 
more than a vear. The voung are said to suckle more than a vear. 

Genus Lutra Brtsson. (Otter.) 
Feet sliort, broad, full webbed, the hind feet of normal 
shape; last upper premolar distinctly sectorial; tail long, taper- 
ing, not flattened. 

Dental formula, L 3 — 3 ; C, i — i ; P, 3 — 3 ; M, i — 2, X2=34. 

Lutra canadensis pacifica Rhoaus. (Of the Pacific Slope) 


Dark liver brown, paler on the under side of the head, 
throat and breast ; size averaging larger than typical canadensis. 

Length about 1300 mm. (62 inches) ; tail vertebrae 46a 
(18); hind foot 140 (4-5o). 


Type locality, Kittittas County, Washington. 

Pacific Otters range from Central California northward 
through Alaska. As the principal food of Otters is fish caught 
in fresh waters they do not occur in southern California. They 
are known to occur about suitable streams in the central and 
northern part of the State. At the forks of Eel River I saw- 
where an Otter had been playing on the sand at the river shore. 
It had not gone more than a dozen feet from the water. Its 
tracks showed that it had pushed itself along on its belly in the 

The food of the Otter is fish caught by pursuit in the water, 
but usually eaten on the bank. A pastime of Otters is sliding 
down banks on their bellies, banks that end in the water being 
usually chosen. The young are born in March and April, and 
are one to three in number. Otters are nocturnal, very shy. and 
therefore seldom seen. Their fur while valuable is not nearly as 
high priced as that of the Sea Otter. 

Lutra canadensis sonora Rhoads. 


Similar to pacifica, but paler and apparently larger, postor- 
bital processes slender; distance from point of angular process of 
lower jaw to summit of coronal process greater proportionally 
than in pacifica. 

Type locality, Montezuma Well, Yavapai County, Arizona. 

Sonoran Otters are occasionally caught in the Colorado 
River. While not common, they are not very rare. 

Subfamily Melinse. (Badgers and Skunks.) 
Toes but partly or not webbed ; body short and stout ; skull 
comparatively long; sectorial teeth moderately developed. 

Genus Taxidae WaTERHOUSe:. (Badger — form.) 
Body stout, very flat; tail short, flat; fore claws but little 



curved, very large; anal scent g-lands small; last molars tuber- 
ciilate; andital bulhe large; palate extending half way from last 
molar to audita! bulla; occipital crests very large; brain case 
triangular, very wide posteriorly. 

Taxidea taxus neglecta Mearns. (Overlooked.) 


Above grizzled gray, the basal half of the hairs pale yellow- 
ish brown, the tip buffy white or grayish white, the subapical 
fourth dusky ; a narrow white stripe over the head, usually to 
the shoulders, often extending to the rump; nose, upper part of 

the head each side of tlie white stripe, a patch in front (^f the ears 
and feet black; under side of the head, with a point extending up 
between the eye and the ear white ; under side of body buff, with 
an irregular white stripe in the middle; tail yellowish brown 
grizzled with black and white above, paler beneath; hairs of 
sides much longer than those of upper and under surfaces. Im- 
mature; less grizzled with gray. 


Length about jt,^ mm. (29 inches); tail vertebrc-e 135 
(5.33) : hind foot 100 (4) : ear from crown 30 (1.20). 

Type locaHty. old Fort Crook, Shasta County, California. 

Badgers are not very common in California, but are found 
in open country more or less throughout the State. Their food 
is ground squirrels, gophers, mice, eggs, insects and grubs. The 
only harm they do man is by digging holes in the ground, these 
being troublesome in cultivated ground. The young are said 
to be three or four in nuinber, but I think the number must 
sometimes be greater, as there are eight mammae. The young 
are probably born in March or April. 

Badgers are principally nocturnal in habit. They are slow 
of foot and capture their prey principally by digging it out of 
burrows, for which work they are particularly adapted by their 
shape and great strength. They are shy and prefer hiding in 
burrows to fighting, but if compelled to fight they are plucky 
and tenacious. 

There are probably two subspecies of Badgers in California. 
the Western {neglecta) in the mountains and higher valleys, and 
the California [califoniica Bennet) in the lower valleys. Very 
much more material than is now available is necessary to settle 
this question. 

Genus Mephitis Cuvier. i^A foul odor.) 
Body rather stout : tail long. ver\' bushy ; anal scent glands 
highly developed; head small; skull arched; palate ending even 
with last molars ; occipital crests large ; saggital crest small : brain 
case not widened posteriorly; audital bullae ven- small. 

Dental formula. I. 3 — 3; C. i — i ; P. 3 — 3 M. i — 2. X2=34. 

Mephitis occidentalis Baird. (Western.) 


Pelage long and coarse, mostly black ; a narrow white stripe 
on the crown ; a broad white stripe commencing at the nape, di- 


viding- on the shoulders, running along- the upper part of the sides 
and across the hips and ending on the sides of the tail, usually 
extending but a short distance on the tail — this stripe varying in 
form and width: hairs of tail four to seven inches in length, the 
basal half white :\m\ sometimes those about the middle of the tail 
white throughout. 

Length about 685 mm. i 27 inches) ; tail vertebra? 300 
(12) ; hind foot jy (3) ; ear from crown 22 {.S=,). 

Type locality. Petaluma, California. 

Central and northern California and southwestern Oregon, 
east to the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains. Common in 
mountain and valley, timber and plain. Their fcx^d is varied, 
including- mice, small birds, eggs, frogs, insects and grubs. 
Grasshoppers, l^eetles and their larv?e, in fact, constittite the bulk 
of their food when these are in season, and these Skunks are 
really worthy of protection for their usefulness in destroying 
harmful insects and mice. It is true that they do sometimes de- 
stroy poultry, but much the greater part of this damage is done 
by the smaller Spotted Skunks. California Skunks cannot climb, 
nor can they creep through very small holes, and a properly built 
poultr\- house will protect the inmates from this species. 

This genus has been accused of causing hydrophobia by its 
bites, but there are good reasons for believing that this is a mis- 
take, and that the bite of this .species never causes hydrophobia. 
Xo cases, as far as I can learn, have l>een reported outside the 
range of Sf>iIogah\ and many instances are known of bites from 
the larger Skunks that have not resulted in an attack of the dis- 

California Skunks are not as audacious as the little Spotted 
Skunks are ; but they are very little afraid of man or beast. They 
are self reliant, bold and inquisitive. In spite of their powerful 
odor they are preyed upon by foxes, coyotes and great horned 
owls, as their flesh is as sweet as that of a hare or squirrel. 
Those persons who, not being troubled with squeamishness, have 
eaten it pronounce it agreeable in flavor. I never cared to try it. 


Like most Skunks they have the habit, when angered or defiant, of 
stamping on the ground with one forefoot, or with both alter- 
nately. They are suspicious of quick movements, and act ac- 
cordingly. By moving slowly one can get quite near a Skunk 
without provoking a discharge of scent. 

The odor of a Skunk is penetrating, very pungent, and to 
most people very disagreeable or nauseating; when strongly in- 
haled it may produce unconsciousness. The fluid, much diluted 
and administered internally, has proved efficacious as a remedy 
for asthma, whooping cough and croup. Its disagreeable odor is 
a bar to its extended use, however. The accidental reception of a 
small amount of the liquid in the eye is followed by inflamma- 
tion, lasting a week or so ; a large amount has produced the loss 
of eyesight. In case of such an accident, the eye should be 
washed out with clean cold water as soon as possible. The odor 
is produced by the volatilization of a fluid secreted in a pair of 
glands which lie either side of the rectum, and nearly surround- 
ing it. These glands are enveloped in a strong muscle which is 
capable of compressing them with sufficient force to spurt the con- 
tained fluid in several small streams a distance of twelve to fif- 
teen feet. The ejection of the fluid is wholly within the control 
of the animal, and is ordinarily only resorted to m self defence. 

Skunks are chiefly crepuscular and nocturnal. They occupy 
burrows dug by themselves when they cannot find hollow logs or 
suitable crevices in rocks. They are born in April, May and 
June, and are five to nine in number. The name Polecat be- 
longs to an European animal of another genus. 

Mephitis occidentalis major Howell. (Large.) 


Similar to occidentalis but larger; liind foot longer; skull 
larger, heavier built, broader and flattened ; rostrum broader. 
Type locality, Fort Klamath, Oregon. 
Eastern Oregon, northeastern California, Nevada and Utah. 


Mephitis occidentalis holzneri AIearns. (For Frank 
X. Holzner.) 


Similar to occidentalis but averaging smaller; skull nar- 
rower; teeth heavier in proportion. 

Type locality. San Ysidrio Ranch, northern Lower Califor- 

Southern California Skunks are found in northern Lower 
California and southern California west of the Deserts, inter- 
grading northward with true occidentalis. Habits similar. 

Mephitis platyrhinus Howell. (Broad— nose.) 


Elxternally similar to occidentalis; skull short, broad, flat- 
tened in front; rostrum very broad; nasals short and broad; 
zygomatic arches spreading less abruptly and in an even curve 
nearly parallel to the axis of the skull. 

Type locality, South Fork of Kern River, California. 

Southern and eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada and 
Owen Valley. 

Mephitis estor Mlrriam. (Eater.) 


Similar to occidentalis; black stripe on back usually narrow; 
tail with white tip and more or less white at the sides, the bases 
of most of the tail hairs white; skull similar to that of occiden- 
talis; teeth smaller; zygomatic arches heavier. 

Length about 640 mm. 25.15 inches); tail vertebrae 285 
(11.25) ; hind foot 68 (2.67) ; ear from crown 18 (.70). 

Type locality, San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 

Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora, northeastern Lower Califor- 
nia and eastern California along the Colorado River. 



Genus Spilogale Gray. (Spot — weasel.) 
Body small and rather slender; tail long- and bushy; anal 
sceot g-lands highly developed; skull rather flat; sectorial teeth 
well developed; palate not extending much back of molars; sag- 
gital crest usually small; occipital crest large: auditory bulla? 
rather small ; mastoid sinus inflated. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 3; C. i — i ; P, 3 — 3; M, i — 2. X2=34. 

Spilogale phenax Merriam. (Deceptive.) 


Black with white stripes ; four parallel white stripes from 
the head to the hips, a white stripe commencing behind the fore- 

Western Spotted Skunk. 

leg running back and up on the hip with a spot on each side of 
the backbone in the direction of its fellow stripe; a transverse 
Sitripe across tbe back part of the hips interrupted at the back- 
bone; a spot each side of the rump; more or less wliite at the 
base of the tail; terminal third of the tail white, more extensive 


below, a white spot on the forehead; more or less white about 
the corners of the mouth. 

Length about 400 mm. (15.75 indies); tail vertebrc-e 165 
(6.50) ; hind foot 46 (1.80) ; ear from crown 15 (.60). 

Type locality, Nicasio, Marin County. California. 

^^'estern Spotted Skunks are common in many of the val- 
leys of central and southern California and in northern Lower 
California. They do not ordinarily rang-e as high in the moun- 
tains as the larger Skunks do. The odor of the Spotted Skunk 
is more pmigent than tliat of the larger species, but it is not as 
lasting. The only ^^'ay that I know of to kill this or any other 
species of Skunk without its emitting its odor is by drowning. 
By using a box trap and carrying it to water and slowly im- 
mersing it no scent will be emitted. If a steel trap is used fasten 
it to the end of a long pole and the animal can be slowly dragged 
to the water and drowned. As long as the animal faces one 
there is no danger; but if it turns about stop and keep quiet un- 
til it faces about again. A Skunk will bear some pulling about 
if carefully handled; they do not waste their means of defense un- 
necessarily. Sometimes a Spotted Skunk will eat a bit of fresh 
meat while still in the trap, then a little strychnine will make 
them quiet ; the meat can be reached to the animal on the end of 
a pole if one moves slowly and carefully. 

The gait of Spotted Skunks is commonly a trot. The breed- 
ing season is about April, judging from the size of young Skunks 
seen in summer. They are very bold, and have so much confi- 
dence in their means of offense and defense that they seldom run 
from anything. Their food is much like that of the larger 
species — that is. mice, birds, eggs, poultry, insects and grubs. I 
have found parts oi a snake in one's stomach. Their small size 
enables them to enter almost any hole that will admit a weasel or 
mink. These little Skunks are often vei-y destructive of poul- 
try, but there is another reason for destroying them; it is a well 
established fact that their bite does sometimes cause a form of 
hydrophobia. Not ever}^ bite of a Skunk will induce this dis- 


ease, and one need not give up hope if bitten, yet due precau- 
tions should be taken. 

Spilogale latifrons Me:rriam. (Broad — front.) 


Colors and their pattern as in phenax ; smaller, skull much 
broader in proportion to size; last molar smaller. 

Type locality, Roseburg, Douglass County Oregon,. 

Western Oregon and northern California. Apparently not 
common anywhere. Habits similar to those of the Western 
Spotted Skunk. 

Subfamily Mustelinae (Weasels, etc.) 
Body long; 1?oes partly webbed; skull usually long and nar- 
row; sectorial teeth well developed; audita! bullae usually large. 

Genus Gulo Frisch, (Glutton.) 
Large; body stout; tail short, bushy, the hairs drooping; 
anal glands moderately developed; skull arched, short, wide; 
audital bullae of moderate size with tubular meatus; lower sec- 
torial tooth without inner cusp; upper sectorial tooth large; palate 
extending one-third of the way from last molar to audital bulla. 
Dental formula, I, 3 — 3; C, i — i ; P, 4 — 4; M, i — 2, X2^38. 

Gulo luscus Linn. (One-eyed.) 


Large, blackish; an indefinite broad yellowish band on the 
sides, running across the hips and meeting its fellow at the base 
of the tail ; front and sides of head grayish. 

Length about 965 mm. (38 inches) ; tail vertebrae 200 (8) ; 
hind foot 170 (6.70). 

Type locality, Hudson Bay, British America. 

Wolverines are found in the colder parts of North America 


and Eurasia. In California they are rare, being- found only in 
the Sierra Nevada and the mountains of the northern coast re- 
gion. I saw a mounted Wolverine in Bridgport, Mono County, 
that was killed in the neighborhood, and was told of others that 
had been killed in that region, having been driven down from 
the higher Sierras by winter storms. They eat anything in the 
w^ay of flesh that they can capture, steal or find already dead. 
They are not able to run fast enough to capture many of the 
larger animals, and the stories told of their climbing trees and 
pouncing down on animals passing beneath are pure fictions, as 
Wolverines do not climb trees and can spring but a very short 
distance. Part of their food is obtained by opening the burrows 
of other animals, their long claws and great strength enabling 
them to dig rapidly. Probably a considerable part of their 
food in the Sierra Nevada consists of yellow-bellied marmots. 
They are said to be very voracious; hence their Old World name 
of Glutton. They are also known by the name of Carcajou. 

In regions where fur trapping is carried on extensively 
Wolverines are a great nuisance by reason of their destroying 
traps and carrying away the fur-bearing animals found therein. 
They also have the reputation of carrying away and hiding arti- 
cles for which they have no use. Tliey are said to l^e very cun- 
ning and difficult to take in traps. Their scent is acute, but their 
sight is poor. Their fur is used for robes and trimmings. Four 
or five young are born in May, June or July. 

Genus Mustela Linn. (Weasel.) 
Body slender; legs short; feet rounded; claws semi-re- 
tractile; tail rather long and large; lower sectorial tooth of mod- 
erate size; palate extending about half way from last molar to 
audital bulla; audital bulke rather large; occipital crest small. 
Dental formula I, 3—3; C, i— i ; P, 4—4; M, 1—2, X2=38. 


July 3rd near the southwestern corner of Lassen County. Four 
to six young are born in April and May ; perhaps as late as June. 
Minks are seldom found far from streams, as most of their hunt- 
ing- is done about water. They are fine swimmers, but poor 
climbers. Their food includes such birds and mammals as are 
ordinarily eaten by members of this family and also fish, frogs 
and other aquatic forms of life. 

Genus Putorius Frisch. (Stinking.) 
Body very slender, neck long; legs very short; tail of mod- 
erate length, with rather short hairs ; toes cleft ; size small ; anal 
glands moderately developed ; skull flat and very narrow ; upper 
sectorial teeth well developed, lower sectorial teeth rather small ; 
without internal cusps; auditory bullae large, palate extending 
nearly half way from, last molar to auditory bulla; occipital crest 
moderately developed; saggital crest small. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 3 ; C, i— i ; P, 3 — 3 ; M, i — 2, X2^34. 

Putorius xanthogenys Gray. (Yellow — under jaw.) 


Above cinnamon or tawny olive, tinged with yellow in sum- 
mer, and with drab in winter ; terminal fourth of tail black ; 
throat, belly, inner side of legs and toes buff or ochrareous, the 
toes sometimes whitish; upper and lower lips, chin, sides of the 
head in front of and below the ears, and a large squarish spot 
on the forehead white, sometimes tinged with ochraceous, more 
often on the female ; a small brown spot behind the corner of the 
mouth ; remainder of face and top of the head varying from 
broccoli brown to dark sepia, darkest in winter. 

Length about 420 mni. (16.50 inches) ; tail vertebrae 165 
(6.50) ; hind foot 45 (1.80) ; ear from crown 13 (.50). Female 
averaging smaller. 

Type locality, southern California, probably San Diego. 


California Weasels are generally distributed over the valleys 
and lower mountains of southern California, but are common in 
few localities. They prey principally on mice, gophers and 
ground squirrels, but also eat many other species of mammals and 
birds. These Weasels readily enter the larger gopher burrows. 
It is seldom that California Weasels destroy poultry, and they 
should not be killed unless it is know^n that the individual is 
guilty of harmful acts, as they are highly beneficial in killing 
gophers and other harmful animals. Their bad reputation is 
partly due to the ill repute of Weasels in general, and partly to 
the fact that poultry killed by spotted skunks is often charged to 
the Weasels. A female that I caught April i8th contained six 
fcetuses ; mammae four pairs. 

Putorius xanthogenys mundus Bangs. (Neat.) 


Similar to xanthogenys, but smaller and darker. 
Type locality, Point Reyes, Marin County, California. 
Coast region of northern California. Apparently rare; at 
least very few specimens have been preserved. 

Putorius arizonensis Mearns. (Of Arizona.) 


Above raw umber or bistre darker on the head; terminal 
fourth of tail black ; lower parts buff or ochraceous, including the 
fore feet, inner side of fore and hind legs, and more or less of 
the front part of the hind toes; chin and lips white. 

Length about 380 mm. (15 inches); tail vertebrae 140 
(5.50) ; hind foot 43 (1.70). Female smaller. 

Mountain Weasels are found in the Sierra Nevada and 
Rocky Mountains. I do not know of their occurrence in south- 
ern or western California. I shot one at Goose Lake one fore- 
noon as it was hunting among rocks at the base of a clifif. 


Putorius muricus Bangs. (Of the mice.) 


Very small ; above drab brown tinged with reddish or choco- 
late; tail with black tip; upper lip, under parts and feet white; 
skull with inflated squamosals. 

Length about 220 mm. (8.65 inches) ; tail vertebrae 60 
(2.40) ; hind foot 31 (1.20). 

Type locality, Echo, Eldorado County, California. 


Order Insectivora. (Shrews and Moles.) 
Teeth encased in enamel; upper canine, and usually lower 
one, present; permanent teeth rooted; lower jaw with transverse 
condyles received in special sockets; limbs adapted for walking, 
ulna and radius partly or wholly separated ; metacarpal bones and 
phalang-es of normal length; toes usually five on each foot; first 
and second digits not opposable; feet plantigrade or subplanti- 
grade; placenta discoidal and deciduate. 

Family Sorecidae. (Shrews.) 
Skull long and narrow, zygomatic arches and postorbital pro- 
cesses wanting; the two middle incisors of upper jaw large, 
curved, with a spur-like cusp at their base ; lower middle incisors 
large and projecting forward nearly horizontally; tibia and 
fibula united; limbs of moderate length; feet of moderate size; 
the hind feet usually largest; nose elongated, tapering; eyes mod- 
erately developed; external ears present; size small or very 

This family contains about one hundred and thirty species 
divided among ten genera. Individuals are most numerous in 
Eurasia. Shrews live in cold or temperate climates in the north- 
ern hemisphere. They are carnivorous, much of their food be- 
being insects, but mice and other small animals are caught and 
eaten. Shrews are very ferocious animals, being able to conquer 
and kill mice very much larger than themselves. They are noc- 
turnal, principally terrestrial, occasionally semi-aquatic, rarely 
subterranean. Seasonal chang-es in pelage occur in many species. 

Genus Sorex Ltnn. (Shrew.) 

Ears small ; tail more than half as long as head and body. 

Dental formula, I, 4 — 2 ; C, i — o; P, 2 — i ; M, 3 — 3, 2X2^32. 

The species of Sorex are difficult to determine. They are 

very small, often similar in color, with some seasonal changes of 

color. Some species can be distinguished with certainty only 


by the microscopic examination of the teeth, and to add to the 
difficulty these change their shape with wear. 

Sorex vagrans Baird. (Wandering.) 


Above dark brown, varying to almost ruisset; below ashy; 
tail dusky above, pale below; third upper unicuspid tooth smaller 
than fourth, fifth smaller than third. 

Type locality, Shoalwater Bay, Washington. 

Wandering Shrews are found from British Columbia south 
to the northern or probably to the central Sierra Nevada, and 
along the coast to San Diego. They are found in the Transi- 
tion and lower part of the Boreal Zones. They are rare along 
the southern coast, but do occur in the salt marshes around tide- 
water bays. Three Shrews caught on Lytle Creek, San Gabriel 
Mountains, San Bernardino County, seem to be Wandering 
Shrews, but they are very light colored, grayish sepia or hair 
brown. I caught them all in July; therefore they must be in 
summer pelage. They were caught in mice traps set in meadow- 
mice runways, in grass among willows in a cool springy place, 
alt. 3200 feet. 

Sorex amoenUS Merriam. (Attractive.) 


Similar to vagrans; tail shorter ; above dark sepia or dusky ; 
sides paler witli a gray tinge; below grayish white or buffy 
white; tail dark brown or dusky above, whitish below; skull and 
teeth similar to vagrans. 

Length about 102 mm. (4 inches) ; tail vertebrae 38 ( 1.50) ; 
hind foot 12.30 (.50). 

Type locality. Mammoth Pass, head of Owen River, Cali- 

Higher parts of the Sierra Nevada. They frequent wet 


grassy places bordering small streams. A female caught July 
22rLd, contained nine foetuses. 

Sorex obscurus Mi^rriam. (Dusky.) 


Similar to ragrans; larger; tail longer; ears smaller; molar 
teeth larger. Summer pelage; above dull dark sepia brown; be- 
low brownish ashy; tail dusky above, paler below. Winter 
pelage; ash gray above; whitish below. 

Length about no mm. (4.33 inches); tail vertebrae 48 
(1.90) ; hind foot 13 (.51). 

Type locality, Salmon River Mountains, Idaho. 

Dusky Shrews are found fromi Mount Whitney north to 
British Columbia and east to Colorado' and Montana. They are 
restricted to the Boreal Zone. They are generally distributed 
through the higher Sierra Nevada, but have not been reported 
from any other part of the State. They inhabit mountain 
meadows and the grassy banks of streams. They often follow 
the runs of meadow mice and traps set in these runs sometimes 
catch Dusky Shrews. They sometimes eat the mice caught in 
traps set in the runs, and it is proteble that they follow the runs 
partly in pursuit of mice, and partly because these runs are good 
hunting grounds for insects. Dusky Shrews are quite similar 
to Wandering Shrews in color, but they are larger, with longer 
skull and the molariform teeth are largrer. 

Sorex montereyensis Merriam. (Of Monterey.) 


Summer pelage; above seal brown with a few long gray- 
tipped hairs intermixed; below light sepia; tail bicolor, sepia 
above, dull white below. Winter pelage; above slate black; be- 
low dull plumbeous brown. 

Length about 120 mm. (4.75 inches; tail vertebrae 51 (2) ; 
hind foot 14.5 (.57). 


Sorex pacificus Baird. 


Large; hind feet large; ears large. Summer pelage; uni- 
form cinnamon rufous above and below. Winter pelage; every- 
where darker, the hairs of the upper parts dark tipped. 

Length about 150 mm. (5.90 inches) ; tail vertebrae 63 
(2.50): hind foot 17 (.67). 

Type locality, mouth of Umpqua River. Oregon. 

Found along the coast of Oregon and south to Point Reyes. 

Sorex palustris navigator Baird. (Of the marsh; one 
who navigates.) 


Very large for a shrew ; ears not conspicuous ; feet with a 
wide fringe of stiff hairs; above slate black, some of the hairs 
with a short white tip producing a slightly frosted appearance; 
below pale brownish gray, palest on the throat and darkest on 
the chest ; tail blackish above, dull white below except near the tip. 

Length of Sierra Nevada specimens about 160 mm. (6.30 
inches) ; tail vertebrae 76 (3) ; hind foot 20 (.80). Female rather 
smaller. Rocky Mountain specimens average smaller than 
those from the Sierra Nevada. 

The type probably came from northern Idaho. 

Water Shrews are found in the Rocky Mountains, in the in- 
terior ranges east of the Cascade Mountains from British Colum- 
bia to L^tah, and in the Sierra Nevada, principally on the eastern 
side. They frequent the swifter mountain streams. They are 
strong swimmers and excellent divers, swimming under water 
considerable distances in the pools. They evidently obtain 
some of their food in the water, but I am unable to say what it 
is. They enter meat-baited traps. They are not very common. 


Sorex bendirei ^Ierriam. (For Major Charles E. 

Bendire. ) 


Large; feet with a narrow fringe of stiff hairs; ears not con- 
spicuous; above dull sooty plumbeous; faintly paler below; tail 
dusky all around. Differs from ncrcigator in tail being unicolor, 
in lower parts not being distinctly paler, and in somewhat smaller 

Length about 150 mm. (6.15 inches) ; tail vertebrse 70 
( 2.j^) ; hind foot 20 ( .80). 

Type locality, near Fort Klamath. Oregon. 

Bendire Shrews occur in the Cascade Mountains from Fort 
Klamath to British Columbia, and along the Pacific coast from 
Mendocino County northward. They may occur in the moun- 
tains in the northeastern part of the State also. 

Genus Notiosorex Baird. (Southwestern — shrew.) 
28 teeth ; external ear conspicuous : tail about one-third the 
total length. 

Dental formula. L 3 — 2; C. i — o; P. i — i : ^L 3 — 3. X2=28. 

Notiosorex crawfordi Baird. 


Above drab gray ; below olive gray ; tail similar. 

Length about 90 mm. (3.50 inches) ; tail vertebrje 31 
(1.22) ; hind foot 11 (.43) ; ear from crown 6.4 ( .25). 

Type locality, old Fort Bliss, near El Paso. Texas. 

Gray Shrews seem to be rare. They are found in north- 
eastern Mexico, in southern Lower California, in Texas and in 
southern California. I know of but about a dozen California ex- 
amples ; all were taken in dr}- valleys except one. which I found 
dead in my stable near Santa Ysabel, San Diego County, where 
the ahitude is about 2750 feet. Two were caught near San Ber- 
nardino in fruit cans set in the ground flush with the surface. 

A female caught in San Diego April 8. 1906, contained 
three half grown foetuses. There were three pairs of mammae, all 
located near the groins. 


Family Talpidse. (Moles.) 
Front foot larg-e, lateral, broad, with strong- claws ; hind 
feet normal; limbs short; no external ear; eyes minute or rudi- 
mentary; muzzle lengthened; body stout with no distinct neck; 
pelaige velvety; front incisors not directed forward horizontally; 
zyomatic arch present. 

This is a moderate sized family of about a dozen g-enera, 
generally distributed over the north temperate zone. They are 
carnivorous, feeding mostly on insect life obtained in burrowing 
through the soil. There are no obvious changes of pelage with 
age, sex or season. 

Genus Scapanus Pomel. (A digging tool.) 

Body spindle shaped, flattened ; eyes minute, concealed in the 
fur but not covered by a membrane; front feet very large and 
broad; tail short, scantily haired, constricted at base; skull flat- 
tened; palate slightly prolonged behind last molars; first pair 
of upper incisors very large. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 3; C, i — i ; P, 4 — 4; M, 3 — 3X2=44. 

Scapanus townsendi Bachman. (For J. K. Townsend.) 


Very large; blackish above and below; upper unicuspid teeth 
separated by equal intervals; first lower incisors not much smaller 
than the next pair. 

Length about 185 mm. (7.30 inches) ; tail vertebrae 40 
( 1 .60) ; hind foot 25 ( i ) . 

Type locality, iiear Vancouver, Washington, 

The Townsend Mole inhabits the region in Washington and 
Oregon between the Cascade Mountains and the coast range, and 
southwest to Crescent City, California, where specimens have 
been taken. ' 

TALPID^ 257 

Scapanus californicus Ayers. 


Size medium; grayish brown or light sooty brown glossed 
with silvery; upper unicuspidate teeth crowded and unequal in 
size; first pair of lower incisors very small, the next pair large. 

Length about 175 mm. (5.90 inches); tail vertebrae 35 
(1.40); hind foot 21 (.83). 

Type locality. San Francisco, California. 

California Mole About two-thirds life size 

Central and northern California. They ha/e not been re- 
ported fromi the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys and are 
probably rare there. I have seen Mole runs in nearly all the 
mountain ranges of California, up to 5.000 feet altitude and 
higher. In some parts of the mountains where the soil is of good 
depth and loose the runs are numerous. 

Scapanus californicus anthonyi Allen. (For A. W. 
Anthony. ) 


Similar to californicus, smaller and darker. Brownish slate 
black with silvery reflections. 

Length of San Diego County specimens about 155 mm. 
(6.10 inches) ; tail vertebras 34 (1.33) : hind foot 20 (.78) ; front 
foot 21 long by 16 wide (.85x63). Female smaller. 

Type locality, San Pedro Martir Mountains. Lower Califor- 


Anthony Moles are found in the mountains of northern 
Lower CaHfornia and in the mountains and valleys of southern 
California west of the Deserts. They are rare in the valleys near 
the coast, but are more common in the foothills and mountains, 
tliough nowhere abundant. 

Moles are carnivorous. No vegetable food is eaten, the 
popular supposition to the contrary being erroneous. The prin- 
cipal food is grubs and other larvse, insects and earthworms. They 
probably do not hunt for larger pre\', such as mice, but a chance 
meeting of a mole and a mouse in a burrow would probably result 
in disaster to the mouse and a full meal for the mole. Mice do 
occasionally use mole runs for I caught a meadow mouse in a 
trap set in a mole run. The food is found by scenr, this sense be- 
ing well developed. Our moles have no visible ears, but there is 
a small concealed external opening. The eyes are ver\' rudimene- 
tary, but are not completely overgrown with skin as is the case 
with some other species. 

The gait on the ground is very awkward, the fore feet being 
tw^isted so far outward that the Mole must walk on the thumb and 
edge of tlie foot. Our species are entirely svibterranean in habit. 
I have never known of an instance of their coming voluntarily on 
the surface. Unlike various eastern and European species our 
Moles do not throw up mounds or ''mole hills" on the surface. 
Their runs or burrows are often so near the surface that a nar- 
row ridge is raised by their passage. The runs are made by the 
animal pressing the soil aside as it forces its way along. I captured 
a Mole alive and placed it in a box containing some loose soil. Its 
nose appeared to play an important part in burrowing. The very 
pliant nose was pushed in the soil and pressed to one side and the 
other forcing the soil aside a short distance. Into this opening 
the fore foot was pushed, palm outward, alongside the nose, and 
the foot swung outward and around, as a man swings his hand in 
swimming. I thought the fore feet were used alternately, but in 
hard soils they would probably be used simultaneously, and in 
hard soils the claws would probably be forced ahead of the nose to 


open the way. The action of Moles in burrowing is entirely differ- 
ent from that of gophers {Tlionioniys), being analogous to swim- 
ming instead of digging. They burrow through loose soil very 

Moles are sometimes troublesome in irrigated g-ardens 
through the water following the runs. Occasionally they do a lit- 
tle damage by breaking the roots of plants as they force their way 
along the rows of plants searching for grubs, but this damage 
is usually more than offset by the benefit in destroying injurious 
insects. They are very hard to trap, a special trap being necessary. 
By watching where they are working they can be thrown out with 
a shovel thrust in behind w^here the dirt is seen to move, but one 
must tread lightly, for Moles are shy and their hearing is good, 
notwithstanding they have no external ear. 

Scapanus calif ornicus truei Mf.rriam. (For F. W. 
True. ) 


Similar to calif ornicus but paler, clear plumbeous; rostrum 
more slender; last upper premolar with a distinct inner cusp. 

Length of type specimen 170 mm. (6.70) inches) ; tail ver- 
tebrae 34 (1.33) ; hind foot 21 (.83). 

Type locality. Lake City, Modoc County, California. 

Genus Neurotrichus Gunthi:r. (New — tail — hair.) 
Body spindle shaped; eyes small, concealed in fur, not cov- 
ered by a membrane; front feet moderately broad; tail about half 
as long as head and body, thinly haired, constricted at base; skull 
flattened; palate ending even with last molars; first pair of uipper 
incisors moderately large. 

Dental formula, I, 3 — 3 ; C, i — i ; P, 2 — 2 ; M, 3 — 3'X=36. 


Neurotrichus gibbsi major Mkrriam. (For George 
Gibbs; large.) 


Dark sooty brown with purple and silvery reflections. 

Length about 120 mm. (4.75 inches) ; tail vertebr?e 40 
(1.37) ; hiod foot 17 (.67). 

Type locality, Carberry Ranch, Shasta County, California. 

Northern Sierra Nevada and Mount Shasta above 4,000 feet 
altitude and the coast region north of San Francisco. Not com- 


Order Chiroptera. (Bats.) • 

Fore limbs modified for flight by the elongation of the fore- 
arm and fingers ; fore and hind limbs connected by a membraneous 
expansion of the skin, this frequently including the tail : humerus 
and femur extending beyond the body; bones of the forearm 
imited : ulna reduced to a nidiment : hind limbs so far rotated that 
the knee bends outward and backward ; a cartilagineous calcar on 
the inner side of the ankle of the hind foot supporting a part of 
the interfemoral membrane; teeth enveloped in enamel and con- 
sisting of incisors, canines, premolars and molars. 

The highly specialized order of Bats is widely distributed 
over the g-lobe excepting in the polar regions. The order con- 
sists of two su1x)rders and six families. One suborder (Mcga- 
chiroptera) does not occur on this continent. Its members feed 
principally on fruit. Some species are very large, such as the so- 
called Flying Foxes, some of which are as large a as large hawk, 
while other species are quite small. 

The wings of Bats consist of a web-like expanjion of the 
skin from the upper and lower surfaces of the body, these two 
layers being thin, coherent and expanded by a framework con- 
sisting of the greatly lengthened bones of the fingers and arms and 
the more or less lengthened and exserted legs ; the membrane be- 
ing continued from the end of the inner finger to the foot ot the 
hind leg and usually to the tail. The flight of a bat is not as 
graceful as that of a bird, but it is nearly as rapid and more com- 
pletely under control in making rapid turns. They are as awk- 
ward in walking on the ground or other surfaces as they are dex- 
trous on the wing. 

The eyes of bats are small and of less service than most other 
of their senses. The organs of smell are well developed. The 
sense of touch or feeling is highly developed, especially in the 
wing membranes and nasal appendages of the "leaf-nosed" 
species. The hearing is very acute and is probably the most use- 
ful sense in locating their insect prey. 

Bats are crepuscular and nocturnal, rarely going abroad in 



daylight. Some species spend the day in narrow crevices, into 
which they crawl, sometimes in large numbers; other species hang 
from the roof of caves, often in masses ; yet others hang in trees 
from twigs among the foliage. Very little is known .abo.ut the 
migrations of bats, but there are very good reasons for believing 
that many species migrate in a method similar to that of birds. 
Probably few species occuring in cool climates remain there in 

The number of young at a birth is commonly one or two; 
rarely three, so far as is known. With certain species one young 
may be the rule, with many two is the usual number. iMost have 
but one pair of mamm?e, but others, as Lasiurus, have two pairs. 
It is probable that some species rear two sets of young annually. 
Many species are gregarious, but usually the two sexes do not 

Suborder Microchiroptera. 

Insectivorous bats of medium or small size; molars with 
crowns acutely cuspid. 

Family Vespertilionidae. 

upper incisors small, with a vacant space in their middle; 
molars with conspicuous W-shaped cusps ; turbinal bones folded ; 
tail included nearly to tip in the interfemoral membrane; ears 
medium or large, usually well separated ; tragus well developed ; 
no distinct nose leaf; hairs surrounded with minute imbricated 

This family of Bats contains seventeen genera and one hun- 
dred and fifty or more species, most common in temperate cli- 
mates. The sexes are ahke. The young differ but little from 
the adult. There are no seasonal changes of pelage. 



Genus Antrozous Allien. (Cave — animal.) 
Ears not joined at base; muzzle l^lunt ; lower lip free. 
Dental formula, I, 1—2 ; C, i— i ; P, 1—2 ; M, 3—3X2=28. 

Antrozous pallidus Lecontk. (Pallid.) 


Size large; ears large; tragus slender, nearly straight, a little 
less than half as high as the ear conch ; interfemoial membrane of 
moderate size; wings broad; back pale drab gray, most of the 
hairs with faintly dusky tips; below grayish white, tinged with 
drab on the sides. 

Length about no mm. (4.33 
inches) ; tail vertebrre 40 ( 1.60) ; 
ear fromi crown 25 (i). 

Type locality, El Paso. Texas. 
The pale Bat is found from 
western Texas through the arid 
region of the Sierra Nevada and 
San Bernardino Mountains. They 
do not seem to be common any- 

Antrozous pallidus pacificus AIerriam. 


Averaging larger than pallidus; darker; above brownish 
white more or less heavily tipped with sq^ia or drab, a patch on 
the back of the neck and sometimes one on the rump with little 
or no dark tips to the hairs ; below buff or brownish buff. 

Type locality, old Fort Tejon, California. 

Pacific Pale Bats appear to be generally distributed along 
the Pacific coast west of the Cascade Mountains and Sierra Ne- 
vada from the Columbia River south to Cape St. Lucas, in the 
valleys, foothills, and lower mountains. They do not appear to 
be common. The voung are born about the first of Ju . 


Genus Euderma Allen. (Beautiful — skin.) 
Ears enormous, joined together at their bases by a low mem- 
brane across the crown; tragus joined to external lobe of ear ; tip 
of ear rounded ; face without evident glandular swellings. 

Dental formula, I, 2 — 3 ; C, i — i ; P, 2 — 2 ; M, 3 — 3X2=34. 

Euderma maculatum J. A. Allen. (Spotted.) 


First upper premolar minute; ears marked with numerous 
transverse lines; nose without a leaf or other excrescence; face 
thinly haired; color peculiar in being distinctly spotted; tase ot 
ears and upper sides of neck whitish ; a spot on each shoulder and 
one on the rump white at tips and black at base of hairs; re- 
mainder of fur on back dark sepia ; fur of under part of body black 
at base and white at tips. 

Lengtli about no mm. (4.33 inches) ; tail vertebne 50 (2) ; 
ear from crown 43 ( 1.70). 

Type locality, Castac Creek, Los Angeles County, Califor- 

But three specimens are known of this peculiar species. The 
type was found hanging on a fence; the second specimen was 
found dead in the Biological Laboratory of the New Mexico Col- 
lege of Agriculture at Messilla Park, New Mexico; and Herbert 
Brown reports the capture of another at Yuma, Arizona. 

Genus Corynorhinus Allen. (Club — nose.) 
Ears very large, thin, joined together over the crown, the 
back half of the ear with numerous transverse lines; tragus slen- 
der, straight, notched and lobed near the bottom, about two fifths 
as long as the ear; an upright glandular mass each side of the 
face between the nostril and the eye; interfemoral membrane 




Corynorhinus macrotis pallescens Millkr. (Very pale.) 


Above yellowish sepia, the bases of the hairs tinc^lecl with plum- 
beous; below yellowish drab or pale 
drab; ears and membranes light 

Length about 98mm. (3.85 in- 
ches) ; tail vertebrcne 48 (1.90); ear 
from crown 30 (1.20); expanse of 
wings 285 (11.25). 

Type locality, Keam Canyon, Na- 
vajo County, Arizona. 

Lump-nosed Bats are found in tlie deserts, valleys and 
foothills of California and eastward to Colorado and Texas. They 
are common. They are summer residents in this State, but prob- 
ably a few winter in warm localities. I have a specimen taken 
at San Diego in March. Another taken April 25th, contained 
one fcetus. They are on the wing before the twilight is gone. 
They appear to inhabit caves. 

Genus Myotis Kaup. . (Mouse — ear.) 
Face hairy ; muzzle and nostrils simple ; ears not connected at 
base ; interfemoral membrane ample. 

Dental formula, 1, 2— 3; C, i— i ; P, 3—3; M, 3—3X2=38. 

Myotis lucifugus longicrus Trui:. (Light— fugitive; 
long — shank.) 


Above varying from sepia to yellowish black ; below varying" 
from pale hair brown to sepia ; membranes dusky or blackish ; ears 
rather small, broad, upper part of back edge concave; no fringe ot 
hairs on border of interfemoral membrane; tibia proporiionally 

Length about 97 mm. (3.80 inches) ; tail 42 


(1.65) ; ear from crown 14 (.55) ; expanse of wings 275(10.80). 

Type locality, Puget Sound. 

Long-shanked Bats range over much of the western United 
States, but are common in few places. In some parts of their 
range they inhabit mountains, but most of the recorded specimens 
were taken in valleys. 

Myotis calif ornicus Audubon and Bach man. 


Size small; feet small; ears small, reaching just beyond tip 
of nose when laid forward ; back edge of ears concave ; no fringe 
of hairs on border of interfemoral membrane ; color above reddish 
sepia or drab, below a paler shade of the same color ; fur every- 
where blackish at base; membranes dull brown or dusky. 

Length about 82 mm. (3.25 inches) ; tail vertebr?e 40 (1.60) ; 
ear from crown 13 (.50) ; expanse of wings 230 (9). 

California Bats range in the valleys, foothills and lower 
mountains of the coast region of the western United States and 
in Lower California. They are common in the valleys of Cali- 
fornia in the autumnal migration and are present in smaller num- 
bers all summer. They hide in the daytime in crevices in rocks, 
behind loosened boards in barns and other buildings and in other 
dark crannies, coming out in early twilight. 

Myotis calif ornicus pallidus Ste:phpns. 


Averaging smaller than calif ornicus; paler; above buff or 
brownish buff; below dull wJiite; all pelage dusky at base. 

Length about 80 mm. (3.15 inches) ; tail vertebne 40 ( 1.60) ; 
ear from crown 11 (43) ; expanse of wings 210 (8.25). 

Type locality, Vallecito, San Diego County, California. 

Pallid Bats are found in summer in the Colorado and Mo- 
jave Deserts and in the arid mountains around them. A female 
taken April 29th, contained one small foetus. A few Bats winter 


in the Colorado Desert; these appear to be intermediate between 
pall id us and califoniicus. 

Myotis yumanensis Aijjvn. (Of Ytima.) 


Similar to calif orniais ; lig'hter color; body larger; tail short- 
er; hind foot much larg-er; skull liroader. 

Type locality, old Fort Yuma, California. 

Yuma Bats are found in the southwestern United States and 
northwestern Mexico. They appear to be most common in the 
San Joaquin Valley. 

Myotis yumanensis saturatus Miller. (Full of color.) 


Similar to yiniuDiensis; darker colored; smaller; back dark 
glossy yellowish brown; belly Isabella color; fur nearly black at 

Type locality, Hamilton, Washington. 

Miller Bats are found in British Columbia, \\'ashington, 
Oregon and northern California. Dr. Merriam reports rhem com 
mon high on Mount Shasta in August. 

Myotis evotis Allen. (Good — ear.) 


Ear very long for this genus, narrow; size rather large; no 
fringe of hairs on the border of the interfemoral membrane; 
wings rather narrow ; above wood brown or Isabella brown ; below 
pale dral>; fur everywhere blackish at base; wings and ears dark 

Length about 90 mm. (3.55 inches) ; tail vertebrae 41 (1.60) ; 
ear from crown 21 (.82) ; expanse of wings 240 (9.50). 

Type locality, Monterey, California (Miller). 

Long-eared Bats are found in the western United States 


and Mexico. They are not abundant. In southern Cahfornia 1 
have seen this species most frequently in the spring and fall mi- 
grations. They are abroad in twilight. They frequent both 
mountain and valley. 

Myotis thysanodes Millkr. (Fringe — like.) 


Size medium; border of interfemoral membrane thickened 
from end of calcar to tip of tail and distinctly fringed with hairs ; 
ears rather long, reaching three to five millimeters beyond the 
nostrils when laid forward; feet rather large; above dull yellow^- 
ish brown; below a paler shade of the same color; fur every- 
where blackish at base. 

Length about 90 mm. (3.55 inches) ; tail vertebrae 37 (^1.45) ' 
ear from crown 17 (.67). 

Type locality, old Fort Tejon, California. 

Fringed Bats are known only from southern California and 
northwestern Mexico. They appear to be common in the type 
locality, where Dr. Merriam and Dr. Palmer found them hang- 
ing in clusters from the rafters in the attic of an old building 
forming part of tlie abandoned quarters of the old Post, in com- 
pany with Yuma Bats. Young of various ages were found with 
the adults July 5th, 1991. 

Genus Lasionycteris Peters. (Hairy — bat.) 

Skull flat ; rostrum broad ; face mostly bare and glandular ; 
ears low, broad, widely separated; tragus short, broad, straight 
in front, convex behind ; basal half of interfemoral membrane 
furred on the upper side. 

Dental formula, I, 2 — 3 ; C. i — i ; P, 2—3 ; M, 3 — 3, X2=36. 

Lasionycteris noctivagans Le Conte. (Night — wan- 


Above and below blackish chocalate brown tipped witli sil- 
very white. 


Length about loo mm. (3.95 inches) ; tail vertebrae 40 
( 1.60) ; ear from crown 15 (.60). 

Type locahty, eastern United States. 

Silvery^haired bats are common in the eastern United States. 
but appear to be rare west of the Rocky Mountains. I have seen 
no Cahfornian examples and know of but eight having been 
taken in the State. In the eastern States this species frequents 
tlie vicinity of streams and the borders of hardwood forests. 

Geims Pipistrellus Kaup. (A bat.) 
Size small ; skull small and lightl}- louilt ; ears longer than broad, 
tapering to a narrow rounded tip ; tragus straight or curved for- 
ward ; basal fourth of interfemoral membrane thinly haired on 
the upper side. 

Dental formula, I, 2 — 3; C, i — i ; P, 2 — 2; AT, 3 — 3X2=34. 

Pipistrellus hesperus Ai^lkn. (Western.) 


Smallest California species of bat; ear short, barely reaching 
.lostril when laid forward; ears widely separated; tragus rather 
short, very blunt and bent forward; feet 
small ; interfemoral membrane of moderate 
size, sparsely haired on tlie upper surface 
near the body, the border not f ring'ed ; face 
and ears bare, black; color of pelage pale; 
above ver)^ pale drab ; below brownish white ; 

111 - ' 1 1 1 • 1 1 • 11111. Western Bat. 

all the fur blackish at base; wmgs dull black. 

Length about yi mm. (2.85 inches) ; tail vertebrcX 30 (1.20) ; 
ear from crown 10 (.40) ; expanse of wings 200 (7.90). 

Type locality, old Fort Yuma, California. 

Western Bats from southern and eastern California 
east to Colorado and Texas. They are a desert loving species and 
are not common in the coast region of southwestern California. 
Verv few remain in California in winter. The nc.rthward nu'gra- 


tion is at its lieight about the end of March, at which time they 
are very abundant about certain springs along the western border 
of the Colorado Desert, appearing early in the evening, some- 
times soon after sunset. By the middle of April they are much 
less abundant about these springs. Their flight is swift and erra- 
tic and they are hard to shoot. They probably hide in crevices in 
rocks on hillsides during the daytime. I found two foetuses in a 
female shot May i8th. 

Genus Eptesicus Rafinesoue:. (House flier.) 
Skull large and heavily built; size rather large; ears rather 

short and narrow; tragus rather short, narrow, pointed; wing and 

tail membranes naked ; wings large. 

Dental formula, I, 2—3; C, i— 1 ; P, 1—2; I\I, 3—3X2=32. 

Eptesicus fuscus bernardinus Rhoads. (Brown; of San 

Bernardino. ) 


Above wood brown or Isabella brown ; below paler ; skull 
flat; rostrum very broad. 

Length about no mm. (4.33 inches); tail vertebrae 46 
(1.80) ; ear from crown 14 (.55) ; expanse of wings 330 ( 13). 

Type locality, San Bernardino, California. 

Southern California, principally in the mountains. Rathei 
commoii in summer in the pine region. 

Eptesicus fuscus melanopterus Rehn. (Black — wing.) 


Similar to bcniardiiius but darker ; above dark cinnamon ; be- 
low reddish wood brown ; face and membranes black. 

Type locality, Mt. Tallac, Sierra Nevada, California. 

The range of the Sierra Bats has not been worked out, but it 
is probably all the forested region of central and northern Cali- 


fornia and perhaps all the west coast region north of California 

Genus Lasiurus Gray. (Hairy— tail.) 
Skull very short, broad, high ; but one pair of upper incisors, 
divided by a wide space; first upper premolar minute, crowded out 
on the tongue side of the canine; upper side of the interfemoral 
membrane furred to the edge; ears broad, low, more or less 
ftirred ; tragus rather short, curved ; mammae four. 

Dental formula, I, i — 3 ; C, i — i ; P, 2 — 2 ; M, 3 — 3X2=32. 

Lasiurus borealis teliotis Allen. (Northern ; ])erfect— 

ear. ) 


Ears low, broad, the side toward the crown thickly furred, 
the outer side with a few scattered hairs ; tragus short, pointed, 
wide, strongly curved; wings furred next the body on both sides 
and on the under side a thin strip of fur one fourth the width of 
the wing extends to the wrist ; under side of interfemoral mem- 
brane bare except near the base, upper 
side middle half of hairs buffy or pale 
yellowish, tips a reddish shade varying 
from tawny or cinnamon to ochraceous 
buf¥, sometimes thinly frosted with 
white; below pale ochraceous or yellow- 
ish ; fur of upper side of interfemoral 
membrane mostlv reddish throughout. 

* Western Red Bat. 

Length about no mm. (4.33 inches); tail vertebne 50 
(1.95) ; ear from crown 6 (.23) ; expanse of wings 315 ( 12.40). 

Type locality, California. 

Western Red Bats are found in the valleys and foothills ot 
central and southern California and Lower California. All that 
I have seen were found in spring and summer hanging among 
the foliage of fruit trees in orchards. They appear to be rare. 


Lasiurus cinereus Beauvois. (Ashy.) 


Large ; ears mostly furred on both sides ; a spot of fur on the 
upper side of wing near elbow and one or two at wrist ; a strip of 
fur on the under side from elbow to wrist; upper side of inter- 
femoral membrance thickly furred ; under side bare except near 
body ; upper pelage blackish at base, the middle of the hairs pale 
yellowish brown becoming umber brown on the interfemoral mem- 
brane, tips distinctly hoary white with a narrow chocolate sub- 
terminal zone; head mostly ochraceous; breast and much of the 
belly similar to the back; remainder of lower parts, including 
throat, grayish buff. 

Length about 135 mm. (5.30 inches) ; tail vertebrcT 57 
(2.25) ; ear from crown 13 ( .50) ; expanse of wings 400- ( 16). 

Type locality, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Hoary Bats are found in most parts of North x\merica. In 
summer they mostly frequent mountains or cool hilly regions. 
Several have been found hanging in the thick foliage of orange 
trees in southern California in winter. I found them in May in 
the redwoods of Mendocino County. Their flight is swift, with 
frequent abrupt turns. They do not appear until the light be- 
comes very dim. 


Family Molossidse. 

Upper incisors large, separated by a vacant space in the mid- 
dle in some species, not separate in others; molars with distinct 
W-shaped cusps; wings narrow; terminal third or half of tail 
vertebrae free and projecting beyond the narrow interfemoral 
membrane; ears medium or large, usually separated at base; 
tragus more or less developed; no nose leaf; scales on hairs ar- 
ranged in belts. 

This family is principally tropical or su]>tropical in distribu- 
tion. It contains half a do.zen genera and about fifty species. 

Genus Nyctinomops Miller. (Night — habitation — like.) 
Size medium; a space between upper incisors; first upper pre- 
molar very small ; membranes not furred ; lips large and thick. 

Dental formula, I, i — 2 or i — 3; C, i — i ; P, 2 — 2; M. 3 — 3 
X2^30 or 32. 

Nyctinomops mohavensis Merriam. (Of Mohave.) 


First upper premolar minute; third lower incisor minute, 
sometimes lacking in adult or aged individuals; front border of 

Mohave Bat. 

ear with about six wart-like small projections; numerous black 
spines scattered over the face and chin ; lips crimped, forming per- 
pendicular wrinkles ; ears apparently connected at bases, but usu- 
ally not really united; tragus small; free part of tail about equal 


to part included in the membrane; wings narrow; color above 

sootv mouse gray ; below smoke gray ; membranes dark brown. 

Length about 98 mm. (3.85 inches) ; tail vertebras 37 ( 1.45) ; 
ear from crown 13 (.50) ; expanse of wings 310 (12.20). 

Type locality. Fort jMohave, Arizona. 

Mohave Bats have been taken in various parts of Arizona 
and California. It is probable that they occur o\^er most of the 
southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Stowell 
found them in large numbers in the courthouse at Santa Clara, 
California in February. I have taken them on the borders of 
the Colorado Desert in March and April, and at San Diego in 
November. I am under the impression that this species migrates, 
but this is not yet proven to be a fact. Nearly all that I have 
seen or heard of were taken in valleys, but probably a few get into 
the lower mountains in summer. They seem to feed mostly on 
species of insects that fly over water and damp places. They spend 
the day in crevices of rocks, behind shutters and in cracKS of 
buildings, sometimes in masses. They begin to fly rather early. 
The flisfht is erratic but not swift. 

Nyctinomops femorosaccus IMkrriam. (Thigh — sack.) 


Similar to mohavensis; larger; tail more than half exerted; a 
fold of membrane extends from the inner third of the femur to 
the middle of the tibia, forming a pocket at the thigh ; ears con- 
nected at the base; color dull brown. 

Length (type) 103 mm. (4.05 inches) ; tail vertebrae 41 
(1.60) ; free part of tail 23 (.90) ; ear from crown 14 (.55). 

Type locality, Agua Caliente (now called Palm Springs), in 
the northwestern end of the Colorado Desert, California. 

I shot the type specimen March 27th, 1885, but have not re- 
cognized more of the species since, and have seen no records of 
further captures. 


Nyctinomops depressus Ward. (Depressed.) 


Size large; two pairs of lower incisors; ears united at their 
bases ; above dull brown ; below similar but lighter ; males with 
a small sac in the skin of the throat. 

Length about 140 mm. (5.50 inches) ; tail vertebrc-e 41 
(1.60) ; expanse of wings 410 (16.15). 

Type locality, Tacubaya, Federal District, Mexico. 
The Nevada Bat is found in Mexico and the southwestern 
United States. It must be rare in the United States as the only 
records that I can find are one each for California, Nevada, Ari- 
zona and Colorado. It should be readily distinguished by its 
large size. 

Genus Promops Ge:rvais (Before — Mops.) 
Size large; no space in the middle between the upper incis- 
ors ; first upper premolar very small ; lips not wrinkled ; ears unit- 
ed at base; membranes not furred. 

Promops califomicus M^rriam. 


Very large; first upper premolar minute and wedged in the 
angle between the canine and the second premolar on the outer 
side of the tooth row ; ears broad, projecting a little beyond the 
nostrils when laid forward; tragus quadrate, higher than broad; 
a glandular swelling in front of each eye; color sooty brown, paler 
below, the bases of the hairs everywhere pale drab gray. 

Length about 162 mm. (6.38 inches) ; tail vertebrc-e 60 
(2.35) ; free part of tail 13 (.50). 

Type locality, Alhambra, Los Angeles County, California. 

California Mastiff Bats are rare. They are known only from 
southern California. They have been found over a door, behind a 
signboard, hanging from a window ledge and in a tunnel. All 
dates known to me are in winter. 


Family Phyllastomatidae. (Leaf-nosed Bats.) 
Upper incisors not separated by a space in the middle; but 
four lower incisors ; cutaneous processes present about the nose or 
mouth ; ears medium or large sized ; tragus developed. 

This family is confined to America and is numerous in spec- 
ies in the tropics. Some species eat fruits as well as insects. 

Genus Otopterus Lyddeker. ( Ear — wing. ) 
Nose leaf simple, erect; ears large, united at base; point of 

tail extending beyond the interfemoral membrane ; skull long and 


Dental formula, I, 2 — 2; C, i — i ; P, 2 — 3; M, 3 — 3X2=34. 

Otopterus califomicus Baird. 


Nose with an upright "leaf" of cartilege and skin; ears very 
large, connected at their bases; tragus slender, pointed, one-third 

the height of the ear ; wings 
broad, not furred ; interfemoral 
membrane small, concave in 
outline; basal half of pelage 
white, outer half broccoli 
brown, darkest above, paler be- 
neath, slightly tipped with 
white ; membranes light brown. 
Length about 95 mm. (3.75 
inches) ; tail vetebr?e 41 
(1.60); ear from crown 28 

California Leaf-nosed Bat. (; expanse of wiugS 33O 


Type locality, old Fort Yuma, California. 

California Leaf-nosed Bats are found in Southern CaHfornia, 
Arizona, western Mexico and Lower California." In California 
they frequent valleys and foothills. They are probably migratory. 


I know of no instance of their occurance in California in winter, 
and I have failed to find them at all in January in a place where 
I can nearly always find them in spring and summer. They prob- 
ably spend the day in caves, crevices in rocks and similar dark 
places. I have not seen them on the wing until all the twilight 
has faded away. The young are born in June. More than half 
of the females bear two young, the remainder but one. - 


Order Primates. 

Inner digit of hand, and in some families the inner digit 
of foot, opposable to the other digits ; femur and humerus fully 
exserted ; clavicles present ; orbits encircled by bone and directed 

Family Hominidse. (Man.) 

Body erect; inner digit of foot not opposable to the other 
digits; five digits on each limb; cranium large; cerebral hemi- 
spheres of brain very large ; canine teeth but moderately develop- 
ed; tooth row without gap; no tail vertebrae; hair developed only 
on special areas; ears rounded, with a soft dependent lobule. 

If the same rules of classification be applied to Man that are 
applied in the lower orders he must be included in the Primates 
wnth monkeys, apes, etc., but placed in a family separated from 
them by characters that, taken together, show a higher organiza- 
tion. "The essential attributes which distinguish Man and give 
him a perfectly isolated position among living creatures are not 
to be found in his bodily structure." They are mental, not physi- 
cal, and zoological classification is based only on physical charac- 

Using terms similar to those used in preceding families we 
may say that the Hominid'^ are distributed over all parts of the 
land surfaces of the earth; they are plantigrade; terrestrial; diur- 
nal and crepuscular; omnivorous; more or less gregarious; the 
adult males differ somewhat from the females ; the immature are 
similar to the female; mammae two, pectoral; there are usually 
but one young at a birth, occasionally two, rarely more; the young 
develope slowly. 

The Hominid?^ contains but one genus, which is considered 
by most zoologists to be composed of a single species, divided in 
several races (technically subspecies) which blend so thoroughly 
at one point or another as not to be separable into distinct species. 
These races vary greatly in physical and mental qualities. 

HOMINID^. 279 

Genus Homo Linn. (Man.) 
Facial angle hig-]i; arms shorter than legs; nail flattened, 
present on all the digits. 

Dental formula, I, 2 — 2; C, i — i ; P, 2 — 2; M, 3 3X2=32. 

Homo sapiens americanus Linn. 


Hair coarse, round in transverse section, straight, black, 
long and abundant on the scalp but sparse elsewhere; skin dark, 
often with a bronzy tinge; forehead retreating; nose prominent, 
usually with a high bridge; eyes horizontal. 

When the first Europeans came to California the Indians 
were numerous and distributed over all the State except the high- 
er parts of the mountains and the waterless deserts. Excepting 
the desert tribes the California Indians were a quiet peaceable peo- 
ple. They had few vices but were very superstitious and some- 
what revengeful. They were humble, contented and industrious 
considering the ease with which their few natural wants could 
be supplied. Unlike tlie Indians of eastern North America they 
did not torture prisoners nor scalp slain enemies. The chiefs or 
head men had very little real authority, the conduct oi individuals 
being guided mostly by old customs and superstitions. The tribes 
were small and weak. In his report on the "Tribes of California" 
( 1877) Powers names over one hundred and fifty tribes, a few of 
these being small sub-tribes, the remainder being independent and 
speaking distinct dialects. He did not include the Mission In- 
dians, nor the Indians of the Colorado valley. 

It has been found that one of the best clews to the relation- 
ship between human races is their languages. This seems par- 
ticularly true of American Indians. The poly synthetic feature of 
speech runs through all the various American languages and 
dialects. Their construction is radically unlike that of Eurasian 
languages and seems to point to a separation from the people now 
inhabiting Europe and Asia soon after the acquirement of lan^ 
guage by the human races. 


Few regions of similar extent to California can show a great- 
er number of contemporaneous native dialects. This seems to 
have been the results of a very early immigration and settlement 
of small tribes or fragments of tribes combined with a strong 
home-loving trait, which may have been a late development. When 
found by the whites the Indians did not seem to care to travel 
and mingle with their neighbors and each tribe and often each 
community had a dialect of its own. According to the latest map 
of the Bureau of Ethnology these dialects were grouped in twenty 
one linguistic stocks, the total number of North American stocks 
being about sixty-five. The names and distribution of the Cali- 
fornia linguistic stocks are given on the accompanying map. 

The cjuestion of the derivation of the race of American In- 
dians has interested many persons. Where the original cradle of 
the human race was, probably will never be positively decided. It 
is usually supposed to have been in Asia, yet it may possibly have 
been in America. It is probable that the dispersion of races oc- 
cured in pre-glacial times from a well populated circumpolar re- 
gion. Glaciation slowly forced the inhabitants from the polar 
regions toward the tropics, and the cold and ice separated the in- 
habitants of America from those of Europe and America. The 
difference in construction of the languages of the two continents 
indicates that this separation occured in a very early stage of 
language formation. With the melting of the ice and the retreat 
of the glaciers, which is still progressing, the tribes of Indians 
nearest the vacated region were able to move slowly northward, al- 
lowing other tribes to expand or follow if they chose. The high 
Sierra Nevada range, being heavily capped with snow and ice, was 
an impassable barrier between the interior of the continent and 
the comparatively warm coast region of California. Probably 
fragments of migrating tribes were forced through the passes be- 
fore these became impassable, and could get no further. When 
the glaciers retreated the California Indians did not follow, as 
there was no pressure from beyond and no inducement to leave. 

Until the rush of gold seekers no great change occurred' in 


California Linguistic Stocks 


1. Athabascan. 

2. Yurok. 

3. Karok. 

4. Shasta. 

15. Costanoan. 

16. Esselen. 

17. Yokuts. 

19. Chumash. 

20. Shoshonean. 

21. Yuman. 


the number of Indians in California, but a rapid diminution then 
began; partly through the unjustifiable persecution by the strong- 
er, better armed, aggressive gold-seekers, many of whom cared 
nothing for the moral rights of the Indians; partly through the 
introduction of intoxicating liquors ; but more through the effects 
of epidemic and other diseases which came with the whites. Now 
some of the smaller tribes are practically extinct, but under more 
wholesome conditions the younger generation seems to be nearly 
holding its own or slowly increasing in a few places. The Cali- 
fornia Indians seemed to lack the power of organization and the 
faculty of invention, hence they made little progress toward civili- 
zation until the whites came and took the lead. Their recent pro- 
gress shows that they are capable of considerable education. 

The name Amerind has been proposed for the native races 
of America. It is composed of the first syllables of America and 



Life Areas of California 

Most people who have ascended mountains, on business or 
for pleasure, have noticed that there was a gradual change in the 
trees and other vegetation as height was gained, and some see 
that there is a system in this change. At a certain Jieight in one 
mountain occurs a combination of trees, shrubs, plants, birds, in- 
sects and mammals, which combination is repeated in a general 
way on other mountains at a similar altitude, modified by local 
causes, such as soil, angle or direction of slope, nearness or remote- 
ness of large bodies of water, height above base level and other 
conditions. Going higher, a change in the birds, trees, etc., oc- 
curs through the gradual disappearance of some species and the 
substitution of others until a new combination is formed. A sim- 
ilar combination is repeated in other mountains of the region in 
about the same order. Local causes modify these repetitions more 
or less, but the general similarity is sufficient to force the close 
observer to the conclusion that they are controlled by general nat- 
ural laws. Within a few years much study has been given to the 
elucidation of these natural laws, and I will attempt to summarize 
some of the results of these investigations in California. 

The causes controlling the geographical distribution of life 
are many, the most important being temperature, moisture, soil 
and light. We are accustomed to sum up three of these leading 
causes in the word climate. 

The most important single cause of the varied distribution of 
life is heat; its quantity and daily and yearly range over a given 
area. Other conditions being equal, the warmer the climate of a 
locality is, the more luxuriant and varied it forms of life wdll be. 
A great yearly or daily range of temperature unfavorably affects 
the life of an area by w^eeding out the forms most sensitive to such 
changes, on the principle of the "survival of the fittest." 

The heat of a locality is affected by its latitude, altitude, direc- 
tion of the prevailing winds, height above base level and slope ex- 
posure. Increase of latitude and altitude produce similar climatic 


effects, the higher area having a similar dimate to that of the 
lower area situated a certain distance further from the equator. 
In other words, a traveler passing from the tropics toward the 
poles at sea level finds the climate steadily becoming colder; in 
climbing a mountain the same change is observed. 

If the area of high altitude is great it is warmer than a small 
similar area at the same height and latitude, for the reason that 
the greater area conserves the greater amount of heat as daily re- 
ceived from the sun. It sometimes happens that the base level on 
one side of a mountain range is higher than that on the other side ; 
in this case the higher level tends to raise the temperature and 
therefore the life zones on that side. A good illustration is the 
Himalaya Mountain range. The plain on the south side is sev- 
eral thousand feet higher than the plateau on the north side; in 
consequence of this difference of base level on the two sides the 
timber line and snow line are about three thousand feet higher on 
the north than on the south side. This is in direct opposition to 
the efifect of latitude which would tend to lower the snow line on 
the north side. The Sierra Nevada Mountains are another il- 
lustration. The plateau on the eastern side is from three to four 
thousand feet higher than the San Joaquin and Sacramento Val- 
leys on the west side, and in consequence all the life zones are 
higher on the east side than on the west. 

Slope exposure is another disturbing cause. A slope directly 
facing the sun is warmer than one facing away from it. This is 
very noticeable in many canyons running east and west in semi- 
arid parts of California, in which case the timber will be found 
growing considerably lower down on the side receiving the least 
amount of direct sunshine. 

Prevailing winds coming directly from large bodies of water 
tend to cool the region continguous and therefore lower the life 

The next most important agent in the distribution of life is 
moisture. The greater or lesser amount of moisture present in 
air and soil strongly afifects the vegetable growth of a locality; as 


animal life of a locality is practically dependent on the vegetation 
it is in that way affected by the proportion of moisture present. 
The amount of moisture of a region is reg'ulated by its distance 
from large bodies of water, the direction of the prevailing air cur- 
rents, and the height of intervening obstacles, such as mountain 
ranges. Most of the moisture present in the air originates in the 
evaporation of seas and other large bodies of water. The moisture 
laden air moving inland when cooled is unable to hold up all its 
moisture, which falls as rain. A high range of mountains will 
greatly cool the air currents passing over it and the heavy rainfall 
or snowfall resulting may abstract so much of the moisture from 
the air, that little is left for the region beyond the mountains, 
which thus becomes arid. The region of the Colorado and Mo- 
jave Deserts and the greater part of Nevada is an illustration of 
the drying influence whidi the Sierra Nevada Mountains exert 
on the air currents passing over them. 

The quality of the soil is another factor in the quantity and 
character of the plant and animal life of a region. The carnivor- 
ous species of animals of a region subsist on the herbivorous spec- 
ies; these subsist on the leaves, stems, seeds or root of plants 
which draw their nourishment from the soil ; therefore a richer 
or poorer soil has a considerable direct influence on such apparent- 
ly remotely connected beings as the foxes or hawks that live in a 

Dr. C. Hart Merriman has formulated certain laws of the dis- 
tribution of life which appear to be based on sound reasoning from 
a sufficient mass of observed facts to assure their correctness. 

"The northward distribution of animals and plants is de- 
termined by the total amount of heat — the sum of effective tem- 

The southward distribution of Boreal, Transition zone, and 
Upper Austral species is determined by the mean temperature of 
the hottest part of the year." 

If the North Temperate Realm was composed of sea and 
level land only, its life zones would nearly follow parallels of 


latitude around the northern hemisphere, deflected here and there 
by the effects of warm or cold ocean currents on the shores they 
wasli. The presence of mountain ranges breaks up such uniform- 
ity of climate and renders the definition of life zones very diffi- 
cult, nowhere more so than in California, where, in many moun- 
tains, island-like areas are detached from the main bodies of their 
zones or long points project, or narrow bands curve to follow the 
sinuosities of the mountain sides. The peculiar topography of 
this state produces a variety of life zones which is probably equal- 
ed by no other similar area elsewhere. Bordered as California is by 
the sea; traversed its whole length by a mountain range, in places 
carrying perpetual snow; possessing considerable areas lying be- 
low sea level; having a range of annual rainfall varying from 80 
inches in the northwestern part of the State to 3 or 4 m the south- 
eastern part, it offers the student of climatology and of the dis- 
tribution of life facilities unsurpassed in any civilized country, and 
problems unknown in most other parts of the world. 

Long ago geographers divided the earth's surface into five 
zones, giving them definite boundaries of certain parallels of lati- 
tude founded on astronomical considerations. Biologists have 
also divided the earth's surface into life zones and other divisions. 
These divisions seldom have very definite boundaries, but blend 
into one another. 

For my present purpose I shall follow the division of the 
northern hemisphere into three Life Realms, as follows: The 
Arctic Life Realm, surrounding the north pole and passing south- 
ward to the northern limit of trees, or about the annual isotherm 
of 32 degrees; the North Temperate Life Realm, extending 
southward from the Arctic Life Realm to about the annual 
isotherm of 70 degrees ; and a Tropical Life Realm. These Life 
Realms are subdivided into Life Zones as follows : An Arctic 
Life Zone, consisting of all the Arctic Life Realm; a Boreal Life 
Zone, consisting of the upper or northern part of the North Tem- 
perate Life Realm south to about the summer isotherm of 63 
degrees; a Transition Life Zone, consisting of that part of the 


same Realm bounded alx)ve or on the north l)y the summer 
isotherm of 63 degrees, and below or south by the summer 
isotherm of 70 degrees; an Upper Austral Life Zone lying be- 
tween the summer isotherms of 70 degrees and yy degrees; a 
Lower Austral Life Zone, consisting of the remainder of the 
North Temperate Life Realm and a Sub-Tropical Life Zone, con- 
sisting of the northern part of the Tropical Life Realm. This 
covers but a small area in southeastern California. That part of 
the Arctic Life Zone in California is still smaller, consisting of a 
few small isolated areas on the highest mountain summits. 

The distribution of life being affected also by the greater or 
less average amount of moisture present in a given area, and as 
this average amount of moisture varies in portions of each life 
zone, it follows that the distribution of life is not equal through- 
out a life zone. To give expression to the effects of the varying 
amounts of moisture in life realms and life zones, they are di- 
vided in sections of variable size called regions, sub-regions and 
provinces. That part of the North Temperate Life Realm on 
this continent is known as the North American Region. That 
part of this region in western North America having a small an- 
nual rainfall is known as the Arid Sub-Region, and the part near 
the sea having a large rainfall is the Pacific Coast Sub-Region. 
The Arid Sub-Region has been divided into twO' provinces : the 
Sonoran Province, consisting of that part in the Lower Austral 
and Sub-Tropical Zones; and the Campestrian, consisting of that 
part in the Upper Austral and Transition Zones. 

I propose further subdividing the life areas of California 
into Faunas, to consist of areas of nearly equal temperature, 
moisture and soil, and therefore a nearly homogeneous local 
assemblage of life forms. These will not be equal in either size 
or value, and are intended only to facilitate the study of distribu- 
tion of species in California. The boundaries of Life Zones and 
Faunas as indicated on the accompanying map are only pro- 
visional ; further study will necessitate numerous changes. 

The Californian Arctic Fauna is that part of the Arctic Life 


Zone in California. A few species of plants constitute the only 
peculiarly Arctic life in California, as the areas are so small that 
animal life of strictly Arctic species has disappeared, with the 
possible exception of insects. 

The Boreal Zone is forested nearly throughout its extent in 
California. The principal forest trees are the Foxtail Pine, 
White-barked Pine, Mountain Pine, Tamarack Pine, and Red 
Fir. The Californian mammals peculiar to this zone are the 
Gray-headed Pika, Mountain Beaver, Yellow-bellied Marmot, 
Belding- Ground Squirrel, Alpine, Sierra Nevada and Alpine 
Chipmunks, Californian Pine Squirrel, Black Fox, Wolverine, 
Pine Marten and Ermine. Some of the birds breeding princi- 
pally or exclusively in this zone are Sooty Grouse, White-headed 
Woodpecker, Williamson Woodpecker, Western Niglithawk, Cal- 
liope Hummingbird, Olive-sided Flycatcher Gray-eared Finch, 
White-cro'wned Sparrow, Lincoln Sparrow, Thick-billed Spar- 
row, Green-tailed Towhee, Audubon Warbler and Black- 
throated Gray Warbler. The Californian part of the Boreal Zone 
may be called the Californian Alpine Fauna. 

The Transition Zone is of considerable extent in northern 
California, but is of less extent in the southern part of the State, 
where it is limited to the sides and upper parts of the moun- 
tains, except that small part rising above about 7,000 feet alti- 
tude, which is Boreal. In most parts of the State the Transition 
Zone is well timbered, and is the great source of supply of wood 
and lumber in this State. The Yellow, Black and Sugar Pines, 
White Fir, Cedar and Redwood are characteristic of this zone. 
It contains a large number of species of birds and mammals, 
though few, perhaps none, are limited to it, nearly all its species 
being found in the adjoining zones, either above or below. Some 
of the birds breeding principally in it are the Californian Wood- 
pecker, Blue-fronted Jay, Californian Purple Finch, Violet-green 
Swallow and Mountain Chickadee. 

The Transition zone in California may be divided into sev- 
eral Faunas. The northeast part of the State, north of Honey 


Lake and east of Mt. Shasta, may be called the Modoc Fauna. 
It is a high broken plateau with some coniferous timber on the 
highest parts. A character of this Fauna is the alnnidant pres- 
ence of sage brush (Arfciitcsia) . South of the Alodoc Fauna is 
a large area of the Transition Zone in the lower parts of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, which may be called the Sierra Ne- 
vada Fauna. It is mostly well timbered, with Yellow Pine as 
the principal species. Those areas of the Transition Zone lying 
south of Lat. 35 degrees may appropriately take the name of the 
San Bernardino Fauna. Here also the Yellow Pine is a charac- 
teristic tree. The regioii about Mt. Shasta, north to Oregon and 
west to the low strip along the sea coast may provisionally take 
the name of the Shasta Fauna until its features are better known. 
I know nothing of this fauna personally, and I can find very lit- 
tle published concerning its faunal conditions. A narrow strip 
along the seacoast from the Oregon line south to San Francisco 
may be called the Humboldt Fauna. This is a region of heavy 
rainfall and fogs, and a strong character is the presence of heavv 
redwood forests. A continuance of this narrow strip along the 
coast southward, including the Santa Cruz Mountains, and end- 
ing a short distance south of Point Sur, may take the name of the 
Santa Cruz Fauna. It presents similar characters to that of the 
Humboldt Fauna, but in a less marked degree. 

The Upper Austral Zone lies next below or south of the 
Transition Zone. In many parts of the Upper Austral Zone a 
thick growth of several species of shrubs, collectively known as 
chapparral or chemisal, covers the hills. Forests are few, and 
west of the Sierras are composed mostly of oaks, which east of 
the Sierras are replaced by Pinons and Junipers. The Gray- 
leafed Pine is common in this Zone in some places within the 
drainage of the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys. The most 
characteristic mammals of the Upper Austral Zone are Pocket 
Rats, two genera and several species. Pocket Mice of several 
species, Californian Grasshopper Mice, Striped Skunk, Gray and 
Island Foxes. The following species of birds find their upper 


or northern limits in this zone : Nuttall Woodpecker, Costa 
Hummingbird, Yellow-billed Magpie, Nelson Oriole, Lawrence 
Goldfinch, Black-throated Sparrow, Long-tailed Chat, Calif ornian 
Thrasher and Black-tailed Gnatcatcher. 

That part of the Upper Austral Zone lying on the west side 
of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, consisting of a long narrow 
strip along the sides of the lower parts of the mountains, may be 
called the Foothill Fauna. A broken region of moderate ex- 
tent, bounded on the west by the Humboldt Fauna, on the north 
by the Shasta Fauna, on the east and south by the Sacramento 
Valley, may be called the Clear Lake Fauna. The region 
bounded on the west and southwest by the Santa Cruz Fauna 
and the Pacific Ocean, on the southeast by the Santa Ynez 
Mountains, and on the northeast by the San Joaquin Valley may 
be called the San Luis Obispo Fauna. All the islands lying off 
the Southern California coast may be grouped together under 
the name of the Island Fauna. That part of the Upper Austral 
Zone south of the San Luis Obispo Fauna and the Mojave 
Desert and west of the Colorado Desert may be called the San 
Jacinto Fauna. 

The Lower Austral Zone includes most of the Mojave 
Desert, the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys, and a strip 
along the coast from Santa Barbara to San Diego and southward. 
Over much of this area cactuses form a characteristic part of the 
vegetation. But few trees occur, and these are found mostly 
along streams and in damp land. Much of this zone is very 
arid. Shrews are nearly wanting in this zone. Several species 
of bats find their northern limit in it, as do several species of 
ground squirrels. No species of tree squirrels or chipmunks 
(genera Sciurus and Butamias) occur. Several species of 
Pocket Rats and Pocket Mice and the Big-eared Fox are peculiar 
to this zone, the Gambel Partridge, Scott Oriole, Leconte 
Thrasher, Crissal Thrasher, Yellow-headed Tit and Plumbeous 

The large valley known as the Sacramento Valley (north- 





















9 2 



ern part), and San Joaquin Valley (southern part), may be 
called the Sacramento Fauna. The comparatively small area of 
Lower Austral Zone in the southwestern part of the State may 
be called the San Diego Fauna. In the eastern part of the State 
is a large area of arid plain, studded with small barren mountains, 
known as the Mojave Desert. It is principally Lower Austral 
Zone, but has a few tracts sufficiently elevated to reach the Upper 
Austral, and a few very small areas of Transition Zone. This 
area north of the low Colorado Desert and west of the bottom 
lands of the Colorado River may be called the Mojave Fauna. 

The Sub-Tropical Zone in California is confined to the bot- 
tom land along the Colorado River and west in the Colorado 
Desert, which is properly a part of the same bottom lands. 
Among the birds which do not breed above this zone, and are 
found in this part of California are the Harris Hawk, probably 
the Audubon Caracara, Elf Owl, Vermillion Flycatcher, Abert 
Towhee and Cooper Tanager. This part of the Sub-Tropical 
Zone may be called the Colorado Valley Fauna. 


List of 

California Mammals 

and tHeir fa.\inal distribution 

The Zones are given by name and the Faunas by number. Refer to the map. 


1. Balxna japonica. Pacific Right Whale. Pelagic. 

2. Rhachiaiicctcs glaucus. California Gray Whale. Pelagic. 

3. Mcgaptcra nodosa rcrsabilis. Pacific Humpback Whale. Pelagic. 

4. Balx)wptcra pliysalis vclifcra. Oregon Finback Whale. Pelagic. 

.5. Balxnoptcra acuto-rostrata davidsoui. SnARP-HEADEn Finner WhalE. 

6. Sibbaldius siilfnrcus. Sulphur-Bottled Whale. Pelagic. 


7. Pliysctcr inacroccphaius. SpERM Whale. Pelagic. 

Family DELPHINID^:. 

8. Lissodclphis borcalis. Northern Right Whale Porpoise. Pelagic. 

9. Plwcxna coiiiiininis. Bay Porpoise. Littoral and pelagic. 

10. Orcinus rcctipinna. Straight-finned Killer. Pelagic. 

11. Orcinus atcr. Black Killer. Pelagic. 

12 Globiccphala scammoni. Scammon Blackfish. Pelagic. 

13. Grampus griscus. Common Grampus. Pelagic. 

14. Lagenorhynchiis obliquidens. Striped Porpoise. Pelagic. 

15. Dclphinus dclpliis. Common Dolphin. Pelagic. 
j6. Tursiops gilli. Cowfish. Pelagic. 

Family CHRVID7E. 

17. Cerviis rooscvelii. Roosevelt Wapiti. Elk. 

Transition, 2. 

18. Ccrviis nannodcs. California Wapiti. Elk. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

19. Odocoilcus hcwionus. MuLE DeER. 

Transition, Boreal. 5, 6, 7. 

20. Odocoileus hemionus eremicus. Burro Deer. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

21. Odocoilcus hemionus californicus. California Mule Deer. 

Transition, Upper Austral, Boreal and Lower Austral, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13. 
^2. Odocoilcus cohimbianus. Black-tailed Deer. 
Transition and Boreal, i, 2, 3, 5, 6. 



23. Odocoilens columbianus scaphiotiis. Southern- Black-tailed Deer. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 9, 10. 


24. Aiitilocapm aiucricana. Prong-horned Antelope. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 3, 15, 16. 

Family BOl'ID.'E. 

25. Oz'is canadensis. Rocky AIountain Bighorn. Mountain Sheep. 

Formerly Boreal, Transition, 2. 3, 6, 7. 

26. 0-jis nelsoni. Nelson Bighorn. . . 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, 13, 15. 
2y. Orcamnos montanus. Mountain Goat. 
Formerly Boreal, 6, 7. 


28. Mannota flavivcntcr. Yellow-bellied Marmot. 

Boreal, 3, 6, 7. 

29. CitcUus bccclicyi. California Ground-Squirrel. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. 

30. Citcllns bcechcyi douglassi. Douglass Ground- Squirrel. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 2, 3, 5, 6. 

31. Citcllns bccclicyi fisheri. Fisher Ground-Squirrel. 

LIpper and lower Austral, 4, 5, 15. 

32. Citcllns tcrcticandus. Round-tailed Ground-Squirrel. 

Lower Austral. Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 
33- Citcllns bcldingi. Belding Ground-Squirrel. 
Boreal, Transition, 3, 7. 

34. Citelhis mollis stcphensi. Stephens Ground-Squirrel. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 6. 

35. Citcllns mohavensis. Mohave Ground-Squirrel. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

36. Citcllns chrysodcirus. Gilded Ground-Squirrel. 

Transition, Boreal, 2, 3, 6, 7. 
17- Citcllns chrysodcirus bcrnardiniis. San Bernardino Ground-Squirrel. 
Transition, Boreal, 13. 

38. Citcllns chrysodcirus trinitatus. Trinity Ground- Squirrel. 

Transition, Boreal, 2. 

39. Citcllns Icncnrns. Antelope Ground-Squirrel. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 3, 6, 15. 

40. Citcllns nelsoni. Nelson Ground-Squirrel. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

41. Eutamias alpinns. Alpine Chipmunk. 

Arctic, Boreal, 7, 14. 


42. Eutamias amccnus. Klamath Chipmunk. 

Boreal, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

43. Eutamias pictus. Desert Chh^munk. 

Upper Austral, Transition, 3, 6. 

44. Eutamias panamintus. Panamint Chipmunk. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 15. 

45. Eutamias speciosus. San Bernardino Chipmunk. 

Boreal, Transition, 13. 

46. Eutamias speciosus callipeplus. Mount Pinos Chipmunk. 

Transition, 5, 11. 

47. Eutamias speciosus frater. Sierra Nevada Chipmunk. 

Transition, Boreal, 6, 7. 

48. Eutamias quadrimaculatus. Long-Eared Chipmunk. 

Transition, Boreal, 6, 7. 

49. Eutamias quadrimaculatus senex. Allen Chipmunk. 

Transition, Boreal, 3, 6, 7. 

50. Eutamias townsendi ochrogenys. Redwood Chipmunk. 

Transition, i. 

51. Eutamias hindsi. Hind? Chipmunk. 

Upper Austral, Transition, i, 8. 

52. Eutamias hindsi pricei. Price Chipmunk. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 9, 10. 

53. Eutamias merriami. Merriam Chipmunk. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 5, 11, 13. 

54. Sciwus griseus. Columbia Gray Squirrel. 

Transition, 6, 8. 

55. Sciurus griseus nigripes. Black-Footed Gray Squirrel. 

Transition, 10. 

56. Sciurus griseus anthonyi. Anthony Gray Squirrel. 

Transition, 13. 

57. Sciurus douglassi albolimbatus. California ChickaeeB. 

Transition, Boreal, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

58. Sciurus douglassi mollipilosus. Redwood Chickaree. 

Transition, i. 

59. Sciuropterus alpinus klamathensis. Klamath Flying-SquirmL. 

Boreal, 2, 3. 

60. Sciuropterus alpinus calif amicus . San Bernardino Flying-Squirrel. 

Boreal, Transition, 13. 

61. Sciuropterus oregonensis stephensi. Stephens Flying-Squirrel. 

Transition, i. 


62. Aplodontia major. California Mountain Beaver. 

Boreal, 2, 7. 


63. Aplodontia phxa. Point Reyes Mountain Beaver. 

Transition, i. 


64. Castor caiiade)isis frondator. Broad-tailEd Beaver. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical. 16. 

65. Castor canadensis paciHcus. Pacific Beaver. 

Boreal, Transition, Upper Austral, 2, 3, 5, 6. 

Family MURID7E. 

66. Mus norvegicus. Brown Rat. 


67. Mus rattus. Black Rat. 

68 Mus musculus. Common Mouse. 

69. Onychomys torridus raniona. San Bernardino Grasshopper-Mouse. 

Upper and Low^er Austral, 11, 12. 

70. Onychomys torridus perpallidus. Yuma Grasshopper-Mouse. 

Sub-tropical, 16. 

71. Onychomys torridus tularcnsis. Tueare Grasshopper-Mouse. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

72. Onychomys torridus longicaudus. Long-tailed Grasshopper-MousE. 

Upper Austral, 15. 
7^. Peromyscus texanus gambcli. Gambel Mouse. 

Transition, Boreal, Upper and Lower Austral. Generally dis- 

74. Peromyscus texanus deserticolus. DeserT Deer Mouse. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

75. Peromyscus texanus dementis. San Clemente Mouse. 

Upper Austral, 17. 

76. Peromyscus oreas ruhidus. Mendocino Mouse. 

Transition, i. 
yy. Peromyscus boylii. Boyle Mouse. 

Transition, Boreal, Upper Austral, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11. 

78. Peromyscus truei. Big-eared Mouse. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Transition, i, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

79. Peromyscus californicus. California Mouse. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Transition, i. 5, 8, 9. 10. 

80. Peromyscus californicus insignis. Chemisal Mouse. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 11, 12. 

81. Peromyscus ercmicus. Hermit Mouse. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 


125. Thomomys bottx pallescens. Southern Pocket-Gopher. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Transition, 11, 12, 13. 

126. Thomomys laticcps. Broad-headed Pocket- Gopher. 

Transition, i. 

127. Thomomys Icucodon navus. Red Bluee Pocket-Gopher. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 4. 

128. Thomomys annularis. San Joaquin Pocket-Gopher. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

129. Thomomys angularis pascalis. Fresno Pocket-Gopher. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

130. Thomomys opcrarhis. Owen Vali^Ey Pocket-Gopher. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

131. Thomomys cahczonx.. Cabezon Pocket-Gopher. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

132. Thomomys fuscus iisheri. Fisher Pocket-Gopher. 

Transition, 6. 


133. Perodipus agilis. Gameel Pocket-Rat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 12. 

134. Perodipus ingens. Big Pocket-Rat. 

Upper Austral, g. 

135. Perodipus venustus. Santa Cruz Pocket-Rat. 

Transition, 10. 

136. Perodipus goldmani. Goedman PockET-Rat. 

Upper Austral, 9. 

137. Perodipus panamintus. Panamint PockET-Rat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 15. 

138. Perodipus strcatori. Streator Pocket-Rat. 

Upper Austral, 5. 

139. Perodipus microps. Inyo Pocket-Rat. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

140. Dipodomys californicus. Calieornia Pocket-Rat. 

Upper Austral, Transition, i, 8. 

141. Dipodomys californicus pallidulus. Colusa Pocket-Rat. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

142. Dipodomys dcscrti. DESERT Pocket-Rat. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

143. Dipodomys merriami simiolus. Mimic Pocket-Rat. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

144. Dipodomys merriami parvus. San Bernardino Pocket-Rat. 

Lower Austral, 12. 

145. Dipodomys merriami nitratus. KeelER Pocket-Rat. 

Lower Austral, 15. 


146. Dipodomys merriami nitratoidcs. Tulare Pocket-Rat. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

147. Dipodo))iys iiicrricnni cxilis. Lkast PockET-Rat. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

148. Microdipodops califoniicus. Caijfornia Dware Pocket-Rat, 

Transition, Upper Austral, .3, 6, 7. 

149. Pcrogiiathus panaiiiiiitus. Panamint PockET-Mouse. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

150. Perogiiatlitts panamintus baiigsi. Bangs Pocket-Mouse. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

151. Pcrogiiatlius panamintus arcnicola. Sand Pocket-Mouse. 

Sub-tropical, 16. 

152. Perognathus brevinasus. Short-nosed Pocket-Mouse. 

Lower Austral, 12. 

153- Perognathus pacifictis. San Diego Pocket-Mouse. 
Lower Austral, 12. 

154. Perognathus parvus mollipilosus. CouES Pocket-MousE. 

Transition, Boreal, 2, 3. 

155. Perognathus parvus olivaccus. Great Basin Pocket-Mouse. 

Upper Austral, Transition, 6. 

156. Perognathus parinis magruderensis. Mt. Magruder Pocket-Mouse. 

Transition, 15. 

157. Perognathus alticola. White-eared Pocket-Mouse. 

Transition, 13. 

158. Perognathus fornwsus. Long-TAilEd Pocket-Mouse. 

LTpper Austral, 15. 

159. Perognathus longimenibris. San Joaquin Pocket-Mouse. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

160. Perognathus penicillatus. Tuet-tailed Pocket-Mouse. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

161. Perognathus penicillatus angustirostris. Colorado DeserT PockeT- 


Sub-tropical, 16. 

162. Perognathus stephcnsi. Stephens Pocket-Mouse. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

163. Perognathus fallax. Short-eared Pocket-Mouse. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 11, 12. 

164. Perognathus fallax pallidus. Pallid Pocket-Mouse. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

165. Perognathus calif ornicus. California Pocket-Mouse. 

Upper Austral, 9. 

166. Perognathus californicus dispar. AllEn Pocket-Mouse. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 5, 9, 11, 12. 


167. Perognathus fonoralis. Dark Pocket-MousE. 

Upper Austral, 11. 

168. Perognathus spinatus. Spiny Pocket- ]\Iouse. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15. 16. 


169. Zapus triiiofatus. Northwest Jumping-Mouse. 

Transition, i. 
179. Zapus trinotatus allcni. Allen Jumping-Mouse. 
Boreal, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

171. Zapus orarius. Coast Jumping-Mouse. 

Transition, i. 

172. Zapus paciUcus. Pacific Jumping-Mouse. 

Transition, 2. 


173. Erethizon cpixanthiis. Western Porcupine. . . 

iransition, Boreal, 2, 3, 6, 7, 13. 

Family OCH070NID7E. 

174. Ocliotoua scliisticcps. Sierra Nevada J'ika. 

Boreal, 2, 3, 6. 7. 


175. Lcpus campcstris sicrrx. SiERRA Prairie Hare. 

Boreal, Transition, 7. 

176. Lcpus calif oniicus. California Hare. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Transition. 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12. 

177. Lcpus richardsoiii. Richardson Hare. 

Upper Austral, 5, 9. 

178. Lcpus tcxianus dcscrticola. Desert Hare. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 3, 6, 15, 16. 

179. Lcpus tcxianus tularoisis. Tulare Hare. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

180. Lcpus auduboni. Audubon Hare. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Transition, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13. 

181. Lcpus auduboni ari::onx. Arizona Wood Hare. 

LIpper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

182. Lcpus nuttalli. Nuttall Wood Hare. 

Transition, 2, 3. 

183. Lcpus bacliniani. Bachman Brush Hare. 

iransition, i, 10. 

184. Lcpus cincmsccns. Ashy Brush Hare. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 9, 11, 12. 


Family PHOCID.'E. 

185. Phoca richardii. Pacific Harbor Seal. 


186. Phoca richardii gcruiiimciisis. San Geronimo Harbor Seal. 


187. Miroiinga angustirostris. California Elephant Seal. 


188. Zalophiis californiamis. California Sea Lion. 


189. Euiiictopias jiibata. Stellar Sea Lion. 


190. Callorhinus alasca)ms. Northern Fur Seal. 


191. Arctoccphahis towiisotdi. Guadaloupe Fi:r Seal. 


Family FELIDJE. 

192. FcUs hippolestes olympus. Pacific Coast Cougar. 

Transition, Upper Austral, i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8. 

193. Fclis astecus browni. Brown Cougar. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 11. 12, 13, 15, 16. 

194. Lynx crcmicus. Desert Lvnx. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16. 

195. Lynx fasciatiis pallcscens. Washington Lvxx. 

Transition, Upper Austral, i, 2, 3, 5, 6. 

Family CANIDJE. 

196. Canis ochropus. Valley Coyote. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Transition. 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12. 

197. Canis cstor. Desert Coyote. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

198. Canis Icstcs. Mountain Coyote. 

Boreal, Transition, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

199. Canis nicarnsi. .Mearns Coyote. 

Transition, 11. 13. 

200. Canis mexicanns. Gray^ Wolf. 

Boreal, Transition, 3, 7. 

201. Viilpcs macrotis. Long-eared Fox. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 11, 15, 16. 

202. Vidpes muticus. San Joaquin Fox. 

Lower Austral, 4. 

203. J'ulpcs necator. High Sierra Fox. 

Boreal, 7. 


204. Vulpes cascadensis. Cascade Mountain Fox. 

Boreal,, 2, 3, 7. 

205. Urocyon californicus. California Gray Fox. 

Transition, Boreal, Upper and Lower Austral, 9, 11, 12, 13. 

206. Urocyon californicus townsendi. Townsend Gray Fox. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 2, 3, 5, 6. 

207. Urocyon littoralis. San Miguel Island Fox. 

Upper Austral, 17. 

208. Urocyon littoralis santacruzx. Santa Cruz Island Fox. 

Upper Austral, 17. 
2og. Urocyon clement^. San Clemente Island Fox. 
Upper Austral, 17. 

210. Urocyon catalinx. Santa Catalina Island Fox. 

Upper Austral, 17. 

Family PR0CY0NID7E. 

211. Bassarisctis astutus raptor. California Ring-tailed Cat. 

Transition, Upper Austral, i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 13. 

212. Procyon psora. California Raccoon. 

Upper and Lower Austral. Transition, 4, 5, 8, il, 12. 

213. Procyon psora paciUca. Pacific Raccoon. 

Upper Austral, Transition, 2. 

214. Procyon pallidus. Desert Raccoon. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

Family URSIDJE. 

215. Ursus horribilis. Grizzly Bear. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13. 

216. Ursus americanus. Black Bear. 

Boreal, Transition, Upper Austral, i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13. 


217. Latax lutris nereis. Southern Sea Otter. 


218. Lntra canadensis paciUca. Pacific Otter. 

Transition, Upper Austral, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8. 
2ig. Lutra canadensis sonora. Sonora Otter. 
Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 16. 

220. Taxidea taxus neglccta. Western Badger. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12. 

221. Mephitis occidentalis. California Skunk. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, i,, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10. 

222. Mephitis occidentalis major. Great Basin Skunk. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 3, 6. 


223. Mephitis occidentalis holzneri. Southern California Skunk. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, 9, 11, 12, 13. 

224. Mephitis platyrhinus. Broad-nosed Skunk. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 5, 6. 

225. Mephitis estor. Arizona Skunk, 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

226. Spilogale phenax. Western Spotted Skunk. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 4, 5, 9, n, 12. 

227. Spilogale latifrons. Little Spotted Skunk. 

Upper Austral, Transition, 2. 

228. Gulo luscus. Wolverine. 

Boreal, Transition, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

229. Mustela pennanti paciUca. Pacific Fisher. 

Boreal, Transition, i, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

230. Mustela caurina. Pacific Pine Marten. 

Boreal, Iransition, i, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

231. Lutreola vison energuemnos. Pacific Mink. 

Transition, i, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

232. Putorius xanthogenys. California Weasel. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Transition, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12. 

233. Putorius xanthogenys mundus. Redwoods Weasel. 

Transition, Upper Austral, i, 8. 

234. Putorius arisonensis. Mountain Weasel. 

Transition, Boreal, 2, 3, .6, 7. 

235. Putorius muricus. Little Weasel. 

Boreal, 7. 

Family SORECID^. 

236. Sorex vagrans. Wandering Shrew. 

Transition, Boreal, Upper Austral, i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11. 
22,7. Sorex amcsnus. Sierra Nevada Shrew. 
Boreal, 7. 

238. Sorex obscurus. Dusky Shrew. 

Boreal, 7. 

239. Sorex montereyensis. Monterey Shrew. 

Transition, Boreal, i, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10. 

240. Sorex ornatus. Adorned Shrew. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 11, 13. 

241. Sorex californicus. California Shrew. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 8, 9. 

242. Sorex tenellus. Inyo Shrew. 

Transition, 6. 

243. Sorex tenellus lyelU. Mount Lyell Shrew. 

Boreal, 7. 


244. Sorcx tcncllns my ops. White Mountain Shuew. 

Transition, 6. 

245. Sorcx paciiicns. Pacific vShrew. 

Transition, i. 

246. Sorcx palnstris navigator. Water Shrew. 

Boreal, Transition, 2, 3, 7. 

247. Sorcx bcndirci. Bendire Shrew. 

Transition, i. 

248. Notiosorcx craccfordi. Gray Shrew. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 11, 12. 

Family TALFID.^. 

249. Sea pawns tozoiscndi. Town send Mole. 

Transition, i. 

250. Scapainis calif oniicus. California Mole. 

Transition, Upper Austral, i, 2, 5, 6, 8, 10. 

251. Scapanus californicus antJionyi. Anthony Mole. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, 11, 12, 13. 

252. Scapanus californicus tnici. INIoDoc Mole. 

Upper Austral, 3. 

253. Neurotrichus gibbsi major. Large Shrew-molE. 

Transition, Boreal, 2, 3. 

Fami ly I ^ESPER Till ON ID JE. 

254. Antrozous pallidus. Pale Bat. 

Lower Austral. Suh-trcpical, 15, 16. 

255. Antrozotis pallidus paciftciis. Pacific Pale Bat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 4, 5, g, 11, 12. 

256. Eudcrma maculatuni. Spotted Bat. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 12, 16. 

257. Corynorhiiius macrotis pallcsccns. Lump-nosed Bat. 

Lower Austral, 12, 15. 

258. Myotis lucifugus longicrus. Long-shanked Bat. 

Transition, Upper Austral, 2, 3, 5, 11, 15. 

259. Myotis californicus. Little California Bat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Transiton, i, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17. 

260. Myotis californicus pallidus. Pallid Bat. 

Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 15, 16. 

261. Myotis yumanensis. Yuma Bat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12. 15, 16. 

262. Myotis yumanensis saturafus.. .MiuXR Bat. 

Boreal, Transition, 2, 3. 

263. Myotis cvofis. Long-eared Bat. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, 2, 3, 6, 11, 12. 15. 


264. Myofis thysanodcs. Fringed Bat. 

Upper Austral, 11. 

265. Lasionycteris noctivagaus. Siuerv-haireu Bat. 

Transition, i, 5, 8. 

266. Pipistcrllus hcspcriis. Western Bat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical 5, 11, 12, 15, 16. 

267. Eptesicus fucus bcrnardinus. San Bernardino Bat. 

Transition, Boreal, Upper Austral, 9, 11, 12, 13. 

268. Eptesicus fuse us mclanopterus. Sierra Bat. 

Transition, Boreal, i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

269. Lasiurus borealis telwtis. Western Red Bat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, 4. 9, 11, 12. 

270. Lasiurus cinercus. Hoary Bat. 

Transition, Upper and Lower Austral, 4, 9, 11, 12. 


271. Nyctinomops mohm'cnsis. INIohave Bat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 9, 12, 15, 16. 

272. Nyctinomops fcmorosaecus. Pocketed Bat. 

Sub-tropical, 16. 

273. Nyctinomops deprcssus. Nevada Bat. 

Lower Austral, 15. 

274. Promops californicus. California Mastiff Bat. 

Lower Austral, 12. 


275. Otoptents californicus. California Leaf-nosed Bat. 

Upper and Lower Austral, Sub-tropical, 11, 12, 15, 16. 


276. Homo sapiens americanus. American Indian. Throughout California. 


Parts of a Skull 

A skull is composed of a number of bones. The size and shape of these 
bones vary more or less with different species, and they therefore form good 
characters for distinguishing species and groups. The sutures indicating the 
hues of junction between adjacent bones anchylose more or less in aged ani- 
mals and become obscure. Below are the names of the principal parts of a 
skull, with figures corresponding to those on the plate opposite. 

Skulls Nos. 1738 and 2087 are Southern California Skunks. Nos. 696, 
2312 and 2332 are Columbia Gray Squirrels. 












Coronal Process. 


Angular Process. 


Zygomatic Arch. 


Anteorbital Foramen. (The 

figure shows the location 

the orifice.) 














Postorbital Process. 




Audital Bulla. 





Abnormal. Irregular. Differing from the usual character. 
Adult. Full grown. 
Affinity. Direct relationship. 

Alpine. Used here as pertaining to high altitudes, chiefly near timber line. 
Analogy. Superficial resemblance without direct relationship. 
Animal. A living (animated) creature, capable of growth and voluntary mo- 
tion. Often, but wrongly, this term is restricted to mammals. 
Aquatic. Pertaining to, or living in the water. 
Arboreal. Pertaining to. or living in trees. 
Bicolor. Of two colors. 
Biology. The study of all living things. 
Boreal. Northern. 

Lanine. The conical tooth next the incisors; wanting in rodents. 
Carnivorous. Flesh-eating. 

Character. Any peculiarity available for diagnosis. 
Chemisal. Thickets of chemise and other brush, such as cover the hillsides 

of Southern Californa. 
Classification. A systematic arrangement. 
Clavicle. The collar bone. 
Congeneric. Of the same genus. 
Crepuscular. Active at twilight. 
Deciduous. Shed at certain periods. 
Diagnosis. In taxonomj-, a condensed statement of a set of characters ap- 

applicable to a group of animals. 
Dichromatic. Having two phases of color independent of age, sex or season. 
Digitigrade. Walking on the toes. Includes all birds and most mammals. 
Diurnal. Active in the daytime. 
Dorsal. Pertaining to the back. 

Embryo. Earlier stages of unhatched or unborn young. 
Exotic. Foreign. 
Family. A group of genera agreeing in certain characters and differing from 

other families of the order in one or more characters. 
Fauna. The animal life of a region. 
Fissiped. Having cleft toes. 
Fluvatile. Inhabiting rivers. 
Fcetus. Later stages of unborn young. 
Foramen. A hole or opening, usually small. 
Fossorial. Inhabiting burrows. 
Frugivoroiis. Fruit eating. 


Gcmis. A group of species agreeing in certain characters and differing from 

other genera of the family in one or more characters. 
Gregarious. Going in flocks or herds. 
Habitat. Region inhabited by a species. 
Heterogenous. Of unlike or miscellaneous characters. 
Hibernate. To become torpid in winter quarters. 
Homogenous. Of like characters. 
Humerus. The bone of the upper part of the fore limb, from shoulder to 

Hybrid. Progeny of parents of different species. 
Immature. Not mature; ungrown. 

Hicisor. Tooth in the front part of mouth, Ijetween the canines. 
Indigenous. Native in a region. 
Insectivorous. Feeding on insects. 

Interfemoral membrane. The memlirane connecting the hind legs of a bat. 
Littoral. Pertaining to the shore. 
Longitudinal. Lengthwise. 
Afacnlate. Spotted. 

Mammal. Animals that suckle their young. 
Maims. The hand or fore foot. 
Marine. Of the sea. 

Maratime. Pertaining to the border of the sea. 
Molar. A grinding tooth. 

Monogamous. JNIating with a single individual of the opposite sex. 
Nocturnal. x\ctive in the night. 

Normal. Of the usual character; standard; regular. 
Omniz'orous. Feeding on anything eatable. 
Order. A group of families agreeing in certain characters. 
Pelage. A covering of hair. 
Pelagic. Frequenting the sea far from land. 
Pes. The hind foot. 
Piscivorous. Feeding on fish. 

Plantigrade. Walking on the full length of the foot. 
Polygamous. Mating with more than one female. 
Premolar. The anterior permanent molariform teeth which are preceded by 

deciduous ("milk") teeth. 
Radius. The front one of the two bones of the forearm. 
Retractile. Capable of being drawn back, like a cats claw. 
Rostrum. The beak; the front part of the skull. 
Sectorial. Adapted for cutting. 
Septum. A partition. 


Species. An assemblage of related individuals agreeing in certain characters 
but differing distinctly in one or more characters (usually of 
minor importance) from all other individuals of the same con- 

Subspecies. A form connected by other forms of the species by intermediate 
individuals ; a variety ; a nascent species ; a geographical race. 

Subterranean. Under the surface of the earth ; underground. 

Synonym. A duplicate name discarded for a prior name, or one more ap- 

Tarsus. The shank bone; the bones between the toes and the heel. 

Taxidermist. One who prepares skins to imitate the form of living animals. 

Taxonomy. The science of classification. 

Terrestrial. On the surface of the ground. 

Tibia. The larger bone below the knee. 

Tragus. The inner lobe of the ear. 

Type. Of a species, that specimen used as a base of the description of the 
species in the original description ; of a genus, that species from 
which the generic characters were taken. 

Ulna. The back one of the two bones of the forearm ; that one on which the 
elbow hinges. 

Vertebrate. Having a spinal column or backbone. 

Zoology. The natural history of animals in general. 


Page 22, next to bottom line, for havits read habits. 

40. Tenth line from top, for chisely. read closely. 

116. Third line from bottom, for marcotis read macrotis. 

162. For Panamint Pocket-Rat, read Panamint Pocket-Mouse. 

114. For Subgenus Ncotojne read Tcoiiioiiui. 

195. Head, for Fer?e read heporid^. 

241. Head, for Mustedidse, read Mustelidse. 

INDEX 311 



aciito rostrata davidsoni, Bala?noptera 22 

Adorned Shrew 252 

agilis, Perodipus 150 

alascanus, Callorhiniis 205 

albipes, Phenacomys 123 

albigula venusta. Neotoma 122 

albolimbatus, Sciurus douglassi 89 

Allen Chipmunk 83 

Jumping Monse 175 

Pocket Mouse 172 

alleni, Zapus trinotatus 175 

Alpine Chipmunk 77 

Pocket Gopher 137 

aipinus calif ornicus, Sciuropterus 91 

Eutamias 77 

klamathensis. Sciuropterus 91 

Thomomys 137 

alticola, Perognathus 166 

American Indian 279 

Lion 209 

americana, Antilocapra 55 

americanus. Homo sapiens 279 

Ursus 130 

Amerind 281 

Ammospermophilus, Subgenus 7-4 

amoenus, Eumatias ' 78 

Sorex 250 

angularis, Thomomys 146 

pascalis, Thomomys 117 

angusticeps, Microtis 130 

angustirostris, Mirounga 199 

Perognathus penicillatus 168 

Antelope Ground Squirrel 71 

Prong-horn 55 

Anthony Gray Squirrel 87 

Mole 257 

anthonyi. Scapanus calif ornicus 257 

Sciurus griseus 87 


Antilocapra, Genus 55 

americana 55 

Autiloeaprida?, Family 55 

Antrozous, Genus 263 

pallidus 263 

pacificus 263 

Aplodontia, Genus 93 

major 94 

phfea 95 

Aplodontidw, Family 93 

Arctoeephaliis, Genus 206 

townsendi 206 

arenicola, Perognathus pacificus 163 

Arizona Skunk 239 

Wood Hare 192 

arizoucP, Lepus auduboui 192 

arizonensis, Putorius 247 

xirtiodactyla. Suborder 45 

Ash-colored Rat 114 

Ashy Brush Hare 193 

astutus raptor, Bassariscus 224 

ater, Orcinus 85 

Audubon Wood Hare 190 

auduboni arizona?, Lepus • 192 

Lepus 190 

aztecus browni, Felis 209 

bachmani, Lepus 193 

Bachman Brush Hare 193 

Badger, Western 235 

Bailey Meadow IMouse 130 

Bal»na, Genus 13 

japonica 13 

BakpnidfP, Family 12 

Balienoptera, Genus 19 

acuto-rostrata davidsoni 22 

physalus velif era 20 

Bangs Pocket Mouse 163 

bangsi, Perognathus panamintus 163 

Bassariscus, Genus 224 

astutus raptor 224 

Bat, California Leaf -nosed 

INDEX 31^ 


, Mastiff 275 

Fringed 268 

Hoary 272. 

Little California 266 

Long-eared 267 

Slianked 265 

Lnmp-iiosed 265 

Miller 267 

]\Iohave 273 

Nevada 275 

Pale L 263 

Pacific 263 

Pallid 266 

Pocketed 274 

San Bernardino 270 

Sierra 270 

Silvery-haired 268 

Spotted 264 

AVestern 269 

Reel 271 

Ynma 267 

Bay Porpoise 34 

Bear, Black 230 

Cinnamon 230 

Grizzly 229 

Beaver, Broad-tailed 96 

California Mountain 94 

Pacific 97 

Point Reyes Mountain 95 

beecheyi, Citellus 65 

douglassi, Citellus 68 

fisheri, Citellus 68 

Belding Ground Squirrel 70 

beldingi, Citellus 70 

bendirei. Sorex 255 

Bendire Shrew 254 

bernardinus chrysodeirus, Citellus 73 

Eptesicus fuscus 270 

Big-eared Mouse 106 


Bighorn, Nelson 58 

Rocky jMoimtain 57 

Big Pocket Rat 153 

Black Bear 230 

footed Gray Squirrel 87 

Fox 244 

Killer 35 

Eat 100 

tailed Deer 53 

Southern 54 

Blaekfish, Scammon 38 

Blue Rabbit 194 

borealis teliotus, Lasiurus 271 

Lissodelphis 33 

botta?, Thomorays 139 

pallescens, Thomonuzs 145 

Bovidffi, Family 57 

Boyle Mouse 106 

boylei, Peromyscus 106 

Brachylagus, Subgenus 194 

brevinasus, Porognathus 163 

Broad headed Pocket Gopher 146 

nosed Skunk 239 

tailed Beaver 96 

Brown Cougar 209 

Rat 100 

bro^^Tii, Felis aztecus 209 

Brush Hare, Ashy 193 

Bachman 190 

Habbit 194 

Hat, Desert 118 

Dusky-footed 115 

Northern 116 

Intermediate 119 

Kern 119 

Mesquite 122 

Pale 118 

Southern 166 

Streator 117 

Yellow 120 

Xantus 117 



Burro Deer 5q 

Cabezon Pocket Gopher ]47 

cabezonfE. Thommomys I47 

Cabree 5g 

California Bat, Little 266 

Chickaree 39 

Dwarf Pocket Rat 161 

Elephant Seal I99 

Gray Fox 220 

Whale 14 

Ground Squirrel 65 

Hare 186 

Leaf nosed Bat 276 

Lion 209 

IMkstiff Bat 275 

Meadow Mouse 127 

INfole 257 

Mountain Beaver 94 

Mouse 107 

Red backed 124 

Mule Deer 51 

Pocket Gopher I39 

Mouse 172 

Rat 155 

Raccoon 225 

Red-backed Mouse 125 

Ring-tailed Cat 224 

Sea Lion 201 

Shrew 252 

Skunk 236 

Wapiti 47 

Weasel 246 

californica, Taxidea taxus 236 

calif ornicus anthonyi, Scapanus 257 

constrictus, Microtus 129 

Dipodomys 155 

dispar, Perognathus 172 

Evotomys 124 

Lepus 186 

Microdipodops 161 

Microtus 127 


californiciis Myotis 266 

Odocoileiis hemionus 51 

Otopterus 276 

pallidnlus, Dipodomys 156 

pallidus, Myotis 266 

Perognathus 172 

Peromyscus 107 

Promops 275 

Sciuropterns alpinus 91 

Sorex 252 

Scapanus 257 

townsendi, Urocyon 221 

truei, Scapanus 259 

Urocyon 220 

vallicola. Mierotus . 129 

calif ornianus, Zalophus 201 

callipeplus, Entamias speciosiis 80 

(■aliorhinns. Genus 205 

alascanus 205 

Callospennophilus. Subgenus 72 

campestris sierra?. Lepus 185 

Canada Lynx , 212 

canadensis frondator. Castor 96 

pacifica. Castor 97 

Lutra 233 

Ovis 57 

sonora. Lutra 234 

CanidoB. Family 213 

Canis. Genus 213 

estor 215 

lastes 215 

mearnsi 216 

mexicanus 216 

ochropus 213 

Cantankerous Meadow Mouse 130 

Carcajou 242 

Carnivores. Terrestrial 207 

Cascade Mountain Fox 218 

cascadensis. Vulpes 218 

INDEX 317 

Castor. Geuus 9(3 

canadensis frondator 9G 

pacifieus 9Y 

Castorida\ Family iJ^\ 

catalina?. Urocyo2i 222 

Catamount 999 

Cat. Civet 225 

California Ring-tailed 224 

Wild ^ ............212 

Cats 207 

caurina. ^Mnstela . 244 

Cervida?. Family 4(3 

Cerviis. Genus 46 

nannodes 47 

roosevelti 4(j 

Cete. Order 11 

ChtPtodipus. Subgenus 167 

Chemisal Mouse 108 

Chickaree. California 89 

Redwood 90 

Chief Hare. Little 183 

Chilotus. Subgenus 131 

Chipmunk. Allen 83 

Alpine 77 

Desert 78 

Hinds 83 

Inyo 81 

Klamath 78 

Long-eared 82 

IMerriam 84 

Mount Pinos 80 

Panamint 79 

Price 84 

Redwood 85 

San Bernardino 79 

Sierra Nevada 82 

Chiroptera. Order 261 

chrysodeirus. Citellus 72 

bernardinus. Citellus 73 

trinitatus. Citellus 74 

cinera?. Neotoma 114 


cinereus. Lasiurus 272 

cinerascens. Lepus 193 

Cinnamon Bear 230 

Citellus. Genus 64 

beecheyi 65 

douglassi 68 

fislieri 68 

beldingi 70 

chrysodeirus 72 

bernardinus 73 

trinitatns 74 

grammnrus 69 

leueurus 74 

mohavensis 72 

mollis stephensi 71 

nelsoni 75 

tereticadus 69 

Civet Cat 225 

dementis. Peromyseus texensis 105 

elements. Urocyon 222 

Coast Jumping Mouse 176 

Meadow Mouse 129 

Colorado Desert Pocket Mouse 168 

Columbian Gray Squirrel 86 

colurabianus. Odocoileus 53 

scaphiotus. Odoeoileus 54 

Colusa Pocket Rat 156 

Common Dolphin 42 

Grampus 42 

Mouse li )1 

communis. Phocana 34 

constrictus. Microtus californious 129 

Cony 183 

Corynorninus. Genus 264 

macrotis pallescens 265 

Cotton Rat. Western Ill 

Cottontail 192 

Coues Pocket-Mouse 165 

Cougar. Brown 209 

Pacific Coast 208 

Cowfish 43 

INDEX 319 

Coyote. Desert 215 

Mearns 216 

Mountain 215 

Valley 213 

Crater Lake Red-backed Mouse 125 

erawf ordi. Notiosorex 255 

Cricetinfe. Subfamily 101 

cuniculus. Lepus Ig5 

curtatus. Microtus 131 

CystophorinfP. Subfamily 199 

Dark Pocket-Mouse 172 

davidsoni. Balaenoptera 22 

Deer. Black-tailed 53 

Burro 50 

California Mule 51 

Mule 48 

Southern Black-tailed 54 

Delphinida?. Family 32 

Delphinina?. Subfamily 33 

Delphinus. Genus 41 

bairdi 42 

delphis 42 

delphis. Delphinus 42 

Denticete. Suborder 26 

depressus. Nyctinomops 275 

deserticola. Lepus texianus 187 

deserticolus. Peromyscus texanus 104 

deserti. Dipodomys 156 

Eeithrodontorays megalotis 113 

desertorum. Neotoma 118 

sola. Neotoma 119 

Desert Brush-Rat 118 

Chipmunk 78 

Coyote 215 

Deer-Mouse 104 

Hare 187 

Harvest Mouse 113 

Lynx 210 

Meadow-Mouse 130 

Mouse. Palm 109 

Pocket-Rat 156 


Tjesert. Raccoon 227 

DipodomyiiiEe. Subfamily 149 

Ujpodoinys. Genus 155 

calif ornicus 155 

pallidulus 156 

deserti . 156 

nierriami exilis 160 

nitratoides 160 

nitratus 160 

parvus 159 

simiolus 158 

dispar. Neotoma f uscipes 118 

Perognathus californicus 172 

Dolphin. Common 42 

Douglass Ground Squirrel 68 

douglassi albolimbatus. Sciurus 89 

Citellus beeclieyi 68 

mollipilosus. Sciurus 90 

Dulzura Mouse 110 

Duplieidentata. Suborder . .180 

Dusky-footed Brush-Rat 115 

Northern 116 

Red-backed ]\louse 125 

Shrew 25] 

ciutcheri. Microtus 126 

Dutcher IMeadow Mouse 126 

Dwarf Pocket-Rat. California 161 

Earless Seals 197 

edax. Microtus 129 

Elephant Heal. California 199 

Elk 47 

energuemnos. Lutreola vison 245 

epixanthus. Erethrizon 178 

Eptesicus. Genus 270 

f uscus bernardinus 270 

melanopterus 270 

eremicus. Lynx 210 

f raterculus. Peromyscus 110 

herroni. Peromyscus 110 

Odocoileus hemionus 50 

Peromyscus 109 

INDEX ;^21 

^reinieus. Sigmodon liispidus Ill 

sfephensi. Peromysciis 109 

Erethizon. Genus 178 

epixanthus 178 

Erethizontidai. Family 178 

estor. Canis 21.") 

Mephitis 2H9 

Euderma. Genus :264 

niaculatum 264 

Eumetopias. Genus 204 

jubata 205 

Eutamias. Genus 76 

alpinus 77 

amcenus 78 

hindsi 83 

prieei 84 

panamintus 79 

pictus 78 

quadriinaculatus 82 

senex 88 

merrianii 84 

speciosus 79 

callipeplus 80 

frater 82 

inyoensis 80 

townsendi ochrogenys 85 

evotis. Myotis 267 

Evotomys. Genus 124 

californieus 124 

mazama 125 

obscurus 125 

exilis. Dipodomys merriami 160 

fallax. Perognathus 169 

pallidus. Perognathus ■ 171 

fasciatus palleseens. Lynx 212 

FelidcT. Family 207 

Pelis. Genus 207 

aztecus browni 209 

hippolestes olympus 208 

f emoralis. Perognathus 172 

f emorosaccus. Nyctinomops 274 


Fera?. Order • 196 

Fiber. Genus 132 

zibethicus pallidus 132 

Finback Whale. Oregon 20 

Finner Whale. Sharp-headed 22 

Fisher Ground Squirrel 68 

Pacific 244 

Pocket-Gopher 147 

fisheri. Citellus beecheyi 68 

Thomomys f uscus 147 

Fissipedia. Suborder '207 

fiaviventer. Marmota 63 

Flying Squirrel. Klamath 91 

San Bernardino 91 

Stephens 92 

formosus. Perognathus 167 

Fox. Black . .^. 244 

California Gray 220 

Cascade Mountain 218 

Cross 219 

High Sierra 218 

Long-eared 217 

San Clemente Island 222 

San Joaquin 218 

San Miguel Island 221 

Santa Catalina Island 222 

Santa Cruz Island 222 

Silver Gray 219 

Townsend Gray 221 

f rater. Eutamias speciosus 82 

f raterculus. Peromyscus eremicus 110 

Fresno Pocket-Gopher 147 

Fringed Bat 268 

frondator. Castor canadensis 96 

f ulvus nigricans. Thomomys 135 

fuscus fisheri. Thomomys 147 

Fur Seal. Guadaloupe 206 

Northern 205 

Southern 206 

fuscipes. Neotoma 115 



clispar. Neotoma n^ 

macrotis. Neotoma m^ 

monochroiira. Neotoma Ug 

simplex. Neotoma ] ] 7 

streateri. Neotoma nj 

fiiseus bernardinus. Eptesieus 270 

melanopterus. Eptesieus 270 

gambeli. Peromysous texanus 103 

Gambel IMouse 203 

Pocket-Rat j^5q 

Geomyidge. Family 5^34 

geronimensis. Phoca richardi 198 

gibbsi major. Neurotrichus 260 

Gilded Ground Squirrel 72 

gilli. Tursiops 4;^ 

gilva. Neotoma intermedia 120 

glaucus. Rhachianectes 14 

Globicephala. Genus 38 

scammoni 33 

Glires. Order g2 

Glutton 243 

Goat. Mountain gl 

Golden Pocket-Gopher 138 

goldmani. Perodipus I54 

Goldman Pocket-Rat I54 

Gopher. Alpine Pocket I37 

Broad-headed Pocket 146 

Cabezon Pocket I47 

California Pocket I39 

Fisher Pocket I47 

Fresno Pocket 147 

Golden Pocket 138 

Mountain Pocket 136 

Owen Valley Pocket 147 

Pallid Pocket 137 

Pinewoods Pocket 137 

Red Bluff Pocket 146 

'San Joaquin Pocket 146 

Southern Pocket 145 

Tawny Poeket 135 


gi-amniurus. Citelliis 69 

^Grampus. Genus 39 

Common 40 

griseus 40 

'Grasshopper-Mouse. Long-tailed 103 

San Bernardino 101 

Tulare 103 

Yuma 102 

<Tray Fox. California 220 

Silver 219 

Townsend : 221 

;Slirew 225 

.Squirrel. Anthony 87 

Blackfooted 86 

Whale 14 

Wolf 216 

Great Basin Pocket-Mouse 165 

Skunk 238 

;griseus anthonyi. Sciurus 87 

Grampus 40 

nigripes. Sciurus 87 

Sciurus 86 

Grizzley Bear 229 

Ground Hog 64 

Squirrel. Antelope 71 

'Belding /O 

California 65 

Douglass 68 

Fisher 68 

■Gilded 72 

Mohave 72 

Nelson 75 

Ttound-tailed 69 

San Bernardino 73 

Stephens 71 

Trinity 74 

Guadaloupe Fur Seal 206 

'Gulo. Genus 242 

luscus 242 

Haplomylomys. Subgenus 107 

INDEX 325 

Harbor Seal. Pacific 197 

San Gerouimo 198 

Hare. Arizona Wood 192 

Ashy Brush 193 

Andiibon Wood 190 

Bachman Brush 193 

California 186 

Desert 187 

Idaho 194 

Little Chief 183 

Nuttall W^ood 192 

Richardson 187 

Sierra Prairie 185 

Tulare 190 

Harvest-Mouse. Desert 114 

Klamath 114 

Long;-tailed 113 

hemionus. Odocoileus 48 

californicus. Odocoileus 51 

eremicus. Odocoileus 50 

Jlermit Mouse 109 

lierroni. Peromyscus eremicus 110 

Herron Mouse 110 

hesperus. Pipistrellus 269 

Hesperosciurus. Subgenus 86 

Heteromyidae. Family 148 

Heteromyinffi. Subfamily 162 

High Sierra Fox 218 

Hinds Chipmunk 83 

hindsi. Eutamias 83 

pricei. Eutamias 84 

hippolestes olympus. Felis 208 

Hispidus eremicus. Sigmodon HI 

Hoary Bat 272 

holzneri. Mephitis occidentalis 239 

Hominidie. Family 278 

H omo. Genus " ' 9 


sapiens americanus -^ ' ^' 

horribilis. Ursus --^ 

Humpbacked Whale. Pacific 1^ 


idahoeusis. Lepus 19-i 

Idaho Hare 194 

Indian. American 279 

ingens. Eerodipus 153 

Insectivora. Order 249 

insignis. Peromysciis 108 

intermedia. Neotoma 119 

gilva. Neotoma 120 

Intermediate Binish-Rat 119 

intermedins. Perognathu.s 173 

Inyo Chipmunl: 81 

Pocket-Rat 155 

Shrew 253 

inyoensis. Eutamias speciosns 81 

Island Fox. San Clemente 222 

San Miguel 221 

Santa Catalina 222 

Santa Cruz 222 

Jack Rabbit 186 

White-tailed 186 

japonica. Balajna 13 

jLibata. Eumetopias 205 

Jumping- Mtouse. Allen 175 

Coast 176 

Northwest 175 

Pacific ]76 

Keller Pocket-Rat 160 

Eern Brush-Rat 119 

Killer. Black 35 

Straight-finned 35 

Klamath Chipmunk 78 

Plying Squirrel 91 

Harvest-Mouse 113 

klamathensis. Reithrodontomys 133 

Sciuropterus alpinus 91 

Lagenorhynchus. Genus 40 

obliquidens 40 

Lagurus. Subgenu --. 131 

Large Shrewmole 260 

INDEX 327 

Lasionycteris. Genus 268 

noctivagans 268 

liasiurus. Genus 271 

borealis teliotus 271 

cinereus 272 

Latax. Genus 232 

lutris nereis 232 

laticeps. Thomomys 146 

iatif rons. Spilogale 242 

Leaf-nosed Bat. California 276 

I.( ast Pocket-Rat ICO 

Lemming-Mouse. Mountain 123 

Redwood 1 23 

Leporidce. Family 184 

Lepus. Genus 185 

auduboni 190 

arizonse 192 

bachmani 193 

calif ornicus 186 

campestris sierrce 185 

cinerascens 193 

cuniculus 185 

idahoensis 194 

nuttalli 192 

richardsoni 187 

texiauus deserticola 187 

tularensis 190 

lestes. Canis 215 

leucodon navus. Thomomys 146 

l(^ucurus. Citellus 74 

Life Areas of California 283 

I,ion. American 209 

California "09 

Sea iOl 

Mountain 209 

Stellar Sea 205 

Lissodelphis. Genus 33 

borealis 33 

List of California Mammals 292 


Little California Bat 266 

Chief Hare 183 

Spotted Skunk 242 

Weasel 248 

littoralis. Urocyon 221 

santacruz^. Urocyon 222 

Long-eared Bat 267 

Chipmunk 82 

Fox 217 

shanked Bat 265 

tailed Grasshopper-Mouse 103 

Harvest-Mouse 112 

Pocket-Mouse 167 

Icngieaudus. Onyehomys torridus 153 

Reithrodontoinys 112 

longicrus. jMyotis lucifugus 265 

longimembris. Perognathus 167 

lucifugus longicrus. Myotis 265 

Lump-nosed Bat 265 

luscus. Gulo 242 

Lutra. Genus 233 

canadensis 233 

sonora 234 

Lutreola. Genus 245 

vision energuemnos 245 

Lutrina\ Subfamily 232 

luti'is nereis. Latax 232 

lyelli. Sorex tenellus 253 

Lynx. Genus 209 

Canada 212 

eremicus 210 

fasciatus pallescens 212 

Desert 210 

Washington 212 

macrocephalus. Physeter 27 

11 microtis. Neotoma fuscipes 116 

pallescens. Corynorhinus 265 

Vulpes 217 

jMaerotolagus. Subgenus 186 

n'.aeulatum. Euderma 264 

INDEX 329 

liiaoriiderensis. Perognathus parvus 166 

major. Aplodontia 95 

Mephitis oceidentalis 238 

Neurotrichus gibbsi 260 

IMammalia. Class H 

Man 278 

Dlarinota. Genus 53- 

flaviventer 63 

J\Iarinot. Yellow-bellied 63' 

Marten. Pacific Pine 244 

Pennant 244 

iMastiff Bat. California 275 

mazama. Evotomys 125 

^Meadow-Mouse. Bailey 130 

California 127 

Cantankerous 130 

Coast 129 

Desert 130^ 

Dutcher 126^ 

Oregon 131 

Peale , 126 

. Short-tailed 131 

Tulle 129 

Valley 129 

Mearns Coyote 216 

mearusi. Canis 216 

niegalotis deserti. Reithrodontomys 113 

Megaptera. Genus 16 

nodosa versabilis 16'. 

melanopterus. Eptesicus f uscus 270' 

Melin.T. Subfamily 234 

i\rendocino Mouse 106; 

Mephitis. Genus 236 

estor 239 

oceidentalis 236 

holzneri 239 

major 238 

platyrhinus 239 

JMerriam Chipmunk 84 


raerriami. Eutamias 84 

exilis. Dipodomys 160 

, nitratoides. Dipodomys 160 

nitratus. Dipodomys 130 

parvus. Dipodomys 159 

simioliis. Dipodomys 158 

3,Iesquit Brush-Rat 122 

mexicanus. Canis 216 

Microchiroptera. Suborder 262 

Microdipodops. Genus 160 

ealifornicus 161 

microps. Perodipus 155 

Microtinffi. Subfamily 122 

Microtus. Genus 126 

angusticeps 130 

ealifornicus 127 

constrictus 129 

vallicola '29 

eurtatus 131 

dutcheri 126 

edax 129 

montanus 126 

mordax 130 

oregoni '31 

seirpensis 130 

Miller Bat 267 

Mamie Pocket-Rat 1 60 

Mink. Pacific 245 

Mirounga. Genus '99 

angustirostris '99 

Modoc Mole 259 

I\Johave Bat 273 

Ground Squirrel 72 

uiohavensis. Citellus 72 

Nyctinomops 273 

Mole. Anthony 257 

California 257 

Large Shrew 230 

Modoc 259 

Townsend 256 

INDEX 331 

moUipilosus: Perognathus parvus ] 65 

Sciurus douglassi i)0 

mollis Stephens!. Citellus 71 

]\rolossida\ Family 273 

monocroura. Neotoma fuscipes 1 IH 

jMonodelphia. Subclass 116 

montanus. Microtus 12fi 

Oreamnos 61 

montereyensis. Sorex 251 

Monterey Shrew 251 

rconticolus. Thomomys 156 

pinetorum. Thomomys 137 

mordax. Microtus 130 

Mountain Beaver. California 94 

Point Reyes 95 

Coyote 215 

Goat 61 

Lion 269 

Lemming-Mouse 123 

Pocket-Gopher 136 

Sheep 57 

Weasel 247 

Mount Lyell Shrew 253 

IMagruder Pocket-Mouse 166 

Pinos Chipmunk 80 

Mouse. Allen Pocket 172 

Jumping 1 75 

'Bailey Meadow 130 

Bangs Pocket 1 ^^3 

Big-eared 106 

Boyle "i06 

California 1<^7 

Meadow 127 

Pocket 172 

'Red-backed 125 

Cantankerous INIeadow I'^O 

Chemisal 1^8 

Coast Jumping 1 ' " 

Meadow 1-9 

Colorado Desert Pocket 168 


Mouse. Comiuon .- 101 

Coiies Pocket 165 

Crater Lake Red-backed 125 

Dark Pocket 172 

Desert Deer 101 

Harvest 113 

Meadow 130 

Dulzura 110 

Dusky Red-backed 125 

Dutcher IMeadow 126 

Gambel 103 

Great Basin Pocket 165 

Hermit 109 

Herron 110 

Kbimatli Harvest 113 

Long-Tailed Grasshopper 103 

Harvest 113 

Pocket 16? 

Mendocino 106 

Mountain Lemming 123 

Mount Magruder Pocket 166 

Northwest Jumping 175 

Oregon Meadow 131 

Pacific Jumping 176 

. .Pallid Pocket 171 

Palm Desert 109 

Panamint Pocket 162 

Peale Meadow 126 

Redwood Lemming 123 

San Bernardino Grasshopper 101 

San Clemente 105 

San Diego Pocket 164 

San Joaquin Pocket 167 

Sand Pocket 163 

Short-eared Pocket 169 

nosed Pocket 163 

tailed Meadow 131 

Spiny Pocket 173 

Stephens Pocket 169 

Tuft-tailed Pocket 168 

INDEX 333 

Mouse. Tulare Grasshopper 103 

Tulle Meadow 121) 

Valley Meadow 129 

White-eared Pocket 166 

Yuma Grasshopper 1 02 

]Mule Deer 48 

California 51 

luundus. Putorius xanthogenys 247 

muricus. Putorius 248 

Murida?. Family 99 

3>lurina?. Subfamily 99 

musculus. Mus 101 

Mus. Genus lOo 

musculus 101 

norvegicus 100 

rattus 100 

Muskrat. Pale 132 

Mustela. Genus 248 

caurina 244 

pennanti pacifiea 244 

IMustelid*. Family 232 

]\Justelin£e. Subfamily 242 

muticus. Vulpes 218 

myops. Sorex tenellus 253 

]\[yotis. Genus 265 

californicus 266 

pallidus 266 

evotis 267 

thysanodes 268 

lucifug-us longicrus 265 

yumanensis 267 

saturatus 267 

Mystacete. Suborder 12 

nannodes. CerviLS 47 

navigator. Sorex palustris 251 

navus. Thomomys leucodon 146 

necator. Vulpes 218 

ueglecta. Taxidea taxus 235 

Nelson Bighorn 58 

Ground Squirrel 75 


uelsoui. Citelhis 75 

Ovis ^)S 

Neotoma. Genus 114 

albigula veniista ^■'22 

cinerea 114 

desertorum 118 

sola 119 

fiiscipes 115 

dispar 118 

niacrotis 116 

monochroiira 116 

simplex 117 

streatori 117 

intermedia 119 

gilva 120 

Subgenus 115 

Neotominae .Subfamily 113 

nereis. Latax lutris 232 

Neurotriehus, Genus 259 

gibbsi major 260 

Nevada Bat 275 

nigricans. Thomomys fulvus 135 

nigripes. Sciurus griseus 87 

nitratoides. Dipodomys merriami 1 GO 

nitratus. Dipodomys merriami 130 

noctivagans. Lasionyeteris 2 )8 

nodosa versabilis. INFegaptera 16 

Northern Dusky-foot^^l Brush-Rat 116 

Fur Seal 205 

Right Whale Porpoise 33 

Northwest Jumping-Mouse 175 

norvegicus. Mus 1 00 

Norway Rat 100 

Notiosorex .Genus 255 

crawfordi 255 

nuttalli. Lepus 102 

Nuttall W^ood Hare 1 02 

Nyetinomops. Genus 273 

depressus 275 

f emorosaccus 274 

mohavensis 273 



obliquideiis. Ijagenorhynclius 4^ 

obscurus. Evotoinys jof, 

Sorex .).-^i 

occidental is holzneri. Mephitis 239 

major. ]\Iei)hitis 238 

Mephitis o;5(j 

Ochoton.i. ( Iciius ^^^J 

schisticeps j^^ 

Ochotonidte. Family I^^j 

ochrogenys. Eutamias townsendi 85 

ochropus. Canis 213 

Odocoileiis. Cienus ^g 

columbiaiius 53 

scaphiotus 54 

liemionus 4g 

californicus 5]^ 

eremieus -q 

oHvaceus. Peroguathus parvus 1G5 

olympus. Felis hippolestes 208 

Onychomys. Genus 101 

torridus longieaudiis 103 

perpallidus 102 

ramona 101 

tularensis -[0;5 

operarius. Thomomys I47 

cvarius. Zapus 176 

Oreinus. Genus 35 

'it^'- 35 

rectipenna 35 

Oreamnos, (iems (jl 

montanus 61 

oreas rubidus. Peromyscus 10(i 

oregonensis stephensi. Sciuropterus 10(5 

oregoni. Mierotus 131 

Oregon Finback Whale 20 

Meadow-Mouse 131 

ornatus. Sorex 252 

oi-ophilus. Phenacomys 123 

OtariidcT. Family 201 


Otopteriis. Genus 276 

californicus 276 

Otospermophiliis. Subgenus 65 

Otter. Pacific 233 

'Sonora 234 

Southern Sea 232 

Ovis. Genus 57 

canadensis 57 

nelsoni 58 

Owen Valley Pocket-Gopher 147 

pacifica. Lutra canadensis 233 

Mustela pennanti 244 

Procyon psora 227 

Pacific Beaver 97 

Coast Cougar 208 

Fisher 244 

Harbor Seal 197 

Hmnpback Whale 16 

Jumping-Mouse 176 

Marten 244 

Mink L 245 

Otter 233 

Pale Bat 263 

Raccoon 227 

Right Whale 13 

Shrew 251 

pacificus. Antrozous pallidus 263 

Castor canadensis 97 

Perognathus 164 

Sorex 254 

Zapus 176 

Painter 209 

Pale Bat. Pacific 263 

Brush-Rat 118 

Muskrat 132 

Xjalleseons. Corynorhinus macrotis 265 

Lynx fasciatus 212 

Thomoniys bottae 145 

Pallid Bat 266 

Pocket-Gopher 137 

Mouse 171 

INDEX 337 

pallidas. Antrozous 263 

Fiber zibethicus 1;^2 

Myotis californicus 266 

pacificus. Antrozous 263 

Perognathus fallax 171 

Procyon 227 

pallidulus. Dipodomys californicus 156 

Pahr. Desert IMouse '..... 109 

palustris navigator. Sorex 254 

Panamint Chipmunk 79 

Pocket-Mouse '. 162 

Rat 154 

pananiintus arenicola. Perognathus 163 

bangsi. Perognathus 163 

Eutamias 79 

Perodipus 154 

Perognathus 162 

Panther 209 

parvus. Dipodomys merriami 159 

magruderensis. Perog-nathus 166 

mollipilosus. Perognathus 165 

olivaceus. PerognathiLS 165 

pasealis. Thomomys an^ilaris 147 

Peale Meadow ]\Iouse 126 

Pecora. Superfamily 45 

Pekan 244 

penicillatus angustirostris. Perognathus 168 

Perognathus 168 

pennanti pacifica. Miustela 244 

Pennant Marten 244 

Perodipus. Genus 149 

agilis ; 150 

goldmani ; 154 

ingens 153 

microps 155 

panamintus 154 

streatori 154 

venustus 153 

Perog-nathus. Genus 162 

alticola 166 


Perogiiathus Brevinasiis 163 

calif ornicus 172 

dispar 172 

f allax 169 

pallidus 171 

f emoralis 172 

f onuosa 167 

longimembris 167 

paeificiis 164 

panamintus 162 

arenieola 163 

bangsi 163 

parvus magruderensis 166 

mollipilosiis 165 

olivaceiLs 165 

penicillatus 168 

angustirostris 168 

spinatus 173 

stepliensi 169 

Peromyseus. Genus 103 

boylii 106 

californicus 107 

insignis 108 

eremicus 109 

fraterculus 110 

herroiii 109 

oreas rubidus 106 

texanus dementis 105 

deserticolus 10-4 

gambeli 103 

truei 106 

perpallidus. Onychomys torridus 102 

perpes. Thomomys 138 

Thomomys 137 

perpes. Thomomys perpallidus 138 

phfEa. Aplodontia 95 

Phenacomys. Genus 123 

albipes 123 

orophilus 123 

phenax. Spilogale 240 


}^hocfena. (Jeniis 




Phoca. Genus ^^^ 

richardii ]^9'j 

geronimensis igg 

Phocida\ Family jgy 

Fhocina:'. Snbfami]}^ yjj 

FhyllostomatidfP. Family 275 

physahis velifera. Bahenoptera 20' 

Phj^seter. Genus 26 

maerocephalus 27 

Pliyseterida^. Family 26- 

Physeterina^ Subfamily 2(5 

Picket-piji 71 

pictus. Eutamias 78 

Pika. Sierra Nevada 181 

Pine Marten. Pacific 244 

pinetorum. Thomomys monticolus 13T 

Pinewoods Pocket-Gopher 137 

Pinnepedia. Suborder 196 

Pipistrellus. Genus 269 

hesperus 269 

platyrhinus. Mephitis 239 

Pocketed Bat 274 

Pocket-Gopher. Alpine 137 

Broad-headed 14(^ 

Cabezon 147 

Californi" 139 

Fisher 147 

Fresno 147" 

Golden 138. 

IMountain 136 

O^ven Valley 147 

Pallid 137 

Pinewoods 137 

Red Blufif 146 

San Joaquii: 146 

Southern 145 

Tawny 135 


Pocket-Mouse. Allen 172 

Bangs 163 

California l^-- 

Colorado Desert 168 

Cones le^^i 

Dark 172 

Great Basin 165 

Long-tailed 167 

Mount Magruder 166 

Pallid 171 

Panamint 162 

Sand 163 

San Diego : 164 

San Joaquin 167 

Short-eared 169 

nosed 163 

Spiny 173 

Stephens 169 

Tuft-tailed 168 

AVhite-eared 166 

Pocket-Rat. Big 153 

California 155 

Dwarf 161 

Colusa 156 

Desert 156 

Dwarf 161 

Gambel 150 

Golden 150 

Goldman 154 

Inyo 155 

Keeler 160 

Least 160 

Mimic 158 

Panamint 15i 

San Bernardino 159 

Santa Cruz 153 

Streator 154 

Tulare 160 

I'oint Reyes IMountain Beaver 95 

Polecat 238 

INDEX 341 

Porcupine. Western j^Yg 

Porpoise. Bay 34 

Northern Right Whale 33 

Striped 4(j 

Prairie Dog- Yj^ 

I[are. Sierra 185 

Price Chipmunk 84 

prieei. Eutamias hindsi 84 

Primates. Order 278 

Procyon. Genus 225 

pallidus 227 

psora 225 

pacifica 227 

Procyonid^e. Family 224 

Promops. Genus 275 

califomicus 275 

Prong-homed Antelope 55 

psora. Procyon 225 

pacifica. Procyon 227 

Puma 209 

I'utorius. Genus 246 

arizonensis 247 

muricus 248 

xanthogenys 246 

mundus 247 

quadrimaculatus. Eutamias 82 

senex. Eutamias 83 

Rabbit 185 

Brush 194 

Blue 194 

English 185 

European 185 

Jack ■ 186 

White-tailed 186 

Snowshoe 186 

Raccoon. California 225 

Desert 227 

Pacific 227 

ramona. Onychomys torridus 101 

raptor. Bassariscus astutus 224 


Eat. Ash-colored 11-i 

Big Pocket 153 

Black 100 

Brown 100 

California Dwarf Pocket 161 

Pocket- 155 

Colusa Pocket- 156 

Desert Pocket- 156 

Brush- lis 

Dusky-footed Brush- 115 

Northern 116 

Gambel Pocket- 150 

Goldman Pocket- 154 

Intermediate Brush- 119 

Inyo Pocket- 155 

Keeler Pocket- 160 

Kern Brush- 119 

Least Pocke: 160 

]\Iesc{uit Brush- 158 

Norway 100 

Pale Brush- .118 

Panamint Pocket- ■. 15-4 

San Bernardino Pocket- . . . ' 159 

Santa Cruz Pocket- 153 

Southern Brush- 116 

Streator Brush- 117 

Pocket- 154 

Tulare Pocket- 160 

Western Cottr- Ill 

Wharf 100 

Xantus Brush 117 

Yellow Brush 120 

Iied-backed-Mouse. Califtnnia 124 

Crater Lake 12 

Dusky 125 

rectipinna. Orcinu-: 35 

Pied Bluff Pocket-Gopher 146 

Bat. AVestern 271 

Tiger 209 

Redwo/)d Chickaree 90 

Chipmunk 85 

INDEX 343 

Redwood. Lemming Mouse 123 

Weasel o.j.y 

Reithrodontomys. Cienus HI 

klamathensis ] 13 

longicaiidus 112 

megalestris deserti 113 

Khachianeetes. Genus I4. 

glaucus 14 

richardii geronimeusis. Phoca li)8 

Phoea 1()7 

Richardson Hare 1 ; ;7 

richardsoni. Lepus 1 ,-,7 

Right Whale. Pacific 13 

Porpoise. Northern 33 

liing-tailed Cat. California 22-i 

Rocky Mountain Bighorn ,")7 

Rodents G2 

roosevelti. Cervus 46 

Roosevelt Wapiti 46 

Round-tailed Ground Squirrel 69 

rubidus. Peromyscus oreas 106 

Ruminants 45 

San Bernardino Bat 270 

Chipmunk 79 

Pocket-Rat 15S 

Ground Squirrel 73 

Grasshopper-Mouse lol 

Flying Squirrel 91 

San Clemente Island Fox 222 

]\Ibuse 105 

San Diego Pocket-Mouse lo4 

Sand Pocket-]\Iiouse 1 -j^ 

San Geronimo Harbor Seal 198 

San Joaquin Fox 218 

Pocket-Gopher 146 

Mouse 167 

San Miguel Island Fox 221 

Santa Catalina Island Fox 222 

Santa Cruzs. Urocyon littoralis 222 

Santa Cruz Island Fox 222 

Pocket-Rat l-^-S 


s;;piens americaiis. Homo 279 

saturatus. Myotis yumanensis 267 

Scapanus. Genus 255 

califomicus 256 

anthoiiyi 256 

triiei 259 

townsendi 255 

seaphiotus. Odocoileiis columbianus 54 

Scaiiimon Blackfish 38 

seammoni. Globicephaliis 38 

schisticeps. Ochotona 181 

seirpensis. Microtus 130 

Sciurida?. Family 62 

Sciuropterus. Genus 91 

alpiniis californicus 91 

klamathensis 91 

oregonus Stephens! 92 

Hciurus. Genus 86 

dougiassi albolimbatns 89 

molJipilosiis 90 

griseus 86 

anthonyi 87 

nigripes 87 

Seal. California Elephant 199 

Guadaloiipe Fur 206 

Northern Fur 205 

Pacific Harbor 197 

San Geronimo Harbor 198 

Southern Fur 206 

Seals 196 

Earless 197 

Sea Lion. California 201 

Stellar 205 

senex. Eutamias quadrimaculatus 83 

Sea Otter. Southern 232 

Sharp headed Finner Whale 22 

Sheep. Mountain 57 

Short-eared Pocket-Mouse 169 

nosed Pocket-Mouse 163 

tailed Meadow-Mouse 131 

INDEX 34& 

Slirew. Adorned 252 

Bendire 255 

California 252 

Dusky 251 

Gray 255 

Inyo 25a 

Monterey 251 

Mount Lyell : 253 

Pacific - 254 

Sierra Nevada 250 

Wandering- 250 

Water 254 

White Mountain 253 

Shrewniole. Large 260 

Sibhaldius. Genus 24 

sulf ureus 24 

Sierra Bat 270 

Nevada Chipmunk 82 

Pike 181 

Shrew 250 

Prairie Hare 185 

sierra-. Lepus campestris 185 

Sigmodon. Genus 110 

hispidus eremicus Ill 

Silver-haired Bat 268 

simiolus. Dipodomys merriami 158 

simplex. Neotoma fuscipes 117 

Simplicidentata. Suborder 62 

Skimk. Arizona 239 

Broad-nosed 239 

California 236 

Great Basin 238 

Little Spotted 242 

'Southern California 239 

Western Spotted 240 

Snowshoe Rabbit 186 

sola. Neotoma desertoriun 119 

sonora. Lutra canadensis 234 

Sonora Otter 234 

Sorecid^. Family 249 


Sorex. Genus 249 

amcenus l250 

bendirei 255 

•calif orniciis 252 

moutereyensis 251 

obsciirus 251 

ornatus 252 

pacificiis 254 

palustris navig'ator 254 

•teiiellus 253 

lyelli 253 

-inyops 253 

vagrans 250 

Southern Black-tailed Deer 54 

Brush-Rat 116 

California Skunk L39 

Pocket-Gopher 145 

Sea Otter 232 

speciosus eallipeplus. Eutamias 80 

Eutaraias 79 

frater. Eutamias 82 

inyoensis. Eutamias 81 

Sperm Whale 27 

Spilogale. Genus 240 

Jatif rons 242 

plienax 240 

•spinatus. Perognathus 173 

^Spiny Pocket-Mouse 173 

Spotted Bat 264 

Skunk. Little 242 

Western 240 

Squirrel. Antelope Ground 74 

Anthony Gray 87 

Belding Ground 70 

Black-footed Gray 87 

California Ground 6.S 

Columbia Gray 06 

Douglass Ground <;8 

Fisher Ground 63 

'Gilded Ground 72 

INDEX 347 

Squirrel. Klamath Flying !il 

Mohave Ground 72 

Nelson Ground 75 

Round-tailed Ground (i9 

San Bernardino Flying <)1 

Ground 73 

Stephens Flying !)2 

Ground 71 

Trinity Ground 7-i 

Starved Rat 183 

stearnsi. Grampus 40 

Stellar Sea Lion 205 

Stephens Flying Squirrel 92 

Ground Squirrel 71 

Pocket Mouse 169 

stephensi. Citellus mollis 71 

Perognathus i 39 

Peromyscus eremicus 109 

Sciuropterus oregonensis 92 

Straight-finned Killer 35 

Streator Brush-Rat 117 

Pocket-Rat 154 

streatori. Neotoma fuseipes 117 

'Perodipus 1 54 

Striped Porpoise 40 

sulfureous. Sibbaldius 24 

Sulphur-bottomed Whale 24 

Sylvilagus. Subgenus 190 

Talpidfe. Family 256 

Ta.miasciurus. Subgenus 89 

Tawny Pocket-Gopher 135 

Taxidea. Genus 234 

taxus neglecta 235 

taxus neglecta. Taxidea 235 

teliotis. Lasiurus borealis 271 

tenellus. Sorex 253 

lyelli. Sorex 253 

myops. Sorex 253 

Teonoma. Subgenus 114 

tereticaudus. Citellus 69 


tt3xanus dementis. Peromyscus 105 

deserticoliis. Peromyscus 104 

gambeli. Peromyscus 103 

texianus deserticola. Lepus 187 

tularensis. Lepus . 190 

Thomomys. Genus 135 

alpinus 137 

angularis 146 

pascali ^ 147 

bottfe • 139 

pallescens 145 

cabazon* 147 

fulvus nigricans 135 

f uscus fisheri 147 

laticeps 146 

leucodon navus 146 

monticolus 136 

pinetorum 137 

operarius 147 

perpallidus 137 

perpes 138 

thysanodes. jMyotis 268 

Tiger. Eed 209 

torridus longieaudus. Onychomys 103 

perpallidus. Onychomys 102 

ramona. Onychomys 101 

tularensis. Onychomys 103 

Townsend Gray Fox 221 

Mole 256 

townsendi. Arctocephalus 206 

ochrogenys. Eutamias 85 

Scapanus 256 

Urocyon calif ornicus 221 

trinitatus .Citellus chrysodeirus 74 

trinotatus. Zapus 175 

alleni 175 

Trinity Ground Squirrel 74 

truei. Peromyscus 106 

Scapanus califomicus 259 

Tuft-tailed Pocket-Mouse 168 

INDEX 349 

Tulare Hare 190 

Grasslmpper-Mouse 103 

Pocket-Rat 160 

tulareiisis. Lepus texianus 190 

Onychomys torridus 108 

Tulle Meadow Mouse 129 

Tursiops. Genus 43 

gilli 43 

Ungulata. Order 45 

Urocyon. Genus 219 

calif ornicus 220 

townsendi 221 

catalina} 222 

elements 222 

littoralis 221 

santacruzffi 222 

Ursidffi. Family 229 

Ursus. Genus 229 

americanus 230 

horribilis 229 

vagrans. Sorex ... 250 

Valley Coyote 213 

Meadow Mouse 129 

vallicola. Microtus calif ornicus 129 

velifera. Balnsnoptera physalus 20 

venusta. Neotonia albigula 122 

venustus. Perodipus 153 

VespertilionidfB. Family 262 

versabilis. Megaptera nodosa 16 

vison energuemnos. Lutreola 245 

Vulpes. Genus 217 

cascadensis 218 

macrotis 217 

muticus 218 

necator 218 

Yv andering Shrew 250 

Wapiti. California 47 

Roosevelt 46 

Washington Lynx 212 

Water Shrew 254 


Weasel. California 246 

Little 248 

]\Ionntain 247 

Redwoods 247 

Western Badger 235 

Bat 269 

Cotton Rat Ill 

Porcupine ^^^ 

Red Bat 271 

Spotted Skunk 2-iO 

AVhalebone Whales 12 

Whale. California Gray 14 

Oregon Finback 20 

Pacific Humpback 16 

Right 13 

Sharp-headed Finner 22 

Sperm 27 

Sulphur-bottomed 24 

Wharf Rat 100 

White-eared Pocket-Mouse 136 

tailed Jack Rabbit lo6 

• Mountain Shrew 253 

Wild Cat 212 

Wolf. Barking 214 

Gray 216 

Wolverine 242 

Woodchuck 64 

Wood Hare. Arizona 192 

Audubon 190 

Nuttall 192 

xanthogenys. Putorius 246 

mundus. Putorius 247 

Xantus Brush-Rat 117 

Xerospermophilus. Subgenus 69 

Yellow-bellied Marmot 63 

Brush-Rat 120 

Yuma Bat 267 

Grasshopper Mouse 102 

yumanensis. Myotis 267 

saturatus. Myotis 267 

INDEX 351 

Zalophns. Genus 201 

ealifomianiis 201 

Zapodicte. Family 174 

Zapus. Genus 175 

orarius 176 

pacificus 176 

trinotatus 175 

zibethicus pallidus. Fiber 132 


^ s: 

M ^ 


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CD ^S 

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